Canto 6

" Prescribed Duties for Mankind"

Chapter One

The History of the Life of Ajamila

Throughout Srimad-Bhagavatam there are descriptions of ten subject matters, including creation, subsequent creation and the planetary systems. Sukadeva Gosvami, the speaker of Srimad-Bhagavatam, has already described creation, subsequent creation and the planetary systems in the Third, Fourth and Fifth Cantos. Now, in this Sixth Canto, which consists of nineteen chapters, he will describe posana, or protection by the Lord.

The first chapter relates the history of Ajamila, who was considered a greatly sinful man, but was liberated when four order carriers of Visnu came to rescue him from the hands of the order carriers of Yamaraja. A full description of how he was liberated, having been relieved of the reactions of his sinful life, is given in this chapter. Sinful activities are painful both in this life and in the next. We should know for certain that the cause of all painful life is sinful action. On the path of fruitive work one certainly commits sinful activities, and therefore according to the considerations of karma-kanda, different types of atonement are recommended. Such methods of atonement, however, do not free one from ignorance, which is the root of sinful life. Consequently one is prone to commit sinful activities even after atonement, which is therefore very inadequate for purification. On the path of speculative knowledge one becomes free from sinful life by understanding things as they are. Therefore the acquirement of speculative knowledge is also considered a method of atonement. While performing fruitive activities one can become free from the actions of sinful life through austerity, penance, celibacy, control of the mind and senses, truthfulness and the practice of mystic yoga. By awakening knowledge one may also neutralize sinful reactions. Neither of these methods, however, can free one from the tendency to commit sinful activities.

By bhakti-yoga one can completely avoid the tendency for sinful life; other methods are not very feasible. Therefore the Vedic literature concludes that devotional service is more important than the methods of karma-kanda and jnana-kanda. Only the path of devotional service is auspicious for everyone. Fruitive activities and speculative knowledge cannot independently liberate anyone, but devotional service, independent of karma and jnana, is so potent that one who has fixed his mind at the lotus feet of Krsna is guaranteed not to meet the Yamadutas, the order carriers of Yamaraja, even in dreams.

To prove the strength of devotional service, Sukadeva Gosvami described the history of Ajamila. Ajamila was a resident of Kanyakubja (the modern Kanauj). He was trained by his parents to become a perfect brahmana by studying the Vedas and following the regulative principles, but because of his past, this youthful brahmana was somehow attracted by a prostitute, and because of her association he became most fallen and abandoned all regulative principles. Ajamila begot in the womb of the prostitute ten sons, the last of whom was called Narayana. At the time of Ajamila's death, when the order carriers of Yamaraja came to take him, he loudly called the name Narayana in fear because he was attached to his youngest son. Thus he remembered the original Narayana, Lord Visnu. Although he did not chant the holy name of Narayana completely offenselessly, it acted nevertheless. As soon as he chanted the holy name of Narayana, the order carriers of Lord Visnu immediately appeared on the scene. A discussion ensued between the order carriers of Lord Visnu and those of Yamaraja, and by hearing that discussion Ajamila was liberated. He could then understand the bad effect of fruitive activities and could also understand how exalted is the process of devotional service.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-pariksid uvaca

nivrtti-margah kathita

adau bhagavata yatha

krama-yogopalabdhena

brahmana yad asamsrtih

SYNONYMS

sri-pariksit uvaca--Maharaja Pariksit said; nivrtti-margah--the path of liberation; kathitah--described; adau--in the beginning; bhagavata--by Your Holiness; yatha--duly; krama--gradually; yoga-upalabdhena--obtained by the yoga process; brahmana--along with Lord Brahma (after reaching Brahmaloka); yat--by which way; asamsrtih--cessation of the repetition of birth and death.

TRANSLATION

Maharaja Pariksit said: O my lord, O Sukadeva Gosvami, you have already described [in the Second Canto] the path of liberation [nivrtti-marga]. By following that path, one is certainly elevated gradually to the highest planetary system, Brahmaloka, from which one is promoted to the spiritual world along with Lord Brahma. Thus one's repetition of birth and death in the material world ceases.

PURPORT

Since Maharaja Pariksit was a Vaisnava, when he heard the description, at the end of the Fifth Canto, of the different hellish conditions of life, he was very much concerned with how to liberate the conditioned souls from the clutches of maya and take them back home, back to Godhead. Therefore he reminded his spiritual master, Sukadeva Gosvami, about the nivrtti-marga, or path of liberation, which he had described in the Second Canto. Maharaja Pariksit, who at the time of death was fortunate to have met Sukadeva Gosvami, inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami about the path of liberation at that crucial time. Sukadeva Gosvami very much appreciated his question and congratulated him by saying:

variyan esa te prasnah

krto loka-hitam nrpa

atmavit-sammatah pumsam

srotavyadisu yah parah

"My dear King, your question is glorious because it is very beneficial for all kinds of people. The answer to this question is the prime subject matter for hearing, and it is approved by all transcendentalists." (Bhag. 2.1.1)

Pariksit Maharaja was astonished that the living entities in the conditional stage do not accept the path of liberation, devotional service, instead of suffering in so many hellish conditions. This is the symptom of a Vaisnava. Vancha-kalpa-tarubhyas ca krpa-sindhubhya eva ca: a Vaisnava is an ocean of mercy. Para-duhkha-duhkhi: he is unhappy because of the unhappiness of others. Therefore Pariksit Maharaja, being compassionate toward the conditioned souls suffering in hellish life, suggested that Sukadeva Gosvami continue describing the path of liberation, which he had explained in the beginning of Srimad-Bhagavatam. The word asamsrti is very important in this connection. Samsrti refers to continuing on the path of birth and death. Asamsrti, on the contrary, refers to nivrtti-marga, or the path of liberation, by which one's birth and death cease and one gradually progresses to Brahmaloka, unless one is a pure devotee who does not care about going to the higher planetary systems, in which case one immediately returns home, back to Godhead, by executing devotional service (tyaktva deham punar janma naiti). Pariksit Maharaja, therefore, was very eager to hear from Sukadeva Gosvami about the path of liberation for the conditioned soul.

According to the opinion of the acaryas, the word krama-yogopalabdhena indicates that by first performing karma-yoga and then jnana-yoga and finally coming to the platform of bhakti-yoga, one can be liberated. Bhakti-yoga, however, is so powerful that it does not depend on karma-yoga or jnana-yoga. Bhakti-yoga itself is so powerful that even an impious man with no assets in karma-yoga or an illiterate with no assets in jnana-yoga can undoubtedly be elevated to the spiritual world if he simply adheres to bhakti-yoga. Mam evaisyasy asamsayah. Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (8.7) that by the process of bhakti-yoga one undoubtedly goes back to Godhead, back home to the spiritual world. Yogis, however, instead of going directly to the spiritual world, sometimes want to see other planetary systems, and therefore they ascend to the planetary system where Lord Brahma lives, as indicated here by the word brahmana. At the time of dissolution, Lord Brahma, along with all the inhabitants of Brahmaloka, goes directly to the spiritual world. This is confirmed in the Vedas as follows:

brahmana saha te sarve

samprapte pratisancare

parasyante krtatmanah

pravisanti param padam

"Because of their exalted position, those who are on Brahmaloka at the time of dissolution go directly back home, back to Godhead, along with Lord Brahma."

TEXT 2

TEXT

pravrtti-laksanas caiva

traigunya-visayo mune

yo 'sav alina-prakrter

guna-sargah punah punah

SYNONYMS

pravrtti--by inclination; laksanah--symptomized; ca--also; eva--indeed; trai-gunya--the three modes of nature; visayah--possessing as objectives; mune--O great sage; yah--which; asau--that; alina-prakrteh--of one who is not freed from the clutches of maya; guna-sargah--in which there is a creation of material bodies; punah punah--again and again.

TRANSLATION

O great sage Sukadeva Gosvami, unless the living entity is freed from the infection of the material modes of nature, he receives different types of bodies in which to enjoy or suffer, and according to the body, he is understood to have various inclinations. By following these inclinations he traverses the path called pravrtti-marga, by which one may be elevated to the heavenly planets, as you have already described [in the Third Canto].

PURPORT

As Lord Krsna explains in Bhagavad-gita (9.25):

yanti deva-vrata devan

pitrn yanti pitr-vratah

bhutani yanti bhutejya

yanti mad-yajino 'pi mam

"Those who worship the demigods will take birth among the demigods; those who worship ghosts and spirits will take birth among such beings; those who worship ancestors go to the ancestors; and those who worship Me will live with Me." Because of the influence of the various modes of nature, the living entities have various tendencies or propensities, and therefore they are qualified to achieve various destinations. As long as one is materially attached, he wants to be elevated to the heavenly planets because of his attraction to the material world. The Supreme Personality of Godhead declares, however, "Those who worship Me come to Me." If one has no information about the Supreme Lord and His abode, one tries to be elevated only to a higher material position, but when one concludes that in this material world there is nothing but repeated birth and death, he tries to return home, back to Godhead. If one attains that destination, he need never return to this material world (yad gatva na nivartante tad dhama paramam mama). As Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu says in Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 19.151):

brahmanda bhramite kona bhagyavan jiva

guru-krsna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija

"According to their karma, all living entities are wandering throughout the entire universe. Some of them are being elevated to the upper planetary systems, and some are going down into the lower planetary systems. Out of many millions of wandering living entities, one who is very fortunate gets an opportunity to associate with a bona fide spiritual master by the grace of Krsna. By the mercy of both Krsna and the spiritual master, such a person receives the seed of the creeper of devotional service." All living entities are rotating throughout the universe, going sometimes up to the higher planetary systems and sometimes down to the lower planets. This is the material disease, which is known as pravrtti-marga. When one becomes intelligent he takes to nivrtti-marga, the path of liberation, and thus instead of rotating within this material world, he returns home, back to Godhead. This is necessary.

TEXT 3

TEXT

adharma-laksana nana

narakas canuvarnitah

manvantaras ca vyakhyata

adyah svayambhuvo yatah

SYNONYMS

adharma-laksanah--symptomized by impious activities; nana--various; narakah--hells; ca--also; anuvarnitah--have been described; manu-antarah--the change of Manus [in one day of Brahma there are fourteen Manus]; ca--also; vyakhyatah--has been described; adyah--the original; svayambhuvah--directly the son of Lord Brahma; yatah--wherein.

TRANSLATION

You have also described [at the end of the Fifth Canto] the varieties of hellish life that result from impious activities, and you have described [in the Fourth Canto] the first manvantara, which was presided over by Svayambhuva Manu, the son of Lord Brahma.

TEXTS 4-5

TEXT

priyavratottanapador

vamsas tac-caritani ca

dvipa-varsa-samudradri-

nady-udyana-vanaspatin

dhara-mandala-samsthanam

bhaga-laksana-manatah

jyotisam vivaranam ca

yathedam asrjad vibhuh

SYNONYMS

priyavrata--of Priyavrata; uttanapadoh--and of Uttanapada; vamsah--the dynasty; tat-caritani--their characteristics; ca--also; dvipa--different planets; varsa--lands; samudra--oceans and seas; adri--mountains; nadi--rivers; udyana--gardens; vanaspatin--and trees; dhara-mandala--of the planet earth; samsthanam--situation; bhaga--according to divisions; laksana--different symptoms; manatah--and measurements; jyotisam--of the sun and other luminaries; vivaranam--of the lower planetary systems; ca--and; yatha--as; idam--this; asrjat--created; vibhuh--the Supreme personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

My dear lord, you have described the dynasties and characteristics of King Priyavrata and King Uttanapada. The Supreme Personality of Godhead created this material world with various universes, planetary systems, planets and stars, with varied lands, seas, oceans, mountains, rivers, gardens and trees, all with different characteristics. These are divided among this planet earth, the luminaries in the sky and the lower planetary systems. You have very clearly described these planets and the living entities who live on them.

PURPORT

Here the words yathedam asrjad vibhuh clearly indicate that the Supreme, the great, almighty Personality of Godhead, created this entire material world with its different varieties of planets, stars and so forth. Atheists try to conceal the hand of God, which is present in every creation, but they cannot explain how all these creations could come into existence without a competent intelligence and almighty power behind them. Simply to imagine or speculate is a waste of time. In Bhagavad-gita (10.8), the Lord says, aham sarvasya prabhavo: "I am the origin of everything." Mattah sarvam pravartate: "whatever exists in the creation emanates from Me." Iti matva bhajante mam budha bhava-samanvitah: "When one fully understands that I create everything by My omnipotence, one becomes firmly situated in devotional service and fully surrenders at My lotus feet." Unfortunately, the unintelligent cannot immediately understand Krsna's supremacy. Nonetheless, if they associate with devotees and read authorized books, they may gradually come to the proper understanding, although this may take many, many births. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (7.19):

bahunam janmanam ante

jnanavan mam prapadyate

vasudevah sarvam iti

sa mahatma sudurlabhah

"After many births and deaths, he who is actually in knowledge surrenders unto Me, knowing Me to be the cause of all causes and all that is. Such a great soul is very rare." Vasudeva, Krsna, is the creator of everything, and His energy is displayed in various ways. As explained in Bhagavad-gita (7.4-5), a combination of the material energy (bhumir apo 'nalo vayuh) and the spiritual energy, the living entity, exists in every creation. Therefore the same principle, the combination of the supreme spirit and the material elements, is the cause of the cosmic manifestation.

TEXT 6

TEXT

adhuneha maha-bhaga

yathaiva narakan narah

nanogra-yatanan neyat

tan me vyakhyatum arhasi

SYNONYMS

adhuna--right now; iha--in this material world; maha-bhaga--O greatly opulent and fortunate Sukadeva Gosvami; yatha--so that; eva--indeed; narakan--all the hellish conditions into which the impious are put; narah--human beings; nana--varieties of; ugra--terrible; yatanan--conditions of suffering; na iyat--may not undergo; tat--that; me--to me; vyakhyatum arhasi--please describe.

TRANSLATION

O greatly fortunate and opulent Sukadeva Gosvami, now kindly tell me how human beings may be saved from having to enter hellish conditions in which they suffer terrible pains.

PURPORT

In the Twenty-sixth Chapter of the Fifth Canto, Sukadeva Gosvami has explained that people who commit sinful acts are forced to enter hellish planets and suffer. Now Maharaja Pariksit, being a devotee, is concerned with how this can be stopped. A Vaisnava is para-duhkha-duhkhi; in other words, he has no personal troubles, but he is very unhappy to see others in trouble. Prahlada Maharaja said, "My Lord, I have no personal problems, for I have learned how to glorify Your transcendental qualities and thus enter a trance of ecstasy. I do have a problem, however, for I am simply thinking of these rascals and fools who are busy with maya-sukha, temporary happiness, without knowledge of devotional service unto You." This is the problem faced by a Vaisnava. Because a Vaisnava fully takes shelter of the Supreme personality of Godhead, he personally has no problems, but because he is compassionate toward the fallen, conditioned souls, he is always thinking of plans to save them from their hellish life in this body and the next. Pariksit Maharaja, therefore, anxiously wanted to know from Sukadeva Gosvami how humanity can be saved from gliding down to hell. Sukadeva Gosvami had already explained how people enter hellish life, and he could also explain how they could be saved from it. Intelligent men must take advantage of these instructions. Unfortunately, however, the entire world is lacking Krsna consciousness, and therefore people are suffering from the grossest ignorance and do not even believe in a life after this one. To convince them of their next life is very difficult because they have become almost mad in their pursuit of material enjoyment. Nevertheless, our duty, the duty of all sane men, is to save them. Maharaja Pariksit is the representative of one who can save them.

TEXT 7

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

na ced ihaivapacitim yathamhasah

krtasya kuryan mana-ukta-panibhih

dhruvam sa vai pretya narakan upaiti

ye kirtita me bhavatas tigma-yatanah

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Srila Sukadeva Gosvami said; na--not; cet--if; iha--within this life; eva--certainly; apacitim--counteraction, atonement; yatha--duly; amhasah krtasya--when one has performed sinful activities; kuryat--performs; manah--with the mind; ukta--words; panibhih--and with the senses; dhruvam--undoubtedly; sah--that person; vai--indeed; pretya--after death; narakan--different varieties of hellish conditions; upaiti--attains; ye--which; kirtitah--were already described; me--by me; bhavatah--unto you; tigma-yatanah--in which there is very terrible suffering.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami replied: My dear King, if before one's next death whatever impious acts one has performed in this life with his mind, words and body are not counteracted through proper atonement according to the description of the Manu-samhita and other dharma-sastras, one will certainly enter the hellish planets after death and undergo terrible suffering, as I have previously described to you.

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura mentions that although Maharaja Pariksit was a pure devotee, Sukadeva Gosvami did not immediately speak to him about the strength of devotional service. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (14.26):

mam ca yo 'vyabhicarena

bhakti-yogena sevate

sa gunan samatityaitan

brahma-bhuyaya kalpate

Devotional service is so strong that if one fully surrenders to Krsna and takes fully to His devotional service, the reactions of his sinful life immediately stop.

Elsewhere in the Gita (18.66), Lord Krsna urges that one give up all other duties and surrender to Him, and He promises, aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami: "I shall free you from all sinful reactions and give you liberation." Therefore in response to the inquiries of Pariksit Maharaja, Sukadeva Gosvami, his guru, could have immediately explained the principle of bhakti, but to test Pariksit Maharaja's intelligence, he first prescribed atonement according to karma-kanda, the path of fruitive activities. For karma-kanda there are eighty authorized scriptures, such as Manu-samhita, which are known as dharma-sastras. In these scriptures one is advised to counteract his sinful acts by performing other types of fruitive action. This was the path first recommended by Sukadeva Gosvami to Maharaja Pariksit, and actually it is a fact that one who does not take to devotional service must follow the decision of these scriptures by performing pious acts to counteract his impious acts. This is known as atonement.

TEXT 8

TEXT

tasmat puraivasv iha papa-niskrtau

yateta mrtyor avipadyatatmana

dosasya drstva guru-laghavam yatha

bhisak cikitseta rujam nidanavit

SYNONYMS

tasmat--therefore; pura--before; eva--indeed; asu--very quickly; iha--in this life; papa-niskrtau--to become free from the reaction of sinful activities; yateta--one should endeavor; mrtyoh--death; avipadyata--not troubled by disease and old age; atmana--with a body; dosasya--of the sinful activities; drstva--estimating; guru-laghavam--the heaviness or lightness; yatha--just like; bhisak--a physician; cikitseta--would treat; rujam--of disease; nidana-vit--one who is expert in diagnosis.

TRANSLATION

Therefore, before one's next death comes, as long as one's body is strong enough, one should quickly adopt the process of atonement according to sastra; otherwise one's time will be lost, and the reactions of his sins will increase. As an expert physician diagnoses and treats a disease according to its gravity, one should undergo atonement according to the severity of one's sins.

PURPORT

The dharma-sastras like the Manu-samhita prescribe that a man who has committed murder should be hanged and his own life sacrificed in atonement. Previously this system was followed all over the world, but since people are becoming atheists, they are stopping capital punishment. This is not wise. Herein it is said that a physician who knows how to diagnose a disease prescribes medicine accordingly. If the disease is very serious, the medicine must be strong. The weight of a murderer's sin is very great, and therefore according to Manu-samhita a murderer must be killed. By killing a murderer the government shows mercy to him because if a murderer is not killed in this life, he will be killed and forced to suffer many times in future lives. Since people do not know about the next life and the intricate workings of nature, they manufacture their own laws, but they should properly consult the established injunctions of the sastras and act accordingly. In India even today the Hindu community often takes advice from expert scholars regarding how to counteract sinful activities. In Christianity also there is a process of confession and atonement. Therefore atonement is required, and atonement must be undergone according to the gravity of one's sinful acts.

TEXT 9

TEXT

sri-rajovaca

drsta-srutabhyam yat papam

janann apy atmano 'hitam

karoti bhuyo vivasah

prayascittam atho katham

SYNONYMS

sri-raja uvaca--Pariksit Maharaja replied; drsta--by seeing; srutabhyam--also by hearing (from the scriptures or lawbooks); yat--since; papam--sinful, criminal action; janan--knowing; api--although; atmanah--of his self; ahitam--injurious; karoti--he acts; bhuyah--again and again; vivasah--unable to control himself; prayascittam--atonement; atho--therefore; katham--what is the value of.

TRANSLATION

Maharaja Pariksit said: One may know that sinful activity is injurious for him because he actually sees that a criminal is punished by the government and rebuked by people in general and because he hears from scriptures and learned scholars that one is thrown into hellish conditions in the next life for committing sinful acts. Nevertheless, in spite of such knowledge, one is forced to commit sins again and again, even after performing acts of atonement. Therefore, what is the value of such atonement?

PURPORT

In some religious sects a sinful man goes to a priest to confess his sinful acts and pay a fine, but then he again commits the same sins and returns to confess them again. This is the practice of a professional sinner. Pariksit Maharaja's observations indicate that even five thousand years ago it was the practice of criminals to atone for their crimes but then commit the same crimes again, as if forced to do so. Therefore, owing to his practical experience, Pariksit Maharaja saw that the process of repeatedly sinning and atoning is pointless. Regardless of how many times he is punished, one who is attached to sense enjoyment will commit sinful acts again and again until he is trained to refrain from enjoying his senses. The word vivasa is used herein, indicating that even one who does not want to commit sinful acts will be forced to do so by habit. Pariksit Maharaja therefore considered the process of atonement to have little value for saving one from sinful acts. In the following verse he further explains his rejection of this process.

TEXT 10

TEXT

kvacin nivartate 'bhadrat

kvacic carati tat punah

prayascittam atho 'partham

manye kunjara-saucavat

SYNONYMS

kvacit--sometimes; nivartate--ceases; abhadrat--from sinful activity; kvacit--sometimes; carati--commits; tat--that (sinful activity); punah--again; prayascittam--the process of atonement; atho--therefore; apartham--useless; manye--I consider; kunjara-saucavat--exactly like the bathing of an elephant.

TRANSLATION

Sometimes one who is very alert so as not to commit sinful acts is victimized by sinful life again. I therefore consider this process of repeated sinning and atoning to be useless. It is like the bathing of an elephant, for an elephant cleanses itself by taking a full bath, but then throws dust over its head and body as soon as it returns to the land.

PURPORT

When Pariksit Maharaja inquired how a human being could free himself from sinful activities so as not to be forced to go to hellish planetary systems after death, Sukadeva Gosvami answered that the process of counteracting sinful life is atonement. In this way Sukadeva Gosvami tested the intelligence of Maharaja Pariksit, who passed the examination by refusing to accept this process as genuine. Now Pariksit Maharaja is expecting another answer from his spiritual master, Sukadeva Gosvami.

TEXT 11

TEXT

sri-badarayanir uvaca

karmana karma-nirharo

na hy atyantika isyate

avidvad-adhikaritvat

prayascittam vimarsanam

SYNONYMS

sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sukadeva Gosvami, the son of Vyasadeva, replied; karmana--by fruitive activities; karma-nirharah--counteraction of fruitive activities; na--not; hi--indeed; atyantikah--final; isyate--becomes possible; avidvat-adhikaritvat--from being without knowledge; prayascittam--real atonement; vimarsanam--full knowledge of Vedanta.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami, the son of Vedavyasa, answered: My dear King, since acts meant to neutralize impious actions are also fruitive, they will not release one from the tendency to act fruitively. Persons who subject themselves to the rules and regulations of atonement are not at all intelligent. Indeed, they are in the mode of darkness. Unless one is freed from the mode of ignorance, trying to counteract one action through another is useless because this will not uproot one's desires. Thus even though one may superficially seem pious, he will undoubtedly be prone to act impiously. Therefore real atonement is enlightenment in perfect knowledge, Vedanta, by which one understands the Supreme Absolute Truth.

PURPORT

The guru, Sukadeva Gosvami, has examined Pariksit Maharaja, and it appears that the King has passed one phase of the examination by rejecting the process of atonement because it involves fruitive activities. Now Sukadeva Gosvami is suggesting the platform of speculative knowledge. Progressing from karma-kanda to jnana-kanda, he is proposing, prayascittam vimarsanam: "Real atonement is full knowledge." Vimarsana refers to the cultivation of speculative knowledge. In Bhagavad-gita, karmis, who are lacking in knowledge, are compared to asses. Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (7.15):

na mam duskrtino mudhah

prapadyante naradhamah

mayayapahrta-jnana

asuram bhavam asritah

"Those miscreants who are grossly foolish, lowest among mankind, whose knowledge is stolen by illusion, and who partake of the atheistic nature of demons, do not surrender unto Me." Thus karmis who engage in sinful acts and who do not know the true objective of life are called mudhas, asses. Vimarsana, however, is also explained in Bhagavad-gita (15.15), where Krsna says, vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah: the purpose of Vedic study is to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If one studies Vedanta but merely advances somewhat in speculative knowledge and does not understand the Supreme Lord, one remains the same mudha. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (7.19), one attains real knowledge when he understands Krsna and surrenders unto Him (bahunam janmanam ante jnanavan mam prapadyate). To become learned and free from material contamination, therefore, one should try to understand Krsna, for thus one is immediately liberated from all pious and impious activities and their reactions.

TEXT 12

TEXT

nasnatah pathyam evannam

vyadhayo 'bhibhavanti hi

evam niyamakrd rajan

sanaih ksemaya kalpate

SYNONYMS

na--not; asnatah--those who eat; pathyam--suitable; eva--indeed; annam--food; vyadhayah--different types of disease; abhibhavanti--overcome; hi--indeed; evam--similarly; niyama-krt--one following regulative principles; rajan--O King; sanaih--gradually; ksemaya--for well-being; kalpate--becomes fit.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, if a diseased person eats the pure, uncontaminated food prescribed by a physician, he is gradually cured, and the infection of disease can no longer touch him. Similarly, if one follows the regulative principles of knowledge, he gradually progresses toward liberation from material contamination.

PURPORT

One is gradually purified if one cultivates knowledge, even through mental speculation, and strictly follows the regulative principles enjoined in the sastras and explained in the next verse. Therefore the platform of jnana, speculative knowledge, is better than the platform of karma, fruitive action. There is every chance of falling from the platform of karma to hellish conditions, but on the platform of jnana one is saved from hellish life, although one is still not completely free from infection. The difficulty is that on the platform of jnana one thinks that he has been liberated and has become Narayana, or Bhagavan. This is another phase of ignorance.

ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninas

tvayy asta-bhavad avisuddha-buddhayah

aruhya krcchrena param padam tatah

patanty adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghrayah

(Bhag. 10.2.32)

Because of ignorance, one speculatively thinks himself liberated from material contamination although actually he is not. Therefore even if one rises to brahma jnana, understanding of Brahman, one nevertheless falls down because of not taking shelter of the lotus feet of Krsna. Nonetheless, jnanis at least know what is sinful and what is pious, and they very cautiously act according to the injunctions of the sastras.

TEXTS 13-14

TEXT

tapasa brahmacaryena

samena ca damena ca

tyagena satya-saucabhyam

yamena niyamena va

deha-vag-buddhijam dhira

dharmajnah sraddhayanvitah

ksipanty agham mahad api

venu-gulmam ivanalah

SYNONYMS

tapasa--by austerity or voluntary rejection of material enjoyment; brahmacaryena--by celibacy (the first austerity); samena--by controlling the mind; ca--and; damena--by fully controlling the senses; ca--also; tyagena--by voluntarily giving charity to good causes; satya--by truthfulness; saucabhyam--and by following regulative principles to keep oneself internally and externally clean; yamena--by avoiding cursing and violence; niyamena--by regularly chanting the holy name of the Lord; va--and; deha-vak-buddhi-jam--performed by the body, words and intelligence; dhirah--those who are sober; dharma-jnah--fully imbued with knowledge of religious principles; sraddhaya anvitah--endowed with faith; ksipanti--destroy; agham--all kinds of sinful activities; mahat api--although very great and abominable; venu-gulmam--the dried creepers beneath a bamboo tree; iva--like; analah--fire.

TRANSLATION

To concentrate the mind, one must observe a life of celibacy and not fall down. One must undergo the austerity of voluntarily giving up sense enjoyment. One must then control the mind and senses, give charity, be truthful, clean and nonviolent, follow the regulative principles and regularly chant the holy name of the Lord. Thus a sober and faithful person who knows the religious principles is temporarily purified of all sins performed with his body, words and mind. These sins are like the dried leaves of creepers beneath a bamboo tree, which may be burned by fire although their roots remain to grow again at the first opportunity.

PURPORT

Tapah is explained in the smrti-sastra as follows: manasas cendriyanam ca aikagryam paramam tapah. "Complete control of the mind and senses and their complete concentration on one kind of activity is called tapah." Our Krsna consciousness movement is teaching people how to concentrate the mind on devotional service. This is first-class tapah. Brahmacarya, the life of celibacy, has eight aspects: one should not think of women, speak about sex life, dally with women, look lustfully at women, talk intimately with women or decide to engage in sexual intercourse, nor should one endeavor for sex life or engage in sex life. One should not even think of women or look at them, to say nothing of talking with them. This is called first-class brahmacarya. If a brahmacari or sannyasi talks with a woman in a secluded place, naturally there will be a possibility of sex life without anyone's knowledge. Therefore a complete brahmacari practices just the opposite. If one is a perfect brahmacari, he can very easily control the mind and senses, give charity, speak truthfully and so forth. To begin, however, one must control the tongue and the process of eating.

In the bhakti-marga, the path of devotional service, one must strictly follow the regulative principles by first controlling the tongue (sevonmukhe hi jihvadau svayam eva sphuraty adah). The tongue (jihva) can be controlled if one chants the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, does not speak of any subjects other than those concerning Krsna and does not taste anything not offered to Krsna. If one can control the tongue in this way, brahmacarya and other purifying processes will automatically follow. It will be explained in the next verse that the path of devotional service is completely perfect and is therefore superior to the path of fruitive activities and the path of knowledge. Quoting from the Vedas, Srila Viraraghava Acarya explains that austerity involves observing fasts as fully as possible (tapasanasakena). Srila Rupa Gosvami has also advised that atyahara, too much eating, is an impediment to advancement in spiritual life. Also, in Bhagavad-gita (6.17) Krsna says:

yuktahara-viharasya

yukta-cestasya karmasu

yukta-svapnavabodhasya

yogo bhavati duhkha-ha

"He who is temperate in his habits of eating, sleeping, working and recreation can mitigate all material pains by practicing the yoga system."

In text 14 the word dhirah, meaning "those who are undisturbed under all circumstances," is very significant. Krsna tells Arjuna in Bhagavad-gita (2.14):

matra-sparsas tu kaunteya

sitosna-sukha-duhkha-dah

agamapayino 'nityas

tams titiksasva bharata

"O son of Kunti, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed." In material life there are many disturbances (adhyatmika, adhidaivika and adhibhautika). One who has learned to tolerate these disturbances under all circumstances is called dhira.

TEXT 15

TEXT

kecit kevalaya bhaktya

vasudeva-parayanah

agham dhunvanti kartsnyena

niharam iva bhaskarah

SYNONYMS

kecit--some people; kevalaya bhaktya--by executing unalloyed devotional service; vasudeva--to Lord Krsna, the all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead; parayanah--completely attached (only to such service, without dependence on austerity, penance, cultivation of knowledge or pious activities); agham--all kinds of sinful reactions; dhunvanti--destroy; kartsnyena--completely (with no possibility that sinful desires will revive); niharam--fog; iva--like; bhaskarah--the sun.

TRANSLATION

Only a rare person who has adopted complete, unalloyed devotional service to Krsna can uproot the weeds of sinful actions with no possibility that they will revive. He can do this simply by discharging devotional service, just as the sun can immediately dissipate fog by its rays.

PURPORT

In the previous verse Sukadeva Gosvami gave the example that the dried leaves of creepers beneath a bamboo tree may be completely burnt to ashes by a fire, although the creepers may sprout again because the root is still in the ground. Similarly, because the root of sinful desire is not destroyed in the heart of a person who is cultivating knowledge but who has no taste for devotional service, there is a possibility that his sinful desires will reappear. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.4):

sreyah-srtim bhaktim udasya te vibho

klisyanti ye kevala-bodha-labdhaye

Speculators who undergo great labor to gain a meticulous understanding of the material world by distinguishing between sinful and pious activities, but who are not situated in devotional service, are prone to material activities. They may fall down and become implicated in fruitive activities. If one becomes attached to devotional service, however, his desires for material enjoyment are automatically vanquished without separate endeavor. Bhaktih paresanubhavo viraktir anyatra ca: if one is advanced in Krsna consciousness, material activities, both sinful and pious, automatically become distasteful to him. That is the test of Krsna consciousness. Both pious and impious activities are actually due to ignorance because a living entity, as an eternal servant of Krsna, has no need to act for his personal sense gratification. Therefore as soon as one is reclaimed to the platform of devotional service, he relinquishes his attachment for pious and impious activities and is interested only in what will satisfy Krsna. This process of bhakti, devotional service to Krsna (vasudeva-parayana), relieves one from the reactions of all activities.

Since Maharaja Pariksit was a great devotee. the answers of his guru, Sukadeva Gosvami, concerning karma-kanda and jnana-kanda could not satisfy him. Therefore Sukadeva Gosvami, knowing very well the heart of his disciple, explained the transcendental bliss of devotional service. The word kecit, which is used in this verse, means. "a few people but not all." Not everyone can become Krsna conscious. As Krsna explains in Bhagavad-gita (7.3):

manusyanam sahasresu

kascid yatati siddhaye

yatatam api siddhanam

kascin mam vetti tattvatah

"Out of many thousands among men, one may endeavor for perfection, and of those who have achieved perfection, hardly one knows Me in truth." Practically no one understands Krsna as He is, for Krsna cannot be understood through pious activities or attainment of the most elevated speculative knowledge. Actually the highest knowledge consists of understanding Krsna. Unintelligent men who do not understand Krsna are grossly puffed up, thinking that they are liberated or have themselves become Krsna or Narayana. This is ignorance.

To indicate the purity of bhakti, devotional service, Srila Rupa Gosvami says in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.1.11):

anyabhilasita-sunyam

jnana-karmady-anavrtam

anukulyena krsnanu-

silanam bhaktir uttama

"One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord Krsna favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure devotional service." Srila Rupa Gosvami further explains that bhakti is klesaghni subhada, which means if one takes to devotional service, all kinds of unnecessary labor and material distress cease entirely and one achieves all good fortune. Bhakti is so powerful that it is also said to be moksa-laghutakrt; in other words, it minimizes the importance of liberation.

Nondevotees must undergo material hardships because they are prone to commit sinful fruitive activities. The desire to commit sinful actions continues in their hearts due to ignorance. These sinful actions are divided into three categories--pataka, maha-pataka and atipataka--and also into two divisions; prarabdha and aprarabdha. Prarabdha refers to sinful reactions from which one is suffering at the present, and aprarabdha refers to sources of potential suffering. When the seeds (bija) of sinful reactions have not yet fructified, the reactions are called aprarabdha. These seeds of sinful action are unseen, but they are unlimited, and no one can trace when they were first planted. Because of prarabdha, sinful reactions that have already fructified, one is seen to have taken birth in a low family or to be suffering from other miseries.

When one takes to devotional service, however, all phases of sinful life, including prarabdha, aprarabdha and bija, are vanquished. In Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.14.19) Lord Krsna tells Uddhava:

yathagnih susamrddharcih

karoty edhamsi bhasmasat

tatha mad-visaya bhaktir

uddhavainamsi krtsnasah

"My dear Uddhava, devotional service in relationship with Me is like a blazing fire that can burn to ashes all the fuel of sinful activities supplied to it." How devotional service vanquishes the reactions of sinful life is explained in Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.33.6) in a verse spoken during Lord Kapiladeva's instructions to His mother, Devahuti. Devahuti said:

yan-namadheya-sravananukirtanad

yat-prahvanad yat-smaranad api kvacit

svado 'pi sadyah savanaya kalpate

kutah punas te bhagavan nu darsanat

"My dear Lord, if even a person born in a family of dog-eaters hears and repeats the chanting of Your glories, offers respects to You and remembers You, he is immediately greater than a brahmana and is therefore eligible to perform sacrifices. Therefore, what is to be said of one who has seen You directly?"

In the Padma purana there is a statement that persons whose hearts are always attached to the devotional service of Lord Visnu are immediately released from all the reactions of sinful life. These reactions generally exist in four phases. Some of them are ready to produce results immediately, some are in the form of seeds, some are unmanifested, and some are current. All such reactions are immediately nullified by devotional service. When devotional service is present in one's heart, desires to perform sinful activities have no place there. Sinful life is due to ignorance, which means forgetfulness of one's constitutional position as an eternal servant of God, but when one is fully Krsna conscious he realizes that he is God's eternal servant.

In this regard, Srila Jiva Gosvami comments that bhakti may be divided into two divisions: (1) santata, devotional service that continues incessantly with faith and love, and (2) kadacitki, devotional service that does not continue incessantly but is sometimes awakened. Incessantly flowing devotional service (santata) may also be divided into two categories: (1) service performed with slight attachment and (2) spontaneous devotional service. Intermittent devotional service (kadacitki) may be divided into three categories: (1) ragabhasamayi, devotional service in which one is almost attached, (2) ragabhasa-sunya-svarupa-bhuta, devotional service in which there is no spontaneous love but one likes the constitutional position of serving, and (3) abhasa-rupa, a slight glimpse of devotional service. As for atonement, if one has caught even a slight glimpse of devotional service, all needs to undergo prayascitta, atonement, are superseded. Therefore atonement is certainly unnecessary when one has achieved spontaneous love and, above that, attachment with love, which are signs of increasing advancement in kadacitki. Even in the stage of abhasa-rupa bhakti, all the reactions of sinful life are uprooted and vanquished. Srila Jiva Gosvami expresses the opinion that the word kartsnyena means that even if one has a desire to commit sinful actions, the roots of that desire are vanquished merely by abhasa-rupa bhakti. The example of bhaskara, the sun, is most appropriate. The abhasa feature of bhakti is compared to twilight, and the accumulation of one's sinful activities is compared to fog. Since fog does not spread throughout the sky, the sun need do no more than merely manifest its first rays, and the fog immediately disappears. Similarly, if one has even a slight relationship with devotional service, all the fog of his sinful life is immediately vanquished.

TEXT 16

TEXT

na tatha hy aghavan rajan

puyeta tapa-adibhih

yatha krsnarpita-pranas

tat-purusa-nisevaya

SYNONYMS

na--not; tatha--so much; hi--certainly; agha-van--a man full of sinful activities; rajan--O King; puyeta--can become purified; tapah-adibhih--by executing the principles of austerity, penance, brahmacarya and other purifying processes; yatha--as much as; krsna-arpita-pranah--the devotee whose life is fully Krsna conscious; tat-purusa-nisevaya--by engaging his life in the service of Krsna's representative.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, if a sinful person engages in the service of a bona fide devotee of the Lord and thus learns how to dedicate his life unto the lotus feet of Krsna, he can be completely purified. One cannot be purified merely by undergoing austerity, penance, brahmacarya and the other methods of atonement I have previously described.

PURPORT

Tat-purusa refers to a preacher of Krsna consciousness, such as the spiritual master. Srila Narottama dasa Thakura has said, chadiya vaisnava-seva nistara payeche keba: "Without serving a bona fide spiritual master, an ideal Vaisnava, who can be delivered from the clutches of maya?" This idea is also expressed in many other places. Srimad-Bhagavatam (5.5.2) says, mahat-sevam dvaram ahur vimukteh: if one desires liberation from the clutches of maya, one must associate with a pure devotee mahatma. A mahatma is one who engages twenty-four hours daily in the loving service of the Lord. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (9.13):

mahatmanas tu mam partha

daivim prakrtim asritah

bhajanty ananya-manaso

jnatva bhutadim avyayam

"O son of Prtha, those who are not deluded, the great souls, are under the protection of the divine nature. They are fully engaged in devotional service because they know Me as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, original and inexhaustible." Thus the symptom of a mahatma is that he has no engagement other than service to Krsna. One must render service to a Vaisnava in order to get freed from sinful reactions, revive one's original Krsna consciousness and be trained in how to love Krsna. This is the result of mahatma-seva. Of course, if one engages in the service of a pure devotee, the reactions of one's sinful life are vanquished automatically. Devotional service is necessary not to drive away an insignificant stock of sins, but to awaken our dormant love for Krsna. As fog is vanquished at the first glimpse of sunlight, one's sinful reactions are automatically vanquished as soon as one begins serving a pure devotee; no separate endeavor is required.

The word krsna-rpita-pranah refers to a devotee who dedicates his life to serving Krsna, not to being saved from the path to hellish life. A devotee is narayana-parayana, or vasudeva-parayana, which means that the path of Vasudeva, or the devotional path, is his life and soul. Narayana-parah sarve na kutascana bibhyati (Bhag. 6.17.28): such a devotee is not afraid of going anywhere. There is a path toward liberation in the higher planetary systems and a path toward the hellish planets, but a narayana-para devotee is unafraid wherever he is sent; he simply wants to remember Krsna, wherever he may be. Such a devotee is unconcerned with hell and heaven; he is simply attached to rendering service to Krsna. When a devotee is put into hellish conditions, he accepts them as Krsna's mercy: tat te 'nukampam susamiksamanah (Bhag. 10.14.8). He does not protest, "Oh, I am such a great devotee of Krsna. Why have I been put into this misery?" Instead he thinks, "This is Krsna's mercy." Such an attitude is possible for a devotee who engages in the service of Krsna's representative. This is the secret of success.

TEXT 17

TEXT

sadhricino hy ayam loke

panthah ksemo 'kuto-bhayah

susilah sadhavo yatra

narayana-parayanah

SYNONYMS

sadhricinah--just appropriate; hi--certainly; ayam--this; loke--in the world; panthah--path; ksemah--auspicious; akutah-bhayah--without fear; su-silah--well-behaved; sadhavah--saintly persons; yatra--wherein; narayana-parayanah--those who have taken the path of Narayana, devotional service, as their life and soul.

TRANSLATION

The path followed by pure devotees, who are well behaved and fully endowed with the best qualifications, is certainly the most auspicious path in this material world. It is free from fear, and it is authorized by the sastras.

PURPORT

One should not think that the person who takes to bhakti is one who cannot perform the ritualistic ceremonies recommended in the karma-kanda section of the Vedas or is not sufficiently educated to speculate on spiritual subjects. Mayavadis generally allege that the bhakti path is for women and illiterates. This is a groundless accusation. The bhakti path is followed by the most learned scholars, such as the Gosvamis, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Ramanujacarya. These are the actual followers of the bhakti path. Regardless of whether or not one is educated or aristocratic, one must follow in their footsteps. Mahajano yena gatah sa panthah: one must follow the path of the mahajanas. The mahajanas are those who have taken to the path of devotional service (susilah sadhavo yatra narayana-parayanah), for these great personalities are the perfect persons. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (5.18.12):

yasyasti bhaktir bhagavaty akincana

sarvair gunais tatra samasate surah

"One who has unflinching devotion to the Personality of Godhead has all the good qualities of the demigods." The less intelligent, however, misunderstand the bhakti path and therefore allege that it is for one who cannot execute ritualistic ceremonies or speculate. As confirmed here by the word sadhricinah, bhakti is the path that is appropriate, not the paths of karma-kanda and jnana-kanda. Mayavadis may be susilah sadhavah (well-behaved saintly persons), but there is nevertheless some doubt about whether they are actually making progress, for they have not accepted the path of bhakti. On the other hand, those who follow the path of the acaryas are susilah and sadhavah, but furthermore their path is akuto-bhaya, which means free from fear. One should fearlessly follow the twelve mahajanas and their line of disciplic succession and thus be liberated from the clutches of maya.

TEXT 18

TEXT

prayascittani cirnani

narayana-paranmukham

na nispunanti rajendra

sura-kumbham ivapagah

SYNONYMS

prayascittani--processes of atonement; cirnani--very nicely performed; narayana-paranmukham--a nondevotee; na nispunanti--cannot purify; rajendra--O King; sura-kumbham--a pot containing liquor; iva--like; apa-gah--the waters of the rivers.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, as a pot containing liquor cannot be purified even if washed in the waters of many rivers, nondevotees cannot be purified by processes of atonement even if they perform them very well.

PURPORT

To take advantage of the methods of atonement, one must be at least somewhat devoted; otherwise there is no chance of one's being purified. It is clear from this verse that even those who take advantage of karma-kanda and jnana-kanda, but are not at least slightly devoted cannot be purified simply by following these other paths. The word prayascittani is plural in number to indicate both karma-kanda and jnana-kanda. Narottama dasa Thakura therefore says, karma-kanda, jnana-kanda, kevala visera bhanda. Thus Narottama dasa Thakura compares the paths of karma-kanda and jnana-kanda to pots of poison. Liquor and poison are in the same category. According to this verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam, a person who has heard a good deal about the path of devotional service, but who is not attached to it, who is not Krsna conscious, is like a pot of liquor. Such a person cannot be purified without at least a slight touch of devotional service.

TEXT 19

TEXT

sakrn manah krsna-padaravindayor

nivesitam tad-guna-ragi yair iha

na te yamam pasa-bhrtas ca tad-bhatan

svapne 'pi pasyanti hi cirna-niskrtah

SYNONYMS

sakrt--once only; manah--the mind; krsna-pada-aravindayoh--unto the two lotus feet of Lord Krsna; nivesitam--completely surrendered; tat--of Krsna; guna-ragi--which is somewhat attached to the qualities, name, fame and paraphernalia; yaih--by whom; iha--in this world; na--not; te--such persons; yamam--Yamaraja, the superintendent of death; pasa-bhrtah--those who carry ropes (to catch sinful persons); ca--and; tat--his; bhatan--order carriers; svapne api--even in dreams; pasyanti--see; hi--indeed; cirna-niskrtah--who have performed the right type of atonement.

TRANSLATION

Although not having fully realized Krsna, persons who have even once surrendered completely unto His lotus feet and who have become attracted to His name, form, qualities and pastimes are completely freed of all sinful reactions, for they have thus accepted the true method of atonement. Even in dreams, such surrendered souls do not see Yamaraja or his order carriers, who are equipped with ropes to bind the sinful.

PURPORT

Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (18.66):

sarva-dharman parityajya

mam ekam saranam vraja

aham tvam sarva-papebhyo

moksayisyami ma sucah

"Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear." This same principle is described here (sakrn manah krsna-padaravindayoh). If by studying Bhagavad-gita one decides to surrender to Krsna, he is immediately freed from all sinful reactions. It is also significant that Sukadeva Gosvami, having several times repeated the words vasudeva-parayana and narayana-parayana, finally says krsna-padaravindayoh. Thus he indicates that Krsna is the origin of both Narayana and Vasudeva. Even though Narayana and Vasudeva are not different from Krsna, simply by surrendering to Krsna one fully surrenders to all His expansions, such as Narayana, Vasudeva and Govinda. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (7.7), mattah parataram nanyat: "There is no truth superior to Me." There are many names and forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but Krsna is the supreme form (krsnas tu bhagavan svayam). Therefore Krsna recommends to neophyte devotees that one should surrender unto Him only (mam ekam). Because neophyte devotees cannot understand what the forms of Narayana, Vasudeva and Govinda are, Krsna directly says, mam ekam. Herein, this is also supported by the word krsna-padaravindayoh. Narayana does not speak personally, but Krsna, or Vasudeva, does, as in Bhagavad-gita for example. Therefore, to follow the direction of Bhagavad-gita means to surrender unto Krsna, and to surrender in this way is the highest perfection of bhakti-yoga.

Pariksit Maharaja had inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami how one can be saved from falling into the various conditions of hellish life. In this verse Sukadeva Gosvami answers that a soul who has surrendered to Krsna certainly cannot go to naraka, hellish existence. To say nothing of going there, even in his dreams he does not see Yamaraja or his order carriers, who are able to take one there. In other words, if one wants to save himself from falling into naraka, hellish life, he should fully surrender to Krsna. The word sakrt is significant because it indicates that if one sincerely surrenders to Krsna once, he is saved even if by chance he falls down by committing sinful activities. Therefore Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (9.30):

api cet su-duracaro

bhajate mam ananya-bhak

sadhur eva sa mantavyah

samyag vyavasito hi sah

"Even if one commits the most abominable actions, if he is engaged in devotional service he is to be considered saintly because he is properly situated." If one never for a moment forgets Krsna, he is safe even if by chance he falls down by committing sinful acts.

In the Second Chapter of Bhagavad-gita (2.40) the Lord also says:

nehabhikrama-naso 'sti

pratyavayo na vidyate

svalpam apy asya dharmasya

trayate mahato bhayat

"In this endeavor there is no loss or diminution, and a little advancement on this path can protect one from the most dangerous type of fear."

Elsewhere in the Gita (6.40) the Lord says, na hi kalyana-krt kascid durgatim tata gacchati: "one who performs auspicious activity is never overcome by evil." The highest kalyana (auspicious) activity is to surrender to Krsna. That is the only path by which to save oneself from falling down into hellish life. Srila Prabodhananda Sarasvati has confirmed this as follows:

kaivalyam narakayate tri-dasa-pur akasa-puspayate

durdantendriya-kala-sarpa-patali protkhata-damstrayate

visvam purna-sukhayate vidhi-mahendradis ca kitayate

yat-karunya-kataksa-vaibhavavatam tam gauram eva stumah

The sinful actions of one who has surrendered unto Krsna are compared to a snake with its poison fangs removed (protkhata-damstrayate). Such a snake is no longer to be feared. Of course, one should not commit sinful activities on the strength of having surrendered to Krsna. However, even if one who has surrendered to Krsna happens to do something sinful because of his former habits, such sinful actions no longer have a destructive effect. Therefore one should adhere to the lotus feet of Krsna very tightly and serve Him under the direction of the spiritual master. Thus in all conditions one will be akuto-bhaya, free from fear.

TEXT 20

TEXT

atra codaharantimam

itihasam puratanam

dutanam visnu-yamayoh

samvadas tam nibodha me

SYNONYMS

atra--in this connection; ca--also; udaharanti--they give as an example; imam--this; itihasam--the history (of Ajamila); puratanam--which is very old; dutanam--of the order carriers; visnu--of Lord Visnu; yamayoh--and of Yamaraja; samvadah--the discussion; tam--that; nibodha--try to understand; me--from me.

TRANSLATION

In this regard, learned scholars and saintly persons describe a very old historical incident involving a discussion between the order carriers of Lord Visnu and those of Yamaraja. Please hear of this from me.

PURPORT

The Puranas, or old histories, are sometimes neglected by unintelligent men who consider their descriptions mythological. Actually, the descriptions of the Puranas, or the old histories of the universe, are factual, although not chronological. The puranas record the chief incidents that have occurred over many millions of years, not only on this planet but also on other planets within the universe. Therefore all learned and realized Vedic scholars speak with references to the incidents in the Puranas. Srila Rupa Gosvami accepts the Puranas to be as important as the Vedas themselves. Therefore in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu he quotes the following verse from the Brahma-yamala:

sruti-smrti-puranadi-

pancaratra-vidhim vina

aikantiki harer bhaktir

utpatayaiva kalpate

"Devotional service of the Lord that ignores the authorized Vedic literatures like the Upanisads, puranas and Narada-pancaratra is simply an unnecessary disturbance in society." A devotee of Krsna must refer not only to the Vedas, but also to the puranas. One should not foolishly consider the Puranas mythological. If they were mythological, Sukadeva Gosvami would not have taken the trouble to recite the old historical incidents concerning the life of Ajamila. Now the history begins as follows.

TEXT 21

TEXT

kanyakubje dvijah kascid

dasi-patir ajamilah

namna nasta-sadacaro

dasyah samsarga-dusitah

SYNONYMS

kanya-kubje--in the city of Kanyakubja (Kanauj, a town near Kanpur); dvijah--brahmana; kascit--some; dasi-patih--the husband of a low-class woman or prostitute; ajamilah--Ajamila; namna--by name; nasta-sat-acarah--who lost all brahminical qualities; dasyah--of the prostitute or maidservant; samsarga-dusitah--contaminated by the association.

TRANSLATION

In the city known as Kanyakubja there was a brahmana named Ajamila who married a prostitute maidservant and lost all his brahminical qualities because of the association of that low-class woman.

PURPORT

The fault of illicit connection with women is that it makes one lose all brahminical qualities. In India there is still a class of servants, called sudras, whose maidservant wives are called sudranis. Sometimes people who are very lusty establish relationships with such maidservants and sweeping women, since in the higher statuses of society they cannot indulge in the habit of woman hunting, which is strictly prohibited by social convention. Ajamila, a qualified brahmana youth, lost all his brahminical qualities because of his association with a prostitute, but he was ultimately saved because he had begun the process of bhakti-yoga. Therefore in the previous verse, Sukadeva Gosvami spoke of the person who has only once surrendered himself at the lotus feet of the Lord (manah krsna-padaravindayoh) or has just begun the bhakti-yoga process. Bhakti-yoga begins with sravanam kirtanam visnoh, hearing and chanting of Lord Visnu's names, as in the maha-mantra--Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. Chanting is the beginning of bhakti-yoga. Therefore Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu declares:

harer nama harer nama

harer namaiva kevalam

kalau nasty eva nasty eva

nasty eva gatir anyatha

"In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy the only means of deliverance is chanting the holy name of the Lord. There is no other way. There is no other way. There is no other way." The process of chanting the holy name of the Lord is always superbly effective, but it is especially effective in this age of Kali. Its practical effectiveness will now be explained by Sukadeva Gosvami through the history of Ajamila, who was freed from the hands of the Yamadutas simply because of chanting the holy name of Narayana. Pariksit Maharaja's original question was how to be freed from falling down into hell or into the hands of the Yamadutas. In reply, Sukadeva Gosvami is citing this old historical example to convince Pariksit Maharaja of the potency of bhakti-yoga, which begins simply with the chanting of the Lord's name. All the great authorities of bhakti-yoga recommend the devotional process beginning with the chanting of the holy name of Krsna (tan-nama-grahanadibhih).

TEXT 22

TEXT

bandy-aksaih kaitavais cauryair

garhitam vrttim asthitah

bibhrat kutumbam asucir

yatayam asa dehinah

SYNONYMS

bandi-aksaih--by unnecessarily arresting someone; kaitavaih--by cheating in gambling or throwing dice; cauryaih--by committing theft; garhitam--condemned; vrttim--professions; asthitah--who has undertaken (because of association with a prostitute); bibhrat--maintaining; kutumbam--his dependent wife and children; asucih--being most sinful; yatayam asa--he gave trouble; dehinah--to other living entities.

TRANSLATION

This fallen brahmana, Ajamila, gave trouble to others by arresting them, by cheating them in gambling or by directly plundering them. This was the way he earned his livelihood and maintained his wife and children.

PURPORT

This verse indicates how degraded one becomes simply by indulging in illicit sex with a prostitute. Illicit sex is not possible with a chaste or aristocratic woman, but only with unchaste sudras. The more society allows prostitution and illicit sex, the more impetus it gives to cheaters, thieves, plunderers, drunkards and gamblers. Therefore we first advise all the disciples in our Krsna consciousness movement to avoid illicit sex, which is the beginning of all abominable life and which is followed by meat-eating, gambling and intoxication, one after another. Of course, restraint is very difficult, but it is quite possible if one fully surrenders to Krsna, since all these abominable habits gradually become distasteful for a Krsna conscious person. If illicit sex is allowed to increase in a society, however, the entire society will be condemned, for it will be full of rogues, thieves, cheaters and so forth.

TEXT 23

TEXT

evam nivasatas tasya

lalayanasya tat-sutan

kalo 'tyagan mahan rajann

astasityayusah samah

SYNONYMS

evam--in this way; nivasatah--living; tasya--of him (Ajamila); lalayanasya--maintaining; tat--of her (the sudrani); sutan--sons; kalah--time; atyagat--passed away; mahan--a great amount; rajan--O King; astasitya--eighty-eight; ayusah--of the duration of life; samah--years.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, while he thus spent his time in abominable, sinful activities to maintain his family of many sons, eighty-eight years of his life passed by.

TEXT 24

TEXT

tasya pravayasah putra

dasa tesam tu yo 'vamah

balo narayano namna

pitros ca dayito bhrsam

SYNONYMS

tasya--of him (Ajamila); pravayasah--who was very old; putrah--sons; dasa--ten; tesam--of all of them; tu--but; yah--the one who; avamah--the youngest; balah--child; narayanah--Narayana; namna--by name; pitroh--of the father and mother; ca--and; dayitah--dear; bhrsam--very.

TRANSLATION

That old man Ajamila had ten sons, of whom the youngest was a baby named Narayana. Since Narayana was the youngest of all the sons, he was naturally very dear to both his father and his mother.

PURPORT

The word pravayasah indicates Ajamila's sinfulness because although he was eighty-eight years old, he had a very young child. According to Vedic culture, one should leave home as soon as he has reached fifty years of age; one should not live at home and go on producing children. Sex life is allowed for twenty-five years, between the ages of twenty-five and forty-five or, at the most, fifty. After that one should give up the habit of sex life and leave home as a vanaprastha and then properly take sannyasa. Ajamila, however, because of his association with a prostitute, lost all brahminical culture and became most sinful, even in his so-called household life.

TEXT 25

TEXT

sa baddha-hrdayas tasminn

arbhake kala-bhasini

niriksamanas tal-lilam

mumude jaratho bhrsam

SYNONYMS

sah--he; baddha-hrdayah--being very attached; tasmin--to that; arbhake--small child; kala-bhasini--who could not talk clearly but talked in broken language; niriksamanah--seeing; tat--his; lilam--pastimes (such as walking and talking to his father); mumude--enjoyed; jarathah--the old man; bhrsam--very much.

TRANSLATION

Because of the child's broken language and awkward movements, old Ajamila was very much attached to him. He always took care of the child and enjoyed the child's activities.

PURPORT

Here it is clearly mentioned that the child Narayana was so young that he could not even speak or walk properly. Since the old man was very attached to the child, he enjoyed the child's activities, and because the child's name was Narayana, the old man always chanted the holy name of Narayana. Although he was referring to the small child and not to the original Narayana, the name of Narayana is so powerful that even by chanting his son's name he was becoming purified (harer nama harer nama harer namaiva kevalam). Srila Rupa Gosvami has therefore declared that if one's mind is somehow or other attracted by the holy name of Krsna (tasmat kenapy upayena manah krsne nivesayet), one is on the path of liberation. It is customary in Hindu society for parents to give their children names like Krsnadasa, Govinda dasa, Narayana dasa and Vrndavana dasa. Thus they chant the names Krsna, Govinda, Narayana and Vrndavana and get the chance to be purified.

TEXT 26

TEXT

bhunjanah prapiban khadan

balakam sneha-yantritah

bhojayan payayan mudho

na vedagatam antakam

SYNONYMS

bhunjanah--while eating; prapiban--while drinking; khadan--while chewing; balakam--unto the child; sneha-yantritah--being attached by affection; bhojayan--feeding; payayan--giving something to drink; mudhah--the foolish man; na--not; veda--understood; agatam--had arrived; antakam--death.

TRANSLATION

When Ajamila chewed food and ate it, he called the child to chew and eat, and when he drank he called the child to drink also. Always engaged in taking care of the child and calling his name, Narayana, Ajamila could not understand that his own time was now exhausted and that death was upon him.

PURPORT

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is kind to the conditioned soul. Although this man completely forgot Narayana, he was calling his child, saying, "Narayana, please come eat this food. Narayana, please come drink this milk." Somehow or other, therefore, he was attached to the name Narayana. This is called ajnata-sukrti. Although calling for his son, he was unknowingly chanting the name of Narayana, and the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is so transcendentally powerful that his chanting was being counted and recorded.

TEXT 27

TEXT

sa evam vartamano 'jno

mrtyu-kala upasthite

matim cakara tanaye

bale narayanahvaye

SYNONYMS

sah--that Ajamila; evam--thus; vartamanah--living; ajnah--foolish; mrtyu-kale--when the time of death; upasthite--arrived; matim cakara--concentrated his mind; tanaye--on his son; bale--the child; narayana-ahvaye--whose name was Narayana.

TRANSLATION

When the time of death arrived for the foolish Ajamila, he began thinking exclusively of his son Narayana.

PURPORT

In the Second Canto of the Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.1.6) Sukadeva Gosvami says:

etavan sankhya-yogabhyam

svadharma-parinisthaya

janma-labhah parah pumsam

ante narayana-smrtih

"The highest perfection of human life, achieved either by complete knowledge of matter and spirit, by acquirement of mystic powers, or by perfect discharge of one's occupational duty, is to remember the Personality of Godhead at the end of life." Somehow or other, Ajamila consciously or unconsciously chanted the name of Narayana at the time of death (ante narayana-smrtih), and therefore he became all-perfect simply by concentrating his mind on the name of Narayana.

It may also be concluded that Ajamila, who was the son of a brahmana, was accustomed to worshiping Narayana in his youth because in every brahmana's house there is worship of the narayana-sila. This system is still present in India; in a rigid brahmana's house, there is narayana-seva, worship of Narayana. Therefore, although the contaminated Ajamila was calling for his son, by concentrating his mind on the holy name of Narayana he remembered the Narayana he had very faithfully worshiped in his youth.

In this regard Srila Sridhara Svami expressed his verdict as follows: etac ca tad-upalalanadi-sri-narayana-namoccarana-mahatmyena tad-bhaktir evabhud iti siddhantopayogitvenapi drastavyam. "According to the bhakti-siddhanta, it is to be analyzed that because Ajamila constantly chanted his son's name, Narayana, he was elevated to the platform of bhakti, although he did not know it." Similarly, Srila Viraraghava Acarya gives this opinion: evam vartamanah sa dvijah mrtyu-kale upasthite satyajno narayanakhye putra eva matim cakara matim asaktam akarod ity arthah. "Although at the time of death he was chanting the name of his son, he nevertheless concentrated his mind upon the holy name of Narayana." Srila Vijayadhvaja Tirtha gives a similar opinion:

mrtyu-kale deha-viyoga-laksana-kale mrtyoh sarva-dosa-papa-harasya harer anugrahat kale datta-jnana-laksane upasthite hrdi prakasite tanaye purna-jnane bale panca-varsa-kalpe pradesa-matre narayanahvaye murti-visese matim smarana-samartham cittam cakara bhaktyasmarad ity arthah.

Directly or indirectly, Ajamila factually remembered Narayana at the time of death (ante narayana-smrtih).

TEXTS 28-29

TEXT

sa pasa-hastams trin drstva

purusan ati-darunan

vakra-tundan urdhva-romna

atmanam netum agatan

dure kridanakasaktam

putram narayanahvayam

plavitena svarenoccair

ajuhavakulendriyah

SYNONYMS

sah--that person (Ajamila); pasa-hastan--having ropes in their hands; trin--three; drstva--seeing; purusan--persons; ati-darunan--very fearful in their features; vakra-tundan--with twisted faces; urdhva-romnah--with hair standing on the body; atmanam--the self; netum--to take away; agatan--arrived; dure--a short distance away; kridanaka-asaktam--engaged in his play; putram--his child; narayana-ahvayam--named Narayana; plavitena--with tearful eyes; svarena--with his voice; uccaih--very loudly; ajuhava--called; akula-indriyah--being full of anxiety.

TRANSLATION

Ajamila then saw three awkward persons with deformed bodily features, fierce, twisted faces, and hair standing erect on their bodies. With ropes in their hands, they had come to take him away to the abode of Yamaraja. When he saw them he was extremely bewildered, and because of attachment to his child, who was playing a short distance away, Ajamila began to call him loudly by his name. Thus with tears in his eyes he somehow or other chanted the holy name of Narayana.

PURPORT

A person who performs sinful activities performs them with his body, mind and words. Therefore three order carriers from Yamaraja came to take Ajamila to Yamaraja's abode. Fortunately, even though he was referring to his son, Ajamila chanted the four syllables of the hari-nama Narayana, and therefore the order carriers of Narayana, the Visnudutas, also immediately arrived there. Because Ajamila was extremely afraid of the ropes of Yamaraja, he chanted the Lord's name with tearful eyes. Actually, however, he never meant to chant the holy name of Narayana; he meant to call his son.

TEXT 30

TEXT

nisamya mriyamanasya

mukhato hari-kirtanam

bhartur nama maharaja

parsadah sahasapatan

SYNONYMS

nisamya--hearing; mriyamanasya--of the dying man; mukhatah--from the mouth; hari-kirtanam--chanting of the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhartuh nama--the holy name of their master; maha-raja--O King; parsadah--the order carriers of Visnu; sahasa--immediately; apatan--arrived.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, the order carriers of Visnu, the Visnudutas, immediately arrived when they heard the holy name of their master from the mouth of the dying Ajamila, who had certainly chanted without offense because he had chanted in complete anxiety.

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura remarks, hari-kirtanam nisamyapatan, katham-bhutasya bhartur nama bruvatah: the order carriers of Lord Visnu came because Ajamila had chanted the holy name of Narayana. They did not consider why he was chanting. While chanting the name of Narayana, Ajamila was actually thinking of his son, but simply because they heard Ajamila chanting the Lord's name, the order carriers of Lord Visnu, the Visnudutas, immediately came for Ajamila's protection. Hari-kirtana is actually meant to glorify the holy name, form, pastimes and qualities of the Lord. Ajamila, however, did not glorify the form, qualities or paraphernalia of the Lord; he simply chanted the holy name. Nevertheless, that chanting was sufficient to cleanse him of all sinful activities. As soon as the Visnudutas heard their master's name being chanted, they immediately came. In this regard Srila Vijayadhvaja Tirtha remarks: anena putra-sneham antarena pracinadrsta-balad udbhutaya bhaktya bhagavan-nama-sankirtanam krtam iti jnayate. "Ajamila chanted the name of Narayana because of his excessive attachment to his son. Nevertheless, because of his past good fortune in having rendered devotional service to Narayana, he apparently chanted the holy name in full devotional service and without offenses."

TEXT 31

TEXT

vikarsato 'ntar hrdayad

dasi-patim ajamilam

yama-presyan visnuduta

varayam asur ojasa

SYNONYMS

vikarsatah--snatching; antah hrdayat--from within the heart; dasi-patim--the husband of the prostitute; ajamilam--Ajamila; yama-presyan--the messengers of Yamaraja; visnu-dutah--the order carriers of Lord Visnu; varayam asuh--forbade; ojasa--with resounding voices.

TRANSLATION

The order carriers of Yamaraja were snatching the soul from the core of the heart of Ajamila, the husband of the prostitute, but with resounding voices the messengers of Lord Visnu, the Visnudutas, forbade them to do so.

PURPORT

A Vaisnava, one who has surrendered to the lotus feet of Lord Visnu, is always protected by Lord Visnu's order carriers. Because Ajamila had chanted the holy name of Narayana, the Visnudutas not only immediately arrived on the spot but also at once ordered the Yamadutas not to touch him. By speaking with resounding voices, the Visnudutas threatened to punish the Yamadutas if they continued trying to snatch Ajamila's soul from his heart. The order carriers of Yamaraja have jurisdiction over all sinful living entities, but the messengers of Lord Visnu, the Visnudutas, are capable of punishing anyone, including Yamaraja, if he wrongs a Vaisnava.

Materialistic scientists do not know where to find the soul within the body with their material instruments, but this verse clearly explains that the soul is within the core of the heart (hrdaya); it is from the heart that the Yamadutas were extracting the soul of Ajamila. Similarly, we learn that the Supersoul, Lord Visnu, is also situated within the heart (isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati). In the Upanisads it is said that the Supersoul and the individual soul are living in the same tree of the body as two friendly birds. The Supersoul is said to be friendly because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is so kind to the original soul that when the original soul transmigrates from one body to another, the Lord goes with him. Furthermore, according to the desire and karma of the individual soul, the Lord, through the agency of maya, creates another body for him.

The heart of the body is a mechanical arrangement. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (18.61):

isvarah sarva-bhutanam

hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati

bhramayan sarva-bhutani

yantrarudhani mayaya

"The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy." Yantra means a machine, such as an automobile. The driver of the machine of the body is the individual soul, who is also its director or proprietor, but the supreme proprietor is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One's body is created through the agency of maya (karmana daiva-netrena), and according to one's activities in this life, another vehicle is created, again under the supervision of daivi maya (daivi hy esa guna-mayi mama maya duratyaya). At the appropriate time, one's next body is immediately chosen, and both the individual soul and the Supersoul transfer to that particular bodily machine. This is the process of transmigration. During transmigration from one body to the next, the soul is taken away by the order carriers of Yamaraja and put into a particular type of hellish life (naraka) in order to become accustomed to the condition in which he will live in his next body.

TEXT 32

TEXT

ucur nisedhitas tams te

vaivasvata-purahsarah

ke yuyam pratiseddharo

dharma-rajasya sasanam

SYNONYMS

ucuh--replied; nisedhitah--being forbidden; tan--to the order carriers of Lord Visnu; te--they; vaivasvata--of Yamaraja; purah-sarah--the assistants or messengers; ke--who; yuyam--all of you; pratised-dharah--who are opposing; dharma-rajasya--of the king of religious principles, Yamaraja; sasanam--the ruling jurisdiction.

TRANSLATION

When the order carriers of Yamaraja, the son of the sun-god, were thus forbidden, they replied: Who are you, sirs, that have the audacity to challenge the jurisdiction of Yamaraja?

PURPORT

According to the sinful activities of Ajamila, he was within the jurisdiction of Yamaraja, the supreme judge appointed to consider the sins of the living entities. When forbidden to touch Ajamila, the order carriers of Yamaraja were surprised because they had never been hindered in the execution of their duty by anyone within the three worlds.

TEXT 33

TEXT

kasya va kuta ayatah

kasmad asya nisedhatha

kim deva upadeva ya

yuyam kim siddha-sattamah

SYNONYMS

kasya--whose servants; va--or; kutah--from where; ayatah--have you come; kasmat--what is the reason; asya--(the taking away) of this Ajamila; nisedhatha--are you forbidding; kim--whether; devah--demigods; upadevah--sub-demigods; yah--who; yuyam--all of you; kim--whether; siddha-sat-tamah--the best of the perfect beings, the pure devotees.

TRANSLATION

Dear sirs, whose servants are you, where have you come from, and why are you forbidding us to touch the body of Ajamila? Are you demigods from the heavenly planets, are you sub-demigods, or are you the best of devotees?

PURPORT

The most significant word used in this verse is siddha-sattamah, which means "the best of the perfect." In Bhagavad-gita (7.3) it is said, manusyanam sahasresu kascid yatati siddhaye: out of millions of persons, one may try to become siddha, perfect--or, in other words, self-realized. A self-realized person knows that he is not the body but a spiritual soul (aham brahmasmi). At the present moment practically everyone is unaware of this fact, but one who understands this has attained perfection and is therefore called siddha. When one understands that the soul is part and parcel of the supreme soul and one thus engages in the devotional service of the supreme soul, one becomes siddha-sat-tama. One is then eligible to live in the Vaikuntha planets or Krsnaloka. The word siddha-sattama, therefore, refers to a liberated, pure devotee.

Since the Yamadutas are servants of Yamaraja, who is also one of the siddha-sattamas, they knew that a siddha-sattama is above the demigods and sub-demigods and, indeed, above all the living entities within this material world. The Yamadutas therefore inquired why the Visnudutas were present where a sinful man was going to die.

It should also be noted that Ajamila was not yet dead, for the Yamadutas were trying to snatch the soul from his heart. They could not take the soul, however, and therefore Ajamila was not yet dead. This will be revealed in later verses. Ajamila was simply in an unconscious state when the argument was in progress between the Yamadutas and the Visnudutas. The conclusion of the argument was to be a decision regarding who would claim the soul of Ajamila.

TEXTS 34-36

TEXT

sarve padma-palasaksah

pita-kauseya-vasasah

kiritinah kundalino

lasat-puskara-malinah

sarve ca nutna-vayasah

sarve caru-caturbhujah

dhanur-nisangasi-gada-

sankha-cakrambuja-sriyah

diso vitimiralokah

kurvantah svena tejasa

kim artham dharma-palasya

kinkaran no nisedhatha

SYNONYMS

sarve--all of you; padma-palasa-aksah--with eyes like the petals of a lotus flower; pita--yellow; kauseya--silk; vasasah--wearing garments; kiritinah--with helmets; kundalinah--with earrings; lasat--glittering; puskara-malinah--with a garland of lotus flowers; sarve--all of you; ca--also; nutna-vayasah--very youthful; sarve--all of you; caru--very beautiful; catuh-bhujah--with four arms; dhanuh--bow; nisanga--quiver of arrows; asi--sword; gada--club; sankha--conchshell; cakra--disc; ambuja--lotus flower; sriyah--decorated with; disah--all directions; vitimira--without darkness; alokah--extraordinary illumination; kurvantah--exhibiting; svena--by your own; tejasa--effulgence; kim artham--what is the purpose; dharma-palasya--of Yamaraja, the maintainer of religious principles; kinkaran--servants; nah--us; nisedhatha--you are forbidding.

TRANSLATION

The order carriers of Yamaraja said: Your eyes are just like the petals of lotus flowers. Dressed in yellow silken garments, decorated with garlands of lotuses, and wearing very attractive helmets on your heads and earrings on your ears, you all appear fresh and youthful. Your four long arms are decorated with bows and quivers of arrows and with swords, clubs, conchshells, discs and lotus flowers. Your effulgence has dissipated the darkness of this place with extraordinary illumination. Now, sirs, why are you obstructing us?

PURPORT

Before even being introduced to a foreigner, one becomes acquainted with him through his dress, bodily features and behavior and can thus understand his position. Therefore when the Yamadutas saw the Visnudutas for the first time, they were surprised. They said, "By your bodily features you appear to be very exalted gentlemen, and you have such celestial power that you have dissipated the darkness of this material world with your own effulgences. Why then should you endeavor to stop us from executing our duty?" It will be explained that the Yamadutas, the order carriers of Yamaraja, mistakenly considered Ajamila sinful. They did not know that although he was sinful throughout his entire life, he was purified by constantly chanting the holy name of Narayana. In other words, unless one is a Vaisnava, one cannot understand the activities of a Vaisnava.

The dress and bodily features of the residents of Vaikunthaloka are properly described in these verses. The residents of Vaikuntha, who are decorated with garlands and yellow silken garments, have four arms holding various weapons. Thus they conspicuously resemble Lord Visnu. They have the same bodily features as Narayana because they have attained the liberation of sarupya, but they nevertheless act as servants. All the residents of Vaikunthaloka know perfectly well that their master is Narayana, or Krsna, and that they are all His servants. They are all self-realized souls who are nitya-mukta, everlastingly liberated. Although they could conceivably declare themselves Narayana or Visnu, they never do so; they always remain Krsna conscious and serve the Lord faithfully. Such is the atmosphere of Vaikunthaloka. Similarly, one who learns the faithful service of Lord Krsna through the Krsna consciousness movement will always remain in Vaikunthaloka and have nothing to do with the material world.

TEXT 37

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

ity ukte yamadutais te

vasudevokta-karinah

tan pratyucuh prahasyedam

megha-nirhradaya gira

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; iti--thus; ukte--being addressed; yamadutaih--by the messengers of Yamaraja; te--they; vasudeva-ukta-karinah--who are always ready to execute the orders of Lord Vasudeva (being personal associates of Lord Visnu who have obtained the liberation of salokya); tan--unto them; pratyucuh--replied; prahasya--smiling; idam--this; megha-nirhradaya--resounding like a rumbling cloud; gira--with voices.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Being thus addressed by the messengers of Yamaraja, the servants of Vasudeva smiled and spoke the following words in voices as deep as the sound of rumbling clouds.

PURPORT

The Yamadutas were surprised to see that the Visnudutas, although polite, were hindering the rule of Yamaraja. Similarly, the Visnudutas were also surprised that the Yamadutas, although claiming to be servants of Yamaraja, the supreme judge of religious principles, were unaware of the principles of religious action. Thus the Visnudutas smiled, thinking, "What is this nonsense they are speaking? If they are actually servants of Yamaraja they should know that Ajamila is not a suitable candidate for them to carry off."

TEXT 38

TEXT

sri-visnuduta ucuh

yuyam vai dharma-rajasya

yadi nirdesa-karinah

bruta dharmasya nas tattvam

yac cadharmasya laksanam

SYNONYMS

sri-visnudutah ucuh--the blessed messengers of Lord Visnu spoke; yuyam--all of you; vai--indeed; dharma-rajasya--of King Yamaraja, who knows the religious principles; yadi--if; nirdesa-karinah--order carriers; bruta--just speak; dharmasya--of religious principles; nah--unto us; tattvam--the truth; yat--that which; ca--also; adharmasya--of impious activities; laksanam--symptoms.

TRANSLATION

The blessed messengers of Lord Visnu, the Visnudutas, said: If you are actually servants of Yamaraja, you must explain to us the meaning of religious principles and the symptoms of irreligion.

PURPORT

This inquiry by the Visnudutas to the Yamadutas is most important. A servant must know the instructions of his master. The servants of Yamaraja claimed to be carrying out his orders, and therefore the Visnudutas very intelligently asked them to explain the symptoms of religious and irreligious principles. A Vaisnava knows these principles perfectly well because he is well acquainted with the instructions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Supreme Lord says, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja: "Give up all other varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me." Therefore surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the actual principle of religion. Those who have surrendered to the principles of material nature instead of to Krsna are all impious, regardless of their material position. Unaware of the principles of religion, they do not surrender to Krsna, and therefore they are considered sinful rascals, the lowest of men, and fools bereft of all knowledge. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (7.15):

na mam duskrtino mudhah

prapadyante naradhamah

mayayapahrta-jnana

asuram bhavam asritah

"Those miscreants who are grossly foolish, lowest among mankind, whose knowledge is stolen by illusion, and who partake of the atheistic nature of demons, do not surrender unto Me." One who has not surrendered to Krsna does not know the true principle of religion; otherwise he would have surrendered.

The question posed by the Visnudutas was very suitable. One who represents someone else must fully know that person's mission. The devotees in the Krsna consciousness movement must therefore be fully aware of the mission of Krsna and Lord Caitanya; otherwise they will be considered foolish. All devotees, especially preachers, must know the philosophy of Krsna consciousness so as not to be embarrassed and insulted when they preach.

TEXT 39

TEXT

katham svid dhriyate dandah

kim vasya sthanam ipsitam

dandyah kim karinah sarve

aho svit katicin nrnam

SYNONYMS

katham svit--by which means; dhriyate--is imposed; dandah--punishment; kim--what; va--or; asya--of this; sthanam--the place; ipsitam--desirable; dandyah--punishable; kim--whether; karinah--fruitive actors; sarve--all; aho svit--or whether; katicit--some; nrnam--of the human beings.

TRANSLATION

What is the process of punishing others? Who are the actual candidates for punishment? Are all karmis engaged in fruitive activities punishable, or only some of them?

PURPORT

One who has the power to punish others should not punish everyone. There are innumerable living entities, the majority of whom are in the spiritual world and are nitya-mukta, everlastingly liberated. There is no question of judging these liberated living beings. Only a small fraction of the living entities, perhaps one fourth, are in the material world. And the major portion of the living entities in the material world--8,000,000 of the 8,400,000 forms of life--are lower than human beings. They are not punishable, for under the laws of material nature they are automatically evolving. Human beings, who are advanced in consciousness, are responsible, but not all of them are punishable. Those engaged in advanced pious activities are beyond punishment. Only those who engage in sinful activities are punishable. Therefore the Visnudutas particularly inquired about who is punishable and why Yamaraja has been designated to discriminate between who is punishable and who is not. How is one to be judged? What is the basic principle of authority? These are the questions raised by the Visnudutas.

TEXT 40

TEXT

yamaduta ucuh

veda-pranihito dharmo

hy adharmas tad-viparyayah

vedo narayanah saksat

svayambhur iti susruma

SYNONYMS

yamadutah ucuh--the order carriers of Yamaraja said; veda--by the four Vedas (Sama, Yajur, Rg and Atharva); pranihitah--prescribed; dharmah--religious principles; hi--indeed; adharmah--irreligious principles; tat-viparyayah--the opposite of that (that which is not supported by Vedic injunctions); vedah--the Vedas, books of knowledge; narayanah saksat--directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead (being the words of Narayana); svayam-bhuh--self-born, self-sufficient (appearing only from the breath of Narayana and not being learned from anyone else); iti--thus; susruma--we have heard.

TRANSLATION

The Yamadutas replied: That which is prescribed in the Vedas constitutes dharma, the religious principles, and the opposite of that is irreligion. The Vedas are directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, and are self-born. This we have heard from Yamaraja.

PURPORT

The servants of Yamaraja replied quite properly. They did not manufacture principles of religion or irreligion. Instead, they explained what they had heard from the authority Yamaraja. Mahajano yena gatah sa panthah: one should follow the mahajana, the authorized person. Yamaraja is one of twelve authorities. Therefore the servants of Yamaraja, the Yamadutas, replied with perfect clarity when they said susruma ("we have heard"). The members of modern civilization manufacture defective religious principles through speculative concoction. This is not dharma. They do not know what is dharma and what is adharma. Therefore, as stated in the beginning of Srimad-Bhagavatam, dharmah projjhita-kaitavo 'tra: dharma not supported by the Vedas is rejected from srimad-bhagavata-dharma. Bhagavata-dharma comprises only that which is given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Bhagavata-dharma is sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja: one must accept the authority of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and surrender to Him and whatever He says. That is dharma. Arjuna, for example, thinking that violence was adharma, was declining to fight, but Krsna urged him to fight. Arjuna abided by the orders of Krsna, and therefore he is actually a dharmi because the order of Krsna is dharma. Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (15.15), vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah: "The real purpose of veda, knowledge, is to know Me." One who knows Krsna perfectly is liberated. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (4.9):

janma karma ca me divyam

evam yo vetti tattvatah

tyaktva deham punar janma

naiti mam eti so 'rjuna

"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." One who understands Krsna and abides by His order is a candidate for returning home, back to Godhead. It may be concluded that dharma, religion, refers to that which is ordered in the Vedas, and adharma, irreligion, refers to that which is not supported in the Vedas.

Dharma is not actually manufactured by Narayana. As stated in the Vedas, asya mahato bhutasya nisvasitam etad yad rg-vedah iti: the injunctions of dharma emanate from the breathing of Narayana, the supreme living entity. Narayana exists eternally and breathes eternally, and therefore dharma, the injunctions of Narayana, also exist eternally. Srila Madhvacarya, the original acarya for those who belong to the Madhva-Gaudiya-sampradaya, says:

vedanam prathamo vakta

harir eva yato vibhuh

ato visnv-atmaka veda

ity ahur veda-vadinah

The transcendental words of the Vedas emanated from the mouth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore the Vedic principles should be understood to be Vaisnava principles because Visnu is the origin of the Vedas. The Vedas contain nothing besides the instructions of Visnu, and one who follows the Vedic principles is a Vaisnava. The Vaisnava is not a member of a manufactured community of this material world. A Vaisnava is a real knower of the Vedas, as confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah).

TEXT 41

TEXT

yena sva-dhamny ami bhava

rajah-sattva-tamomayah

guna-nama-kriya-rupair

vibhavyante yatha-tatham

SYNONYMS

yena--by whom (Narayana); sva-dhamni--although in His own place, the spiritual world; ami--all these; bhavah--manifestations; rajah-sattva-tamah-mayah--created by the three modes of material nature (passion, goodness and ignorance); guna--qualities; nama--names; kriya--activities; rupaih--and with forms; vibhavyante--are variously manifested; yatha-tatham--exactly to the right point.

TRANSLATION

The supreme cause of all causes, Narayana, is situated in His own abode in the spiritual world, but nevertheless He controls the entire cosmic manifestation according to the three modes of material nature--sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna. In this way all living entities are awarded different qualities, different names [such as brahmana, ksatriya and vaisya], different duties according to the varnasrama institution, and different forms. Thus Narayana is the cause of the entire cosmic manifestation.

PURPORT

The Vedas inform us:

na tasya karyam karanam ca vidyate

na tat-samas cabhyadhikas ca drsyate

parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate

svabhaviki jnana-bala-kriya ca

(Svetasvatara Upanisad 6.8)

Narayana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is almighty, omnipotent. He has multifarious energies, and therefore He is able to remain in His own abode and without endeavor supervise and manipulate the entire cosmic manifestation through the interaction of the three modes of material nature--sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna. These interactions create different forms, bodies, activities and changes, which all occur perfectly. Because the Lord is perfect, everything works as if He were directly supervising and taking part in it. Atheistic men, however, being covered by the three modes of material nature, cannot see Narayana to be the supreme cause behind all activities. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (7.13):

tribhir gunamayair bhavair

ebhih sarvam idam jagat

mohitam nabhijanati

mam ebhyah param avyayam

"Deluded by the three modes, the whole world does not know Me, who am above the modes and inexhaustible." Because unintelligent agnostics are mohita, illusioned by the three modes of material nature, they cannot understand that Narayana, Krsna, is the supreme cause of all activities. As stated in Brahma-samhita (5.1):

isvarah paramah krsnah

sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah

anadir adir govindah

sarva-karana-karanam

"Krsna, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes."

TEXT 42

TEXT

suryo 'gnih kham marud devah

somah sandhyahani disah

kam kuh svayam dharma iti

hy ete daihyasya saksinah

SYNONYMS

suryah--the sun-god; agnih--the fire; kham--the sky; marut--the air; devah--the demigods; somah--the moon; sandhya--evening; ahani--the day and night; disah--the directions; kam--the water; kuh--the land; svayam--personally; dharmah--Yamaraja or the Supersoul; iti--thus; hi--indeed; ete--all of these; daihyasya--of a living entity embodied in the material elements; saksinah--witnesses.

TRANSLATION

The sun, fire, sky, air, demigods, moon, evening, day, night, directions, water, land and Supersoul Himself all witness the activities of the living entity.

PURPORT

The members of some religious sects, especially Christians, do not believe in the reactions of karma. We once had a discussion with a learned Christian professor who argued that although people are generally punished after the witnesses of their misdeeds are examined, where are the witnesses responsible for one's suffering the reactions of past karma? To such a person the answer by the Yamadutas is given here. A conditioned soul thinks that he is working stealthily and that no one can see his sinful activities, but we can understand from the sastras that there are many witnesses, including the sun, fire, sky, air, moon, demigods, evening, day, night, directions, water, land and the Supersoul Himself, who sits with the individual soul within his heart. Where is the dearth of witnesses? The witnesses and the Supreme Lord both exist, and therefore so many living entities are elevated to higher planetary systems or degraded to lower planetary systems, including the hellish planets. There are no discrepancies, for everything is arranged perfectly by the management of the Supreme God (svabhaviki jnana-bala-kriya ca). The witnesses mentioned in this verse are also mentioned in other Vedic literatures:

aditya-candrav anilo 'nalas ca

dyaur bhumir apo hrdayam yamas ca

ahas ca ratris ca ubhe ca sandhye

dharmo 'pi janati narasya vrttam

TEXT 43

TEXT

etair adharmo vijnatah

sthanam dandasya yujyate

sarve karmanurodhena

dandam arhanti karinah

SYNONYMS

etaih--by all these (witnesses, beginning from the sun-god); adharmah--deviation from the regulative principles; vijnatah--is known; sthanam--the proper place; dandasya--of punishment; yujyate--is accepted as; sarve--all; karma-anurodhena--with consideration of the activities performed; dandam--punishment; arhanti--deserve; karinah--the performers of sinful activities.

TRANSLATION

The candidates for punishment are those who are confirmed by these many witnesses to have deviated from their prescribed regulative duties. Everyone engaged in fruitive activities is suitable to be subjected to punishment according to his sinful acts.

TEXT 44

TEXT

sambhavanti hi bhadrani

viparitani canaghah

karinam guna-sango 'sti

dehavan na hy akarma-krt

SYNONYMS

sambhavanti--there are; hi--indeed; bhadrani--auspicious, pious activities; viparitani--just the opposite (inauspicious, sinful activities); ca--also; anaghah--O sinless inhabitants of Vaikuntha; karinam--of the fruitive workers; guna-sangah--contamination of the three modes of nature; asti--there is; deha-van--anyone who has accepted this material body; na--not; hi--indeed; akarma-krt--without performing action.

TRANSLATION

O inhabitants of Vaikuntha, you are sinless, but those within this material world are all karmis, whether acting piously or impiously. Both kinds of action are possible for them because they are contaminated by the three modes of nature and must act accordingly. One who has accepted a material body cannot be inactive, and sinful action is inevitable for one acting under the modes of material nature. Therefore all the living entities within this material world are punishable.

PURPORT

The difference between human beings and nonhuman beings is that a human is supposed to act according to the direction of the Vedas. Unfortunately, men manufacture their own ways of acting, without reference to the Vedas. Therefore all of them commit sinful actions and are punishable.

TEXT 45

TEXT

yena yavan yathadharmo

dharmo veha samihitah

sa eva tat-phalam bhunkte

tatha tavad amutra vai

SYNONYMS

yena--by which person; yavan--to which extent; yatha--in which manner; adharmah--irreligious activities; dharmah--religious activities; va--or; iha--in this life; samihitah--performed; sah--that person; eva--indeed; tat-phalam--the particular result of that; bhunkte--enjoys or suffers; tatha--in that way; tavat--to that extent; amutra--in the next life; vai--indeed.

TRANSLATION

In proportion to the extent of one's religious or irreligious actions in this life, one must enjoy or suffer the corresponding reactions of his karma in the next.

PURPORT

As stated in Bhagavad-gita (14.18):

urdhvam gacchanti sattva-stha

madhye tisthanti rajasah

jaghanya-guna-vrtti-stha

adho gacchanti tamasah

Those who act in the mode of goodness are promoted to higher planetary systems to become demigods, those who act in an ordinary way and do not commit excessively sinful acts remain within this middle planetary system, and those who perform abominable sinful actions must go down to hellish life.

TEXT 46

TEXT

yatheha deva-pravaras

trai-vidhyam upalabhyate

bhutesu guna-vaicitryat

tathanyatranumiyate

SYNONYMS

yatha--just as; iha--in this life; deva-pravarah--O best of the demigods; trai-vidhyam--three kinds of attributes; upalabhyate--are achieved; bhutesu--among all living entities; guna-vaicitryat--because of the diversity of the contamination by the three modes of nature; tatha--similarly; anyatra--in other places; anumiyate--it is inferred.

TRANSLATION

O best of the demigods, we can see three different varieties of life, which are due to the contamination of the three modes of nature. The living entities are thus known as peaceful, restless and foolish; as happy, unhappy or in-between; or as religious, irreligious and semireligious. We can deduce that in the next life these three kinds of material nature will similarly act.

PURPORT

The actions and reactions of the three modes of material nature are visible in this life. For example, some people are very happy, some are very distressed, and some are in mixed happiness and distress. This is the result of past association with the modes of material nature--goodness, passion and ignorance. Since these varieties are visible in this life, we may assume that the living entities, according to their association with the different modes of material nature, will be happy, distressed or between the two in their next lives also. Therefore the best policy is to disassociate oneself from the three modes of material nature and be always transcendental to their contamination. This is possible only when one fully engages in the devotional service of the Lord. As Krsna confirms in Bhagavad-gita (14.26):

mam ca yo 'vyabhicarena

bhakti-yogena sevate

sa gunan samatityaitan

brahma-bhuyaya kalpate

"One who engages in full devotional service, who does not fall down under any circumstance, at once transcends the modes of material nature and thus comes to the spiritual platform." Unless one is fully absorbed in the service of the Lord, one is subject to the contamination of the three modes of material nature and must therefore suffer from distress or mixed happiness and distress.

TEXT 47

TEXT

vartamano 'nyayoh kalo

gunabhijnapako yatha

evam janmanyayor etad

dharmadharma-nidarsanam

SYNONYMS

vartamanah--the present; anyayoh--of the past and future; kalah--time; guna-abhijnapakah--making known the qualities; yatha--just as; evam--thus; janma--birth; anyayoh--of the past and future births; etat--this; dharma--religious principles; adharma--irreligious principles; nidarsanam--indicating.

TRANSLATION

Just as springtime in the present indicates the nature of springtimes in the past and future, so this life of happiness, distress or a mixture of both gives evidence concerning the religious and irreligious activities of one's past and future lives.

PURPORT

Our past and future are not very difficult to understand, for time is under the contamination of the three modes of material nature. As soon as spring arrives, the usual exhibition of various types of fruits and flowers automatically becomes manifest, and therefore we may conclude that spring in the past was adorned with similar fruits and flowers and will be so adorned in the future also. Our repetition of birth and death is taking place within time, and according to the influence of the modes of nature, we are receiving various types of bodies and being subjected to various conditions.

TEXT 48

TEXT

manasaiva pure devah

purva-rupam vipasyati

anumimamsate 'purvam

manasa bhagavan ajah

SYNONYMS

manasa--by the mind; eva--indeed; pure--in his abode, or within everyone's heart like the Supersoul; devah--the demigod Yamaraja (divyatiti devah, one who is always brilliant and illuminated is called deva); purva-rupam--the past religious or irreligious condition; vipasyati--completely observes; anumimamsate--he considers; apurvam--the future condition; manasa--with his mind; bhagavan--who is omnipotent; ajah--as good as Lord Brahma.

TRANSLATION

The omnipotent Yamaraja is as good as Lord Brahma, for while situated in his own abode or in everyone's heart like the Paramatma, he mentally observes the past activities of a living entity and thus understands how the living entity will act in future lives.

PURPORT

One should not consider Yamaraja an ordinary living being. He is as good as Lord Brahma. He has the complete cooperation of the Supreme Lord, who is situated in everyone's heart, and therefore, by the grace of the Supersoul, he can see the past, present and future of a living being from within. The word anumimamsate means that he can decide in consultation with the Supersoul. Anu means "following." The actual decisions concerning the next lives of the living entities are made by the Supersoul, and they are carried out by Yamaraja.

TEXT 49

TEXT

yathajnas tamasa yukta

upaste vyaktam eva hi

na veda purvam aparam

nasta-janma-smrtis tatha

SYNONYMS

yatha--just as; ajnah--an ignorant living being; tamasa--in sleep; yuktah--engaged; upaste--acts according to; vyaktam--a body manifested in a dream; eva--certainly; hi--indeed; na veda--does not know; purvam--the past body; aparam--the next body; nasta--lost; janma-smrtih--the remembrance of birth; tatha--similarly.

TRANSLATION

As a sleeping person acts according to the body manifested in his dreams and accepts it to be himself, so one identifies with his present body, which he acquired because of his past religious or irreligious actions, and is unable to know his past or future lives.

PURPORT

A man engages in sinful activities because he does not know what he did in his past life to get his present materially conditioned body, which is subjected to the threefold miseries. As stated by Rsabhadeva in Srimad-Bhagavatam (5.5.4), nunam pramattah kurute vikarma: a human being who is mad after sense gratification does not hesitate to act sinfully. Yad indriya-pritaya aprnoti: he performs sinful actions simply for sense gratification. Na sadhu manye: this is not good. Yata atmano 'yam asann api klesada asa dehah: because of such sinful actions, one receives another body in which to suffer as he is suffering in his present body because of his past sinful activities.

It should be understood that a person who does not have Vedic knowledge always acts in ignorance of what he has done in the past, what he is doing at the present and how he will suffer in the future. He is completely in darkness. Therefore the Vedic injunction is, tamasi ma: "Don't remain in darkness." Jyotir gama: "Try to go to the light." The light or illumination is Vedic knowledge, which one can understand when he is elevated to the mode of goodness or when he transcends the mode of goodness by engaging in devotional service to the spiritual master and the Supreme Lord. This is described in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.23):

yasya deve para bhaktir

yatha deve tatha gurau

tasyaite kathita hy arthah

prakasante mahatmanah

"Unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord and the spiritual master, all the imports of Vedic knowledge are automatically revealed." The Vedas enjoin, tad-vijnanartham sa gurum evabhigacchet: one must approach a spiritual master who has full knowledge of the Vedas and be faithfully directed by him in order to become a devotee of the Lord. Then the knowledge of the Vedas will be revealed. When the Vedic knowledge is revealed, one need no longer remain in the darkness of material nature.

According to his association with the material modes of nature--goodness, passion and ignorance--a living entity gets a particular type of body. The example of one who associates with the mode of goodness is a qualified brahmana. Such a brahmana knows past, present and future because he consults the Vedic literature and sees through the eyes of sastra (sastra-caksuh). He can understand what his past life was, why be is in the present body, and how he can obtain liberation from the clutches of maya and not accept another material body. This is all possible when one is situated in the mode of goodness. Generally, however, the living entities are engrossed in the modes of passion and ignorance.

In any case, one receives an inferior or superior body at the discretion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Paramatma. As stated in the previous verse:

manasaiva pure devah

purva-rupam vipasyati

anumimamsate 'purvam

manasa bhagavan ajah

Everything depends on bhagavan, or ajah, the unborn. Why doesn't one please Bhagavan to receive a better body? The answer is ajnas tamasa: because of gross ignorance. One who is in complete darkness cannot know what his past life was or what his next life will be; he is simply interested in his present body. Even though he has a human body, a person in the mode of ignorance and interested only in his present body is like an animal, for an animal, being covered by ignorance, thinks that the ultimate goal of life and happiness is to eat as much as possible. A human being must be educated to understand his past life and how he can endeavor for a better life in the future. There is even a book, called Bhrgu-samhita, which reveals information about one's past, present and future lives according to astrological calculations. Somehow or other one must be enlightened about his past, present and future. One who is interested only in his present body and who tries to enjoy his senses to the fullest extent is understood to be engrossed in the mode of ignorance. His future is very, very dark. Indeed, the future is always dark for one who is grossly covered by ignorance. Especially in this age, human society is covered by the mode of ignorance, and therefore everyone thinks his present body to be everything, without consideration of the past or future.

TEXT 50

TEXT

pancabhih kurute svarthan

panca vedatha pancabhih

ekas tu sodasena trin

svayam saptadaso 'snute

SYNONYMS

pancabhih--with the five working senses (voice, arms, legs, anus and genitals); kurute--performs; sva-arthan--his desired interests; panca--the five objects of the senses (sound, form, touch, aroma and taste); veda--knows; atha--thus; pancabhih--by the five senses of perception (hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting and feeling); ekah--the one; tu--but; sodasena--by these fifteen items and the mind; trin--the three categories of experience (happiness, distress and a mixture of both); svayam--he, the living entity himself; saptadasah--the seventeenth item; asnute--enjoys.

TRANSLATION

Above the five senses of perception, the five working senses and the five objects of the senses is the mind, which is the sixteenth element. Above the mind is the seventeenth element, the soul, the living being himself, who, in cooperation with the other sixteen, enjoys the material world alone. The living being enjoys three kinds of situations, namely happy, distressful and mixed.

PURPORT

Everyone engages in work with his hands, legs and other senses just to achieve a certain goal according to his concocted ideas. One tries to enjoy the five sense objects, namely form, sound, taste, aroma and touch, not knowing the actual goal of life, which is to satisfy the Supreme Lord. Because of disobeying the Supreme Lord, one is put into material conditions, and he then tries to improve his situation in a concocted way, not desiring to follow the instructions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Nevertheless, the Supreme Lord is so kind that He comes Himself to instruct the bewildered living entity how to act obediently and then gradually return home, back to Godhead, where he can attain an eternal, peaceful life of bliss and knowledge. The living entity has a body, which is a very complicated combination of the material elements, and with this body he struggles alone, as indicated in this verse by the words ekas tu. For example, if one is struggling in the ocean, he must swim through it alone. Although many other men and aquatics are swimming in the ocean, he must take care of himself because no one else will help him. Therefore this verse indicates that the seventeenth item, the soul, must work alone. Although he tries to create society, friendship and love, no one will be able to help him but Krsna, the Supreme Lord. Therefore his only concern should be how to satisfy Krsna. That is also what Krsna wants (sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja). People bewildered by material conditions try to be united, but although they strive for unity among men and nations, all their attempts are futile. Everyone must struggle alone for existence with the many elements of nature. Therefore one's only hope, as Krsna advises, is to surrender to Him, for He can help one become free from the ocean of nescience. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu therefore prayed:

ayi nanda-tanuja kinkaram

patitam mam visame bhavambudhau

krpaya tava pada-pankaja-

sthita-dhuli-sadrsam vicintaya

"O Krsna, beloved son of Nanda Maharaja, I am Your eternal servant, but somehow or other I have fallen into this ocean of nescience, and although I am struggling very hard, there is no way I can save myself. If You kindly pick me up and fix me as one of the particles of dust at Your lotus feet, that will save me."

In a similar way, Bhaktivinoda Thakura sang:

anadi karama-phale, padi' bhavarnava-jale,

taribare na dekhi upaya

"My dear Lord, I cannot remember when I somehow or other fell into this ocean of nescience, and now I can find no way to rescue myself." We should remember that everyone is responsible for his own life. If an individual becomes a pure devotee of Krsna, he is then delivered from the ocean of nescience.

TEXT 51

TEXT

tad etat sodasa-kalam

lingam sakti-trayam mahat

dhatte 'nusamsrtim pumsi

harsa-soka-bhayartidam

SYNONYMS

tat--therefore; etat--this; sodasa-kalam--made of sixteen parts (namely the ten senses, the mind and the five sense objects); lingam--the subtle body; sakti-trayam--the effect of the three modes of material nature; mahat--insurmountable; dhatte--gives; anusamsrtim--almost perpetual rotation and transmigration in different types of bodies; pumsi--unto the living entity; harsa--jubilation; soka--lamentation; bhaya--fear; arti--misery; dam--which gives.

TRANSLATION

The subtle body is endowed with sixteen parts--the five knowledge-acquiring senses, the five working senses, the five objects of sense gratification, and the mind. This subtle body is an effect of the three modes of material nature. It is composed of insurmountably strong desires, and therefore it causes the living entity to transmigrate from one body to another in human life, animal life and life as a demigod. When the living entity gets the body of a demigod, he is certainly very jubilant, when he gets a human body he is always in lamentation, and when he gets the body of an animal, he is always afraid. In all conditions, however, he is actually miserable. His miserable condition is called samsrti, or transmigration in material life.

PURPORT

The sum and substance of material conditional life is explained in this verse. The living entity, the seventeenth element, is struggling alone, life after life. This struggle is called samsrti, or material conditional life. In Bhagavad-gita it is said that the force of material nature is insurmountably strong (daivi hy esa guna-mayi mama maya duratyaya). Material nature harasses the living entity in different bodies, but if the living entity surrenders to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he becomes free from this entanglement, as confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (mam eva ye prapadyante mayam etam taranti te). Thus his life becomes successful.

TEXT 52

TEXT

dehy ajno 'jita-sad-vargo

necchan karmani karyate

kosakara ivatmanam

karmanacchadya muhyati

SYNONYMS

dehi--the embodied soul; ajnah--without perfect knowledge; ajita-sat-vargah--who has not controlled the senses of perception and the mind; na icchan--without desiring; karmani--activities for material benefit; karyate--is caused to perform; kosakarah--the silkworm; iva--like; atmanam--himself; karmana--by fruitive activities; acchadya--covering; muhyati--becomes bewildered.

TRANSLATION

The foolish embodied living entity, inept at controlling his senses and mind, is forced to act according to the influence of the modes of material nature, against his desires. He is like a silkworm that uses its own saliva to create a cocoon and then becomes trapped in it, with no possibility of getting out. The living entity traps himself in a network of his own fruitive activities and then can find no way to release himself. Thus he is always bewildered, and repeatedly he dies.

PURPORT

As already explained, the influence of the modes of nature is very strong. The living entity entangled in different types of fruitive activity is like a silkworm trapped in a cocoon. Getting free is very difficult unless he is helped by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TEXT 53

TEXT

na hi kascit ksanam api

jatu tisthaty akarma-krt

karyate hy avasah karma

gunaih svabhavikair balat

SYNONYMS

na--not; hi--indeed; kascit--anyone; ksanam api--even for a moment; jatu--at any time; tisthati--remains; akarma-krt--without doing anything; karyate--he is caused to perform; hi--indeed; avasah--automatically; karma--fruitive activities; gunaih--by the three modes of nature; svabhavikaih--which are produced by his own tendencies in previous lives; balat--by force.

TRANSLATION

Not a single living entity can remain unengaged even for a moment. One must act by his natural tendency according to the three modes of material nature because this natural tendency forcibly makes him work in a particular way.

PURPORT

The svabhavika, or one's natural tendency, is the most important factor in action. One's natural tendency is to serve because a living entity is an eternal servant of God. The living entity wants to serve, but because of his forgetfulness of his relationship with the Supreme Lord, he serves under the modes of material nature and manufactures various modes of service, such as socialism, humanitarianism and altruism. However, one should be enlightened in the tenets of Bhagavad-gita and accept the instruction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead that one give up all natural tendencies for material service under different names and take to the service of the Lord. One's original natural tendency is to act in Krsna consciousness because one's real nature is spiritual. The duty of a human being is to understand that since he is essentially spirit, he must abide by the spiritual tendency and not be carried away by material tendencies. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura has therefore sung:

(miche) mayara vase, yaccha bhese',

khaccha habudubu, bhai

"My dear brothers, you are being carried away by the waves of material energy and are suffering in many miserable conditions. Sometimes you are drowning in the waves of material nature, and sometimes you are tossed like a swimmer struggling in the ocean." As confirmed by Bhaktivinoda Thakura, this tendency to be battered by the waves of maya can be changed to one's original, natural tendency, which is spiritual, when the living entity comes to understand that he is eternally krsna-dasa, a servant of God, Krsna.

(jiva) krsna-dasa, ei visvasa,

karle ta' ara duhkha nai

If instead of serving maya under different names, one turns his service attitude toward the Supreme Lord, he is then safe, and there is no more difficulty. If one returns to his original, natural tendency in the human form of life by understanding the perfect knowledge given by Krsna Himself in the Vedic literature, one's life is successful.

TEXT 54

TEXT

labdhva nimittam avyaktam

vyaktavyaktam bhavaty uta

yatha-yoni yatha-bijam

svabhavena baliyasa

SYNONYMS

labdhva--having gotten; nimittam--the cause; avyaktam--unseen or unknown to the person; vyakta-avyaktam--manifested and unmanifested, or the gross body and the subtle body; bhavati--come into being; uta--certainly; yatha-yoni--exactly like the mother; yatha-bijam--exactly like the father; sva-bhavena--by the natural tendency; baliyasa--which is very powerful.

TRANSLATION

The fruitive activities a living being performs, whether pious or impious, are the unseen cause for the fulfillment of his desires. This unseen cause is the root for the living entity's different bodies. Because of his intense desire, the living entity takes birth in a particular family and receives a body which is either like that of his mother or like that of his father. The gross and subtle bodies are created according to his desire.

PURPORT

The gross body is a product of the subtle body. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (8.6):

yam yam vapi smaran bhavam

tyajaty ante kalevaram

tam tam evaiti kaunteya

sada tad-bhava-bhavitah

"Whatever state of being one remembers when he quits his body, that state he will attain without fail." The atmosphere of the subtle body at the time of death is created by the activities of the gross body. Thus the gross body acts during one's lifetime, and the subtle body acts at the time of death. The subtle body, which is called linga, the body of desire, is the background for the development of a particular type of gross body, which is either like that of one's mother or like that of one's father. According to the Rg Veda, if at the time of sex the secretions of the mother are more profuse than those of the father, the child will receive a female body, and if the secretions of the father are more profuse than those of the mother, the child will receive a male body. These are the subtle laws of nature, which act according to the desire of the living entity. If a human being is taught to change his subtle body by developing a consciousness of Krsna, at the time of death the subtle body will create a gross body in which he will be a devotee of Krsna, or if he is still more perfect, he will not take another material body but will immediately get a spiritual body and thus return home, back to Godhead. This is the process of the transmigration of the soul. Therefore instead of trying to unite human society through pacts for sense gratification that can never be achieved, it is clearly desirable to teach people how to become Krsna conscious and return home, back to Godhead. This is true now and, indeed, at any time.

TEXT 55

TEXT

esa prakrti-sangena

purusasya viparyayah

asit sa eva na cirad

isa-sangad viliyate

SYNONYMS

esah--this; prakrti-sangena--because of association with the material nature; purusasya--of the living entity; viparyayah--a situation of forgetfulness or an awkward position; asit--came to be; sah--that position; eva--indeed; na--not; cirat--taking a long time; isa-sangat--from the association of the Supreme Lord; viliyate--is vanquished.

TRANSLATION

Since the living entity is associated with material nature, he is in an awkward position, but if in the human form of life he is taught how to associate with the Supreme Personality of Godhead or His devotee, this position can be overcome.

PURPORT

The word prakrti means material nature, and purusa may also refer to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If one wants to continue his association with prakrti, the female energy of Krsna, and be separated from Krsna by the illusion that he is able to enjoy prakrti, he must continue in his conditional life. If he changes his consciousness, however, and associates with the supreme, original person (purusam sasvatam), or with His associates, he can get out of the entanglement of material nature. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (4.9), janma karma ca me divyam evam yo vetti tattvatah: one must simply understand the Supreme Person, Krsna, in terms of His form, name, activities and pastimes. This will keep one always in the association of Krsna. Tyaktva deham punar janma naiti mam eti so'rjuna: thus after giving up his gross material body, one accepts not another gross body but a spiritual body in which to return home, back to Godhead. Thus one ends the tribulation caused by his association with the material energy. In summary, the living entity is an eternal servant of God, but he comes to the material world and is bound by material conditions because of his desire to lord it over matter. Liberation means giving up this false consciousness and reviving one's original service to the Lord. This return to one's original life is called mukti, as confirmed in Srimad-Bhagavatam (muktir hitvanyatha rupam svarupena vyavasthitih).

TEXTS 56-57

TEXT

ayam hi sruta-sampannah

sila-vrtta-gunalayah

dhrta-vrato mrdur dantah

satya-van mantra-vic chucih

gurv-agny-atithi-vrddhanam

susrusur anahankrtah

sarva-bhuta-suhrt sadhur

mita-vag anasuyakah

SYNONYMS

ayam--this person (known as Ajamila); hi--indeed; sruta-sampannah--well educated in Vedic knowledge; sila--of good character; vrtta--good conduct; guna--and good qualities; alayah--the reservoir; dhrta-vratah--fixed in the execution of the Vedic injunctions; mrduh--very mild; dantah--completely controlling the mind and senses; satya-vak--always truthful; mantra-vit--knowing how to chant the Vedic hymns; sucih--always very neat and clean; guru--the spiritual master; agni--the fire-god; atithi--guests; vrddhanam--and of the old household members; susrusuh--very respectfully engaged in the service; anahankrtah--without pride or false prestige; sarva-bhuta-suhrt--friendly to all living entities; sadhuh--well behaved (no one could find any fault in his character); mita-vak--talking with great care not to speak nonsense; anasuyakah--not envious.

TRANSLATION

In the beginning this brahmana named Ajamila studied all the Vedic literatures. He was a reservoir of good character, good conduct and good qualities. Firmly established in executing all the Vedic injunctions, he was very mild and gentle, and he kept his mind and senses under control. Furthermore, he was always truthful, he knew how to chant the Vedic mantras, and he was also very pure. Ajamila was very respectful to his spiritual master, the fire-god, guests, and the elderly members of his household. Indeed, he was free from false prestige. He was upright, benevolent to all living entities, and well behaved. He would never speak nonsense or envy anyone.

PURPORT

The order carriers of Yamaraja, the Yamadutas, are explaining the factual position of piety and impiety and how a living entity is entangled in this material world. Describing the history of Ajamila's life, the Yamadutas relate that in the beginning he was a learned scholar of the Vedic literature. He was well behaved, neat and clean, and very kind to everyone. In fact, he had all good qualities. In other words, he was like a perfect brahmana. A brahmana is expected to be perfectly pious, to follow all the regulative principles and to have all good qualities. The symptoms of piety are explained in these verses. Srila Viraraghava Acarya comments that dhrta-vrata means dhrtam vratam stri-sanga-rahityatmaka-brahmacarya-rupam. In other words, Ajamila followed the rules and regulations of celibacy as a perfect brahmacari and was very softhearted, truthful, clean and pure. How he fell down in spite of all these qualities and thus came to be threatened with punishment by Yamaraja will be described in the following verses.

TEXTS 58-60

TEXT

ekadasau vanam yatah

pitr-sandesa-krd dvijah

adaya tata avrttah

phala-puspa-samit-kusan

dadarsa kaminam kancic

chudram saha bhujisyaya

pitva ca madhu maireyam

madaghurnita-netraya

mattaya vislathan-nivya

vyapetam nirapatrapam

kridantam anugayantam

hasantam anayantike

SYNONYMS

ekada--once upon a time; asau--this Ajamila; vanam yatah--went to the forest; pitr--of his father; sandesa--the order; krt--carrying out; dvijah--the brahmana; adaya--collecting; tatah--from the forest; avrttah--returning; phala-puspa--fruits and flowers; samit-kusan--two kinds of grass, known as samit and kusa; dadarsa--saw; kaminam--very lusty; kancit--someone; sudram--a fourth-class man, a sudra; saha--along with; bhujisyaya--an ordinary maidservant or prostitute; pitva--after drinking; ca--also; madhu--nectar; maireyam--made of the soma flower; mada--by intoxication; aghurnita--moving; netraya--her eyes; mattaya--intoxicated; vislathat-nivya--whose dress was slackened; vyapetam--fallen from proper behavior; nirapatrapam--without fear of public opinion; kridantam--engaged in enjoyment; anugayantam--singing; hasantam--smiling; anaya--with her; antike--close by.

TRANSLATION

Once this brahmana Ajamila, following the order of his father, went to the forest to collect fruit, flowers and two kinds of grass, called samit and kusa. On the way home, he came upon a sudra, a very lusty, fourth-class man, who was shamelessly embracing and kissing a prostitute. The sudra was smiling, singing and enjoying as if this were proper behavior. Both the sudra and the prostitute were drunk. The prostitute's eyes were rolling in intoxication, and her dress had become loose. Such was the condition in which Ajamila saw them.

PURPORT

While traveling along the public way, Ajamila came upon a fourth-class man and a prostitute, who are vividly described here. Drunkenness was sometimes manifest even in bygone ages, although not very frequently. In this age of Kali, however, such sin is to be seen everywhere, for people all over the world have become shameless. Long ago, when he saw the scene of the drunken sudra and the prostitute, Ajamila, who was a perfect brahmacari, was affected. Nowadays such sin is visible in so many places, and we must consider the position of a brahmacari student who sees such behavior. For such a brahmacari to remain steady is very difficult unless he is extremely strong in following the regulative principles. Nevertheless, if one takes to Krsna consciousness very seriously, he can withstand the provocation created by sin. In our Krsna consciousness movement we prohibit illicit sex, intoxication, meat-eating and gambling. In Kali-yuga, a drunk, half-naked woman embracing a drunk man is a very common sight, especially in the Western countries, and restraining oneself after seeing such things is very difficult. Nevertheless, if by the grace of Krsna one adheres to the regulative principles and chants the Hare Krsna mantra, Krsna will certainly protect him. Indeed, Krsna says that His devotee is never vanquished (kaunteya pratijanihi na me bhaktah pranasyati). Therefore all the disciples practicing Krsna consciousness should obediently follow the regulative principles and remain fixed in chanting the holy name of the Lord. Then there need be no fear. Otherwise one's position is very dangerous, especially in this Kali-yuga.

TEXT 61

TEXT

drstva tam kama-liptena

bahuna parirambhitam

jagama hrc-chaya-vasam

sahasaiva vimohitah

SYNONYMS

drstva--by seeing; tam--her (the prostitute); kama-liptena--decorated with turmeric to incite lusty desires; bahuna--with the arm; parirambhitam--embraced; jagama--went; hrt-saya--of lusty desires within the heart; vasam--under the control; sahasa--suddenly; eva--indeed; vimohitah--being illusioned.

TRANSLATION

The sudra, his arm decorated with turmeric powder, was embracing the prostitute. When Ajamila saw her, the dormant lusty desires in his heart awakened, and in illusion he fell under their control.

PURPORT

It is said that if one's body is smeared with turmeric, it attracts the lusty desires of the opposite sex. The word kama-liptena indicates that the sudra was decorated with turmeric smeared on his body.

TEXT 62

TEXT

stambhayann atmanatmanam

yavat sattvam yatha-srutam

na sasaka samadhatum

mano madana-vepitam

SYNONYMS

stambhayan--trying to control; atmana--by the intelligence; atmanam--the mind; yavat sattvam--as far as possible for him; yatha-srutam--by remembering the instruction (of celibacy, brahmacarya, not even to see a woman); na--not; sasaka--was able; samadhatum--to restrain; manah--the mind; madana-vepitam--agitated by Cupid or lusty desire.

TRANSLATION

As far as possible he patiently tried to remember the instructions of the sastras not even to see a woman. With the help of this knowledge and his intellect, he tried to control his lusty desires, but because of the force of Cupid within his heart, he failed to control his mind.

PURPORT

Unless one is very strong in knowledge, patience and proper bodily, mental and intellectual behavior, controlling one's lusty desires is extremely difficult. Thus after seeing a man embracing a young woman and practically doing everything required for sex life, even a fully qualified brahmana, as described above, could not control his lusty desires and restrain himself from pursuing them. Because of the force of materialistic life, to maintain self-control is extremely difficult unless one is specifically under the protection of the Supreme Personality of Godhead through devotional service.

TEXT 63

TEXT

tan-nimitta-smara-vyaja-

graha-grasto vicetanah

tam eva manasa dhyayan

sva-dharmad virarama ha

SYNONYMS

tat-nimitta--caused by the sight of her; smara-vyaja--taking advantage of his thinking of her always; graha-grastah--being caught by an eclipse; vicetanah--having completely forgotten his real position; tam--her; eva--certainly; manasa--by the mind; dhyayan--meditating upon; sva-dharmat--from the regulative principles executed by a brahmana; virarama ha--he completely ceased.

TRANSLATION

In the same way that the sun and moon are eclipsed by a low planet, the brahmana lost all his good sense. Taking advantage of this situation, he always thought of the prostitute, and within a short time he took her as a servant in his house and abandoned all the regulative principles of a brahmana.

PURPORT

By speaking this verse, Sukadeva Gosvami wants to impress upon the mind of the reader that Ajamila's exalted position as a brahmana was vanquished by his association with the prostitute, so much so that he forgot all his brahminical activities. Nevertheless, at the end of his life, by chanting the four syllables of the name Narayana, he was saved from the gravest danger of falling down. Svalpam apy asya dharmasya trayate mahato bhayat: even a little devotional service can save one from the greatest danger. Devotional service, which begins with chanting of the holy name of the Lord, is so powerful that even if one falls down from the exalted position of a brahmana through sexual indulgence, he can be saved from all calamities if he somehow or other chants the holy name of the Lord. This is the extraordinary power of the Lord's holy name. Therefore in Bhagavad-gita it is advised that one not forget the chanting of the holy name even for a moment (satatam kirtayanto mam yatantas ca drdha-vratah). There are so many dangers in this material world that one may fall down from an exalted position at any time. Yet if one keeps himself always pure and steady by chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, he will be safe without a doubt.

TEXT 64

TEXT

tam eva tosayam asa

pitryenarthena yavata

gramyair manoramaih kamaih

prasideta yatha tatha

SYNONYMS

tam--her (the prostitute); eva--indeed; tosayam asa--he tried to please; pitryena--he got from his father's hard labor; arthena--by the money; yavata--as long as possible; gramyaih--material; manah-ramaih--pleasing to her mind; kamaih--by presentations for sense enjoyment; prasideta--she would be satisfied; yatha--so that; tatha--in that way.

TRANSLATION

Thus Ajamila began spending whatever money he had inherited from his father to satisfy the prostitute with various material presentations so that she would remain pleased with him. He gave up all his brahminical activities to satisfy the prostitute.

PURPORT

There are many instances throughout the world in which even a purified person, being attracted by a prostitute, spends all the money he has inherited. Prostitute hunting is so abominable that the desire for sex with a prostitute can ruin one's character, destroy one's exalted position and plunder all one's money. Therefore illicit sex is strictly prohibited. One should be satisfied with his married wife, for even a slight deviation will create havoc. A Krsna conscious grhastha should always remember this. He should always be satisfied with one wife and be peaceful simply by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra. Otherwise at any moment he may fall down from his good position, as exemplified in the case of Ajamila.

TEXT 65

TEXT

vipram sva-bharyam apraudham

kule mahati lambhitam

visasarjacirat papah

svairinyapanga-viddha-dhih

SYNONYMS

vipram--the daughter of a brahmana; sva-bharyam--his wife; apraudham--not very old (youthful); kule--from a family; mahati--very respectable; lambhitam--married; visasarja--he gave up; acirat--very soon; papah--being sinful; svairinya--of the prostitute; apanga-viddha-dhih--his intelligence pierced by the lustful glance.

TRANSLATION

Because his intelligence was pierced by the lustful glance of the prostitute, the victimized brahmana Ajamila engaged in sinful acts in her association. He even gave up the company of his very beautiful young wife, who came from a very respectable brahmana family.

PURPORT

Customarily everyone is eligible to inherit his father's property, and Ajamila also inherited the money of his father. But what did he do with the money? Instead of engaging the money in the service of Krsna, he engaged it in the service of a prostitute. Therefore he was condemned and was punishable by Yamaraja. How did this happen? He was victimized by the dangerous lustful glance of a prostitute.

TEXT 66

TEXT

yatas tatas copaninye

nyayato 'nyayato dhanam

babharasyah kutumbinyah

kutumbam manda-dhir ayam

SYNONYMS

yatah tatah--wherever possible, however possible; ca--and; upaninye--he got; nyayatah--properly; anyayatah--improperly; dhanam--money; babhara--he maintained; asyah--of her; kutum-binyah--possessing many sons and daughters; kutumbam--the family; manda-dhih--bereft of all intelligence; ayam--this person (Ajamila).

TRANSLATION

Although born of a brahmana family, this rascal, bereft of intelligence because of the prostitute's association, earned money somehow or other, regardless of whether properly or improperly, and used it to maintain the prostitute's sons and daughters.

TEXT 67

TEXT

yad asau sastram ullanghya

svaira-cary ati-garhitah

avartata ciram kalam

aghayur asucir malat

SYNONYMS

yat--because; asau--this brahmana; sastram ullanghya--transgressing the laws of sastra; svaira-cari--acting irresponsibly; ati-garhitah--very much condemned; avartata--passed; ciram kalam--a long time; agha-ayuh--whose life was full of sinful activities; asucih--unclean; malat--because of impurity.

TRANSLATION

This brahmana irresponsibly spent his long lifetime transgressing all the rules and regulations of the holy scripture, living extravagantly and eating food prepared by a prostitute. Therefore he is full of sins. He is unclean and is addicted to forbidden activities.

PURPORT

Food prepared by an unclean, sinful man or woman, especially a prostitute, is extremely infectious. Ajamila ate such food, and therefore he was subject to be punished by Yamaraja.

TEXT 68

TEXT

tata enam danda-paneh

sakasam krta-kilbisam

nesyamo 'krta-nirvesam

yatra dandena suddhyati

SYNONYMS

tatah--therefore; enam--him; danda-paneh--of Yamaraja, who is authorized to punish; sakasam--in the presence; krta-kilbisam--who has regularly committed all sinful activities; nesyamah--we shall take; akrta-nirvesam--who has not undergone atonement; yatra--where; dandena--by punishment; suddhyati--he will be purified.

TRANSLATION

This man Ajamila did not undergo atonement. Therefore because of his sinful life, we must take him into the presence of Yamaraja for punishment. There, according to the extent of his sinful acts, he will be punished and thus purified.

PURPORT

The Visnudutas had forbidden the Yamadutas to take Ajamila to Yamaraja, and therefore the Yamadutas explained that taking such a man to Yamaraja was appropriate. Since Ajamila had not undergone atonement for his sinful acts, he was to be taken to Yamaraja to be purified. When a man commits murder he becomes sinful, and therefore he also must be killed; otherwise after death he must suffer many sinful reactions. Similarly, punishment by Yamaraja is a process of purification for the most abominable sinful persons. Therefore the Yamadutas requested the Visnudutas not to obstruct their taking Ajamila to Yamaraja.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, First Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The History of the Life of Ajamila."

Chapter Two

Ajamila Delivered by the Visnudutas

In this chapter the messengers from Vaikuntha explain to the Yamadutas the glories of chanting the holy name of the Lord. The Visnudutas said, "Now impious acts are being performed even in an assembly of devotees, for a person who is not punishable is going to be punished in the assembly of Yamaraja. The mass of people are helpless and must depend upon the government for their safety and security, but if the government takes advantage of this to harm the citizens, where will they go? We see perfectly that Ajamila should not be punished, although you are attempting to take him to Yamaraja for punishment."

It was due to Ajamila's glorifying the holy name of the Supreme Lord that he was not punishable. The Visnudutas explained this as follows: "Simply by once chanting the holy name of Narayana, this brahmana has become free from the reactions of sinful life. Indeed, he has been freed not only from the sins of this life, but from the sins of many, many thousands of other lives. He has already undergone true atonement for all his sinful actions. If one atones according to the directions of the sastras, one does not actually become free from sinful reactions, but if one chants the holy name of the Lord, even a glimpse of such chanting can immediately free one from all sins. Chanting the glories of the Lord's holy name awakens all good fortune. Therefore there is no doubt that Ajamila, being completely free from all sinful reactions, should not be punished by Yamaraja."

As they were saying this, the Visnudutas released Ajamila from the ropes of the Yamadutas and left for their own abode. The brahmana Ajamila, however, offered his respectful obeisances to the Visnudutas. He could understand how fortunate he was to have chanted the holy name of Narayana at the end of his life. Indeed, he could realize the full significance of this good fortune. Having thoroughly understood the discussion between the Yamadutas and the Visnudutas, he became a pure devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He lamented very much for how very sinful he had been, and he condemned himself again and again.

Finally, because of his association with the Visnudutas, Ajamila, his original consciousness aroused, gave up everything and went to Hardwar, where he engaged in devotional service without deviation, always thinking of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus the Visnudutas went there, seated him on a golden throne and took him away to Vaikunthaloka.

In summary, although the sinful Ajamila meant to call his son, the holy name of Lord Narayana, even though chanted in the preliminary stage, namabhasa, was able to give him liberation. Therefore one who chants the holy name of the Lord with faith and devotion is certainly exalted. He is protected even in his material, conditional life.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-badarayanir uvaca

evam te bhagavad-duta

yamadutabhibhasitam

upadharyatha tan rajan

pratyahur naya-kovidah

SYNONYMS

sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sukadeva Gosvami, the son of Vyasadeva, said; evam--thus; te--they; bhagavat-dutah--the servants of Lord Visnu; yamaduta--by the servants of Yamaraja; abhibhasitam--what was spoken; upadharya--hearing; atha--then; tan--unto them; rajan--O King; pratyahuh--replied properly; naya-kovidah--being conversant in good arguments or good logic.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami said: My dear King, the servants of Lord Visnu are always very expert in logic and arguments. After hearing the statements of the Yamadutas, they replied as follows.

TEXT 2

TEXT

sri-visnuduta ucuh

aho kastam dharma-drsam

adharmah sprsate sabham

yatradandyesv apapesu

dando yair dhriyate vrtha

SYNONYMS

sri-visnudutah ucuh--the Visnudutas said; aho--alas; kastam--how painful it is; dharma-drsam--of persons interested in maintaining religion; adharmah--irreligion; sprsate--is affecting; sabham--the assembly; yatra--wherein; adandyesu--upon persons not to be punished; apapesu--who are sinless; dandah--punishment; yaih--by whom; dhriyate--is being allotted; vrtha--unnecessarily.

TRANSLATION

The Visnudutas said: Alas, how painful it is that irreligion is being introduced into an assembly where religion should be maintained. Indeed, those in charge of maintaining the religious principles are needlessly punishing a sinless, unpunishable person.

PURPORT

The Visnudutas accused the Yamadutas of violating the religious principles by attempting to drag Ajamila to Yamaraja for punishment. Yamaraja is the officer appointed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead to judge religious and irreligious principles and to punish people who are irreligious. However, if completely sinless people are punished, the entire assembly of Yamaraja is contaminated. This principle applies not only in the assembly of Yamaraja, but throughout human society also.

In human society, properly maintaining religious principles is the duty of the king's court or the government. Unfortunately, in this yuga, Kali-yuga, the religious principles are tampered with, and the government cannot properly judge who is to be punished and who is not. It is said that in the Kali-yuga if one cannot spend money in court, one cannot get justice. Indeed, in courts of justice it is often found that magistrates are bribed for favorable judgments. Sometimes religious men who preach the Krsna consciousness movement for the benefit of the entire populace are arrested and harassed by the police and courts. The Visnudutas, who are Vaisnavas, lamented for these very regrettable facts. Because of their spiritual compassion for all the fallen souls, Vaisnavas go out to preach according to the standard method of all religious principles, but unfortunately, because of the influence of Kali-yuga, Vaisnavas who have dedicated their lives to preaching the glories of the Lord are sometimes harassed and punished by courts on false charges of disturbing the peace.

TEXT 3

TEXT

prajanam pitaro ye ca

sastarah sadhavah samah

yadi syat tesu vaisamyam

kam yanti saranam prajah

SYNONYMS

prajanam--of the citizens; pitarah--protectors, guardians (kings or government servants); ye--they who; ca--and; sastarah--give instructions concerning law and order; sadhavah--endowed with all good qualities; samah--equal to everyone; yadi--if; syat--there is; tesu--among them; vaisamyam--partiality; kam--what; yanti--will go to; saranam--shelter; prajah--the citizens.

TRANSLATION

A king or governmental official should be so well qualified that he acts as a father, maintainer and protector of the citizens because of affection and love. He should give the citizens good advice and instructions according to the standard scriptures and should be equal to everyone. Yamaraja does this, for he is the supreme master of justice, and so do those who follow in his footsteps. However, if such persons become polluted and exhibit partiality by punishing an innocent, blameless person, where will the citizens go to take shelter for their maintenance and security?

PURPORT

The king, or in modern times the government, should act as the guardian of the citizens by teaching them the proper goal of life. The human form of life is especially meant for realization of one's self and one's relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead because this cannot be realized in animal life. The duty of the government, therefore, is to take charge of training all the citizens in such a way that by a gradual process they will be elevated to the spiritual platform and will realize the self and his relationship with God. This principle was followed by kings like Maharaja Yudhisthira, Maharaja Pariksit, Lord Ramacandra, Maharaja Ambarisa and Prahlada Maharaja. The leaders of the government must be very honest and religious because otherwise all the affairs of the state will suffer. Unfortunately, in the name of democracy, rogues and thieves are electing other rogues and thieves to the most important posts in the government. Recently this has been proven in America, where the president had to be condemned and dragged down from his post by the citizens. This is only one case, but there are many others. Because of the importance of the Krsna consciousness movement, people should be Krsna conscious and should not vote for anyone who is not Krsna conscious. Then there will be actual peace and prosperity in the state. When a Vaisnava sees mismanagement in the government, he feels great compassion in his heart and tries his best to purify the situation by spreading the Hare Krsna movement.

TEXT 4

TEXT

yad yad acarati sreyan

itaras tat tad ihate

sa yat pramanam kurute

lokas tad anuvartate

SYNONYMS

yat yat--whatever; acarati--executes; sreyan--a first-class man with full knowledge of religious principles; itarah--the subordinate man; tat tat--that; ihate--performs; sah--he (the great man); yat--whatever; pramanam--as evidence or as the right thing; kurute--accepts; lokah--the general public; tat--that; anuvartate--follows.

TRANSLATION

The mass of people follow the example of a leader in society and imitate his behavior. They accept as evidence whatever the leader accepts.

PURPORT

Although Ajamila was not punishable, the Yamadutas were insisting on taking him away to Yamaraja for punishment. This was adharma, contrary to religious principles. The Visnudutas feared that if such irreligious acts were allowed, the management of human society would be spoiled. In modern times, the Krsna consciousness movement is trying to introduce the right principles of management for human society, but unfortunately the governments of Kali-yuga do not properly support the Hare Krsna movement because they do not appreciate its valuable service. The Hare Krsna movement is the right movement for ameliorating the fallen condition of human society, and therefore governments and public leaders in every part of the world should support this movement to completely rectify humanity's sinful condition.

TEXTS 5-6

TEXT

yasyanke sira adhaya

lokah svapiti nirvrtah

svayam dharmam adharmam va

na hi veda yatha pasuh

sa katham nyarpitatmanam

krta-maitram acetanam

visrambhaniyo bhutanam

saghrno dogdhum arhati

SYNONYMS

yasya--of whom; anke--on the lap; sirah--the head; adhaya--placing; lokah--the general mass of people; svapiti--sleep; nirvrtah--in peace; svayam--personally; dharmam--religious principles or the goal of life; adharmam--irreligious principles; va--or; na--not; hi--indeed; veda--know; yatha--exactly like; pasuh--an animal; sah--such a person; katham--how; nyarpita-atmanam--unto the living entity who has fully surrendered; krta-maitram--endowed with good faith and friendship; acetanam--with undeveloped consciousness, foolish; visrambhaniyah--deserving to be the object of faith; bhutanam--of the living entities; sa-ghrnah--who has a soft heart for the good of all people; dogdhum--to give pain; arhati--is able.

TRANSLATION

People in general are not very advanced in knowledge by which to discriminate between religion and irreligion. The innocent, unenlightened citizen is like an ignorant animal sleeping in peace with its head on the lap of its master, faithfully believing in the master's protection. If a leader is actually kindhearted and deserves to be the object of a living entity's faith, how can he punish or kill a foolish person who has fully surrendered in good faith and friendship?

PURPORT

The Sanskrit word visvasta-ghata refers to one who breaks faith or causes a breach of trust. The mass of people should always feel security because of the government's protection. Therefore, how regrettable it is for the government itself to cause a breach of trust and put the citizens in difficulty for political reasons. We actually saw during the partition days in India that although Hindus and Muslims were living together peacefully, manipulation by politicians suddenly aroused feelings of hatred between them, and thus the Hindus and Muslims killed one another over politics. This is a sign of Kali-yuga. In this age, animals are kept nicely sheltered, completely confident that their masters will protect them, but unfortunately as soon as the animals are fat, they are immediately sent for slaughter. Such cruelty is condemned by Vaisnavas like the Visnudutas. Indeed, the hellish conditions already described await the sinful men responsible for such suffering. One who betrays the confidence of a living entity who takes shelter of him in good faith, whether that living entity be a human being or an animal, is extremely sinful. Because such betrayals now go unpunished by the government, all of human society is terribly contaminated. The people of this age are therefore described as mandah sumanda-matayo manda-bhagya hy upadrutah. As a consequence of such sinfulness, men are condemned (mandah), their intelligence is unclear (sumanda-matayah), they are unfortunate (manda-bhagyah), and therefore they are always disturbed by many problems (upadrutah). This is their situation in this life, and after death they are punished in hellish conditions.

TEXT 7

TEXT

ayam hi krta-nirveso

janma-koty-amhasam api

yad vyajahara vivaso

nama svasty-ayanam hareh

SYNONYMS

ayam--this person (Ajamila); hi--indeed; krta-nirvesah--has undergone all kinds of atonement; janma--of births; koti--of millions; amhasam--for the sinful activities; api--even; yat--because; vyajahara--he has chanted; vivasah--in a helpless condition; nama--the holy name; svasti-ayanam--the means of liberation; hareh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

Ajamila has already atoned for all his sinful actions. Indeed, he has atoned not only for sins performed in one life but for those performed in millions of lives, for in a helpless condition he chanted the holy name of Narayana. Even though he did not chant purely, he chanted without offense, and therefore he is now pure and eligible for liberation.

PURPORT

The Yamadutas had considered only the external situation of Ajamila. Since he was extremely sinful throughout his life, they thought he should be taken to Yamaraja and did not know that he had become free from the reactions of all his sins. The Visnudutas therefore instructed that because he had chanted the four syllables of the name Narayana at the time of his death, he was freed from all sinful reactions. In this regard Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura quotes the following verses from the smrti-sastra:

namno hi yavati saktih

papa-nirharane hareh

tavat kartum na saknoti

patakam pataki narah

"Simply by chanting one holy name of Hari, a sinful man can counteract the reactions to more sins than he is able to commit." (Brhad-visnu Purana)

avasenapi yan-namni

kirtite sarva-patakaih

puman vimucyate sadyah

simha-trastair mrgair iva

"If one chants the holy name of the Lord, even in a helpless condition or without desiring to do so, all the reactions of his sinful life depart, just as when a lion roars, all the small animals flee in fear." (Garuda Purana)

sakrd uccaritam yena

harir ity aksara-dvayam

baddha-parikaras tena

moksaya gamanam prati

"By once chanting the holy name of the Lord, which consists of the two syllables ha-ri, one guarantees his path to liberation." (Skanda Purana)

These are some of the reasons why the Visnudutas objected to the Yamadutas' taking Ajamila to the court of Yamaraja.

TEXT 8

TEXT

etenaiva hy aghono 'sya

krtam syad agha-niskrtam

yada narayanayeti

jagada catur-aksaram

SYNONYMS

etena--by this (chanting); eva--indeed; hi--certainly; aghonah--who possesses sinful reactions; asya--of this (Ajamila); krtam--performed; syat--is; agha--of sins; niskrtam--complete atonement; yada--when; narayana--O Narayana (the name of his son); aya--please come; iti--thus; jagada--he chanted; catuh-aksaram--the four syllables (na-ra-ya-na).

TRANSLATION

The Visnudutas continued: Even previously, while eating and at other times, this Ajamila would call his son, saying, "My dear Narayana, please come here." Although calling the name of his son, he nevertheless uttered the four syllables na-ra-ya-na. Simply by chanting the name of Narayana in this way, he sufficiently atoned for the sinful reactions of millions of lives.

PURPORT

Previously, when engaged in sinful activities to maintain his family, Ajamila chanted the name of Narayana without offenses. To chant the holy name of the Lord just to counteract one's sinful activities, or to commit sinful activities on the strength of chanting the holy name, is offensive (namno balad yasya hi papa-buddhih). But although Ajamila engaged in sinful activities, he never chanted the holy name of Narayana to counteract them; he simply chanted the name Narayana to call his son. Therefore his chanting was effective. Because of chanting the holy name of Narayana in this way, he had already vanquished the accumulated sinful reactions of many, many lives. In the beginning he was pure, but although he later committed many sinful acts, he was offenseless because he did not chant the holy name of Narayana to counteract them. One who always chants the holy name of the Lord without offenses is always pure. As confirmed in this verse Ajamila was already sinless, and because he chanted the name of Narayana he remained sinless. It did not matter that he was calling his son; the name itself was effective.

TEXTS 9-10

TEXT

stenah sura-po mitra-dhrug

brahma-ha guru-talpa-gah

stri-raja-pitr-go-hanta

ye ca patakino 'pare

sarvesam apy aghavatam

idam eva suniskrtam

nama-vyaharanam visnor

yatas tad-visaya matih

SYNONYMS

stenah--one who steals; sura-pah--a drunkard; mitra-dhruk--one who turns against a friend or relative; brahma-ha--one who kills a brahmana; guru-talpa-gah--one who indulges in sex with the wife of his teacher or guru; stri--women; raja--king; pitr--father; go--of cows; hanta--the killer; ye--those who; ca--also; patakinah--committed sinful activities; apare--many others; sarvesam--of all of them; api--although; agha-vatam--persons who have committed many sins; idam--this; eva--certainly; su-niskrtam--perfect atonement; nama-vyaharanam--chanting of the holy name; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; yatah--because of which; tat-visaya--on the person who chants the holy name; matih--His attention.

TRANSLATION

The chanting of the holy name of Lord Visnu is the best process of atonement for a thief of gold or other valuables, for a drunkard, for one who betrays a friend or relative, for one who kills a brahmana, or for one who indulges in sex with the wife of his guru or another superior. It is also the best method of atonement for one who murders women, the king or his father, for one who slaughters cows, and for all other sinful men. Simply by chanting the holy name of Lord Visnu, such sinful persons may attract the attention of the Supreme Lord, who therefore considers, "Because this man has chanted My holy name, My duty is to give him protection."

TEXT 11

TEXT

na niskrtair uditair brahma-vadibhis

tatha visuddhyaty aghavan vratadibhih

yatha harer nama-padair udahrtais

tad uttamasloka-gunopalambhakam

SYNONYMS

na--not; niskrtaih--by the processes of atonement; uditaih--prescribed; brahma-vadibhih--by learned scholars such as Manu; tatha--to that extent; visuddhyati--becomes purified; agha-van--a sinful man; vrata-adibhih--by observing the vows and regulative principles; yatha--as; hareh--of Lord Hari; nama-padaih--by the syllables of the holy name; udahrtaih--chanted; tat--that; uttamasloka--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; guna--of the transcendental qualities; upalambhakam--reminding one.

TRANSLATION

By following the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies or undergoing atonement, sinful men do not become as purified as by chanting once the holy name of Lord Hari. Although ritualistic atonement may free one from sinful reactions, it does not awaken devotional service, unlike the chanting of the Lord's names, which reminds one of the Lord's fame, qualities, attributes, pastimes and paraphernalia.

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura comments that the chanting of the holy name of the Lord has special significance that distinguishes it from the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies of atonement for severe, more severe or most severe sinful actions. There are twenty types of religious scriptures called dharma-sastras, beginning with the Manu-samhita and parasara-samhita, but herein it is stressed that although one may become free from the reactions of the most sinful activities by following the religious principles of these scriptures, this cannot promote a sinful man to the stage of loving service to the Lord. On the other hand, chanting the holy name of the Lord even once not only frees one immediately from the reactions of the greatest sins, but also raises one to the platform of rendering loving service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is described as uttamasloka because He is famous for His glorious activities. Thus one serves the Lord by remembering His form, His attributes and pastimes. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura explains that this is all possible simply by chanting the Lord's holy name because of the Lord's omnipotence. What cannot be achieved through the performance of Vedic rituals can be easily achieved through the chanting of the Lord's holy name. To chant the holy name and dance in ecstasy is so easy and sublime that one can achieve all the benefits of spiritual life simply by following this process. Therefore Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu declares, param vijayate sri-krsna-sankirtanam: "All glories to Sri Krsna sankirtana!" The sankirtana movement we have started offers the best process for becoming purified of all sinful reactions and coming immediately to the platform of spiritual life.

TEXT 12

TEXT

naikantikam tad dhi krte 'pi niskrte

manah punar dhavati ced asat-pathe

tat karma-nirharam abhipsatam harer

gunanuvadah khalu sattva-bhavanah

SYNONYMS

na--not; aikantikam--absolutely cleansed; tat--the heart; hi--because; krte--very nicely performed; api--although; niskrte--atonement; manah--the mind; punah--again; dhavati--runs; cet--if; asat-pathe--on the path of material activities; tat--therefore; karma-nirharam--cessation of the fruitive reactions of material activities; abhipsatam--for those who seriously want; hareh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; guna-anuvadah--constant chanting of the glories; khalu--indeed; sattva-bhavanah--actually purifying one's existence.

TRANSLATION

The ritualistic ceremonies of atonement recommended in the religious scriptures are insufficient to cleanse the heart absolutely because after atonement one's mind again runs toward material activities. Consequently, for one who wants liberation from the fruitive reactions of material activities, the chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra, or glorification of the name, fame and pastimes of the Lord, is recommended as the most perfect process of atonement because such chanting eradicates the dirt from one's heart completely.

PURPORT

The statements in this verse have been confirmed previously in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.17):

srnvatam sva-kathah krsnah

punya-sravana-kirtanah

hrdy antah-stho hy abhadrani

vidhunoti suhrt satam

"Sri Krsna, the Personality of Godhead, who is the Paramatma [Supersoul] in everyone's heart and the benefactor of the truthful devotee, cleanses desire for material enjoyment from the heart of the devotee who relishes His messages, which are in themselves virtuous when properly heard and chanted." It is the special mercy of the Supreme Lord that as soon as He knows that one is glorifying His name, fame and attributes, He personally helps cleanse the dirt from one's heart. Therefore simply by such glorification one not only becomes purified, but also achieves the results of pious activities (punya-sravana-kirtana). Punya-sravana-kirtana refers to the process of devotional service. Even if one does not understand the meaning of the Lord's name, pastimes or attributes, one is purified simply by hearing or chanting of them. Such purification is called sattva-bhavana.

One's main purpose in human life should be to purify his existence and achieve liberation. As long as one has a material body, one is understood to be impure. In such an impure, material condition, one cannot enjoy a truly blissful life, although everyone seeks it. Therefore Srimad-Bhagavatam (5.5.1) says, tapo divyam putraka yena sattvam suddhyet: one must perform tapasya, austerity, to purify his existence in order to come to the spiritual platform. The tapasya of chanting and glorifying the name, fame and attributes of the Lord is a very easy purifying process by which everyone can be happy. Therefore everyone who desires the ultimate cleansing of his heart must adopt this process. Other processes, such as karma, jnana and yoga, cannot cleanse the heart absolutely.

TEXT 13

TEXT

athainam mapanayata

krtasesagha-niskrtam

yad asau bhagavan-nama

mriyamanah samagrahit

SYNONYMS

atha--therefore; enam--him (Ajamila); ma--do not; apanayata--try to take; krta--already done; asesa--unlimited; agha-niskrtam--atonement for his sinful actions; yat--because; asau--he; bhagavat-nama--the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mriyamanah--while dying; samagrahit--perfectly chanted.

TRANSLATION

At the time of death, this Ajamila helplessly and very loudly chanted the holy name of the Lord, Narayana. That chanting alone has already freed him from the reactions of all sinful life. Therefore, O servants of Yamaraja, do not try to take him to your master for punishment in hellish conditions.

PURPORT

The Visnudutas, who are superior authorities, gave orders to the Yamadutas, who did not know that Ajamila was no longer subject to tribulation in hellish life for his past sins. Although he had chanted the holy name Narayana to indicate his son, the holy name is so transcendentally powerful that he was automatically freed because he had chanted the holy name while dying (ante narayana-smrtih). As Krsna confirms in Bhagavad-gita (7.28):

yesam tv anta-gatam papam

jananam punya-karmanam

te dvandva-moha-nirmukta

bhajante mam drdha-vratah

"Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination." Unless one is freed from all sinful reactions, one cannot be promoted to the platform of devotional service. Elsewhere in Bhagavad-gita (8.5) it is stated:

anta-kale ca mam eva

smaran muktva kalevaram

yah prayati sa mad-bhavam

yati nasty atra samsayah

If one remembers Krsna, Narayana, at the time of death, one is certainly eligible to return immediately home, back to Godhead.

TEXT 14

TEXT

sanketyam parihasyam va

stobham helanam eva va

vaikuntha-nama-grahanam

asesagha-haram viduh

SYNONYMS

sanketyam--as an assignation; parihasyam--jokingly; va--or; stobham--as musical entertainment; helanam--neglectfully; eva--certainly; va--or; vaikuntha--of the Lord; nama-grahanam--chanting the holy name; asesa--unlimited; agha-haram--neutralizing the effect of sinful life; viduh--advanced transcendentalists know.

TRANSLATION

One who chants the holy name of the Lord is immediately freed from the reactions of unlimited sins, even if he chants indirectly [to indicate something else], jokingly, for musical entertainment, or even neglectfully. This is accepted by all the learned scholars of the scriptures.

TEXT 15

TEXT

patitah skhalito bhagnah

sandastas tapta ahatah

harir ity avasenaha

puman narhati yatanah

SYNONYMS

patitah--fallen down; skhalitah--slipped; bhagnah--having broken his bones; sandastah--bitten; taptah--severely attacked by fever or similar painful conditions; ahatah--injured; harih--Lord Krsna; iti--thus; avasena--accidentally; aha--chants; puman--a person; na--not; arhati--deserves; yatanah--hellish conditions.

TRANSLATION

If one chants the holy name of Hari and then dies because of an accidental misfortune, such as falling from the top of a house, slipping and suffering broken bones while traveling on the road, being bitten by a serpent, being afflicted with pain and high fever, or being injured by a weapon, one is immediately absolved from having to enter hellish life, even though he is sinful.

PURPORT

As stated in Bhagavad-gita (8.6):

yam yam vapi smaran bhavam

tyajaty ante kalevaram

tam tam evaiti kaunteya

sada tad-bhava-bhavitah

"Whatever state of being one remembers when he quits his body, that state he will attain without fail." If one practices chanting the Hare Krsna mantra, he is naturally expected to chant Hare Krsna when he meets with some accident. Even without such practice, however, if one somehow or other chants the holy name of the Lord (Hare Krsna) when he meets with an accident and dies, he will be saved from hellish life after death.

TEXT 16

TEXT

gurunam ca laghunam ca

guruni ca laghuni ca

prayascittani papanam

jnatvoktani maharsibhih

SYNONYMS

gurunam--heavy; ca--and; laghunam--light; ca--also; guruni--heavy; ca--and; laghuni--light; ca--also; prayascittani--the processes of atonement; papanam--of sinful activities; jnatva--knowing perfectly well; uktani--have been prescribed; maha-rsibhih--by great sages.

TRANSLATION

Authorities who are learned scholars and sages have carefully ascertained that one should atone for the heaviest sins by undergoing a heavy process of atonement and one should atone for lighter sins by undergoing lighter atonement. Chanting the Hare Krsna mantra, however, vanquishes all the effects of sinful activities, regardless of whether heavy or light.

PURPORT

In this regard, Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura describes an incident that took place when Samba was rescued from the punishment of the Kauravas. Samba fell in love with the daughter of Duryodhana, and since according to ksatriya custom one is not offered a ksatriya's daughter unless he displays his chivalrous valor, Samba abducted her. Consequently Samba was arrested by the Kauravas. Later, when Lord Balarama came to rescue him, there was an argument about Samba's release. Since the argument was not settled, Balarama showed His power in such a way that all of Hastinapura trembled and would have been vanquished as if by a great earthquake. Then the matter was settled, and Samba married Duryodhana's daughter. The purport is that one should take shelter of Krsna-Balarama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose protective power is so great that it cannot be equaled in the material world. However powerful the reactions of one's sins, they will immediately be vanquished if one chants the name of Hari, Krsna, Balarama or Narayana.

TEXT 17

TEXT

tais tany aghani puyante

tapo-dana-vratadibhih

nadharmajam tad-dhrdayam

tad apisanghri-sevaya

SYNONYMS

taih--by those; tani--all those; aghani--sinful activities and their results; puyante--become vanquished; tapah--austerity; dana--charity; vrata-adibhih--by vows and other such activities; na--not; adharma-jam--produced from irreligious actions; tat--of that; hrdayam--the heart; tat--that; api--also; isa-anghri--of the lotus feet of the Lord; sevaya--by service.

TRANSLATION

Although one may neutralize the reactions of sinful life through austerity, charity, vows and other such methods, these pious activities cannot uproot the material desires in one's heart. However, if one serves the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead, he is immediately freed from all such contaminations.

PURPORT

As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.2.42), bhaktih paresanubhavo viraktir anyatra ca: devotional service is so powerful that one who performs devotional service is immediately freed from all sinful desires. All desires within this material world are sinful because material desire means sense gratification, which always involves action that is more or less sinful. Pure bhakti, however, is anyabhilasita-sunya; in other words, it is free from material desires, which result from karma and jnana. One who is situated in devotional service no longer has material desires, and therefore he is beyond sinful life. Material desires should be completely stopped. Otherwise, although one's austerities, penances and charity may free one from sin for the time being, one's desires will reappear because his heart is impure. Thus he will act sinfully and suffer.

TEXT 18

TEXT

ajnanad athava jnanad

uttamasloka-nama yat

sankirtitam agham pumso

dahed edho yathanalah

SYNONYMS

ajnanat--out of ignorance; athava--or; jnanat--with knowledge; uttamasloka--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nama--the holy name; yat--that which; sankirtitam--chanted; agham--sin; pumsah--of a person; dahet--burns to ashes; edhah--dry grass; yatha--just as; analah--fire.

TRANSLATION

As a fire burns dry grass to ashes, so the holy name of the Lord, whether chanted knowingly or unknowingly, burns to ashes, without fail, all the reactions of one's sinful activities.

PURPORT

Fire will act, regardless of whether handled by an innocent child or by someone well aware of its power. For example, if a field of straw or dry grass is set afire, either by an elderly man who knows the power of fire or by a child who does not, the grass will be burned to ashes. Similarly, one may or may not know the power of chanting the Hare Krsna mantra, but if one chants the holy name he will become free from all sinful reactions.

TEXT 19

TEXT

yathagadam viryatamam

upayuktam yadrcchaya

ajanato 'py atma-gunam

kuryan mantro 'py udahrtah

SYNONYMS

yatha--just like; agadam--medicine; virya-tamam--very powerful; upayuktam--properly taken; yadrcchaya--somehow or other; ajanatah--by a person without knowledge; api--even; atma-gunam--its own potency; kuryat--manifests; mantrah--the Hare Krsna mantra; api--also; udahrtah--chanted.

TRANSLATION

If a person unaware of the effective potency of a certain medicine takes that medicine or is forced to take it, it will act even without his knowledge because its potency does not depend on the patient's understanding. Similarly, even though one does not know the value of chanting the holy name of the Lord, if one chants knowingly or unknowingly, the chanting will be very effective.

PURPORT

In the Western countries, where the Hare Krsna movement is spreading, learned scholars and other thoughtful men are realizing its effectiveness. For example, Dr. J. Stillson Judah, a learned scholar, has been very much attracted to this movement because he has actually seen that it is turning hippies addicted to drugs into pure Vaisnavas who voluntarily become servants of Krsna and humanity. Even a few years ago, such hippies did not know the Hare Krsna mantra, but now they are chanting it and becoming pure Vaisnavas. Thus they are becoming free from all sinful activities, such as illicit sex, intoxication, meat-eating and gambling. This is practical proof of the effectiveness of the Hare Krsna movement, which is supported in this verse. One may or may not know the value of chanting the Hare Krsna mantra, but if one somehow or other chants it, he will immediately be purified, just as one who takes a potent medicine will feel its effects, regardless of whether he takes it knowingly or unknowingly.

TEXT 20

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

ta evam suvinirniya

dharmam bhagavatam nrpa

tam yamya-pasan nirmucya

vipram mrtyor amumucan

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; te--they (the order carriers of Lord Visnu); evam--thus; su-vinirniya--perfectly ascertaining; dharmam--real religion; bhagavatam--in terms of devotional service; nrpa--O King; tam--him (Ajamila); yamya-pasat--from the bondage of the order carriers of Yamaraja; nirmucya--releasing; vipram--the brahmana; mrtyoh--from death; amumucan--rescued.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, having thus perfectly judged the principles of devotional service with reasoning and arguments, the order carriers of Lord Visnu released the brahmana Ajamila from the bondage of the Yamadutas and saved him from imminent death.

TEXT 21

TEXT

iti pratyudita yamya

duta yatva yamantikam

yama-rajne yatha sarvam

acacaksur arindama

SYNONYMS

iti--thus; pratyuditah--having been replied to (by the order carriers of Visnu); yamyah--the servants of Yamaraja; dutah--the messengers; yatva--going; yama-antikam--to the abode of Lord Yamaraja; yama-rajne--unto King Yamaraja; yatha--duly; sarvam--everything; acacaksuh--informed in full detail; arindama--O subduer of the enemies.

TRANSLATION

My dear Maharaja Pariksit, O subduer of all enemies, after the servants of Yamaraja had been answered by the order carriers of Lord Visnu, they went to Yamaraja and explained to him everything that had happened.

PURPORT

In this verse the word pratyuditah is very significant. The servants of Yamaraja are so powerful that they can never be hindered anywhere, but this time they were baffled and disappointed in their attempt to take away a man they considered sinful. Therefore they immediately returned to Yamaraja and described to him everything that had happened.

TEXT 22

TEXT

dvijah pasad vinirmukto

gata-bhih prakrtim gatah

vavande sirasa visnoh

kinkaran darsanotsavah

SYNONYMS

dvijah--the brahmana (Ajamila); pasat--from the noose; vinirmuktah--being released; gata-bhih--freed from fear; prakrtim gatah--came to his senses; vavande--offered his respectful obeisances; sirasa--by bowing his head; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; kinkaran--unto the servants; darsana-utsavah--very pleased by seeing them.

TRANSLATION

Having been released from the nooses of Yamaraja's servants, the brahmana Ajamila, now free from fear, came to his senses and immediately offered obeisances to the Visnudutas by bowing his head at their lotus feet. He was extremely pleased by their presence, for he had seen them save his life from the hands of the servants of Yamaraja.

PURPORT

Vaisnavas are also Visnudutas because they carry out the orders of Krsna. Lord Krsna is very eager for all the conditioned souls rotting in this material world to surrender to Him and be saved from material pangs in this life and punishment in hellish conditions after death. A Vaisnava therefore tries to bring conditioned souls to their senses. Those who are fortunate like Ajamila are saved by the Visnudutas, or Vaisnavas, and thus they return back home, back to Godhead.

TEXT 23

TEXT

tam vivaksum abhipretya

mahapurusa-kinkarah

sahasa pasyatas tasya

tatrantardadhire 'nagha

SYNONYMS

tam--him (Ajamila); vivaksum--desiring to speak; abhipretya--understanding; mahapurusa-kinkarah--the order carriers of Lord Visnu; sahasa--suddenly; pasyatah tasya--while he looked on; tatra--there; antardadhire--disappeared; anagha--O sinless Maharaja Pariksit.

TRANSLATION

O sinless Maharaja Pariksit, the order carriers of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Visnudutas, saw that Ajamila was attempting to say something, and thus they suddenly disappeared from his presence.

PURPORT

The sastras say:

papistha ye duracara

deva-brahmana-nindakah

apathya-bhojanas tesam

akale maranam dhruvam

"For persons who are papistha, very sinful, and duracara, misbehaved or very unclean in their habits, who are against the existence of God, who disrespect Vaisnavas and brahmanas, and who eat anything and everything, untimely death is sure." It is said that in Kali-yuga one has a maximum lifetime of one hundred years, but as people become degraded, the duration of their lives decreases (prayenalpayusah). Because Ajamila was now free from all sinful reactions, his lifetime was extended, even though he was to have died immediately. When the Visnudutas saw Ajamila trying to say something to them, they disappeared to give him a chance to glorify the Supreme Lord. Since all his sinful reactions had been vanquished, he was now prepared to glorify the Lord. Indeed, one cannot glorify the Lord unless one is completely free from all sinful activities. This is confirmed by Krsna Himself in Bhagavad-gita (7.28):

yesam tv anta-gatam papam

jananam punya-karmanam

te dvandva-moha-nirmukta

bhajante mam drdha-vratah

"Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination." The Visnudutas made Ajamila aware of devotional service so that He might immediately become fit to return home, back to Godhead. To increase his eagerness to glorify the Lord, they disappeared so that he would feel separation in their absence. In the mode of separation, glorification of the Lord is very intense.

TEXTS 24-25

TEXT

ajamilo 'py athakarnya

dutanam yama-krsnayoh

dharmam bhagavatam suddham

trai-vedyam ca gunasrayam

bhaktiman bhagavaty asu

mahatmya-sravanad dhareh

anutapo mahan asit

smarato 'subham atmanah

SYNONYMS

ajamilah--Ajamila; api--also; atha--thereafter; akarnya--hearing; dutanam--of the order carriers; yama-krsnayoh--of Yamaraja and Lord Krsna; dharmam--actual religious principles; bhagavatam--as described in Srimad-Bhagavatam, or concerning the relationship between the living being and the Supreme Personality of Godhead; suddham--pure; trai-vedyam--mentioned in three Vedas; ca--also; guna-asrayam--material religion, under the modes of material nature; bhakti-man--a pure devotee (cleansed of the modes of material nature); bhagavati--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; asu--immediately; mahatmya--glorification of the name, fame, etc.; sravanat--because of hearing; hareh--of Lord Hari; anutapah--regret; mahan--very great; asit--there was; smaratah--remembering; asubham--all the inglorious activities; atmanah--done by himself.

TRANSLATION

After hearing the discourses between the Yamadutas and the Visnudutas, Ajamila could understand the religious principles that act under the three modes of material nature. These principles are mentioned in the three Vedas. He could also understand the transcendental religious principles, which are above the modes of material nature and which concern the relationship between the living being and the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Furthermore, Ajamila heard glorification of the name, fame, qualities and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He thus became a perfectly pure devotee. He could then remember his past sinful activities, which he greatly regretted having performed.

PURPORT

In Bhagavad-gita (2.45) Lord Krsna told Arjuna:

traigunya-visaya veda

nistraigunyo bhavarjuna

nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho

niryoga-ksema atmavan

"The Vedas mainly deal with the subject of the three modes of material nature. Rise above these modes, O Arjuna. Be transcendental to all of them. Be free from all dualities and from all anxieties for gain and safety, and be established in the Self." The Vedic principles certainly prescribe a gradual process for rising to the spiritual platform, but if one remains attached to the Vedic principles, there is no chance of his being elevated to spiritual life. Krsna therefore advised Arjuna to perform devotional service, which is the process of transcendental religion. The transcendental position of devotional service is also confirmed in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.6). Sa vai pumsam paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhoksaje. Bhakti, devotional service, is paro dharmah, transcendental dharma; it is not material dharma. People generally think that religion should be pursued for material profit. This may be suitable for persons interested in material life, but one who is interested in spiritual life should be attached to paro dharmah, the religious principles by which one becomes a devotee of the Supreme Lord (yato bhaktir adhoksaje). The bhagavata religion teaches that the Lord and the living entity are eternally related and that the duty of the living entity is to surrender to the Lord. When one is situated on the platform of devotional service, one is freed from impediments and completely satisfied (ahaituky apratihata yayatma suprasidati). Having been elevated to that platform, Ajamila began to lament for his past materialistic activities and glorify the name, fame, form and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TEXT 26

TEXT

aho me paramam kastam

abhud avijitatmanah

yena viplavitam brahma

vrsalyam jayatatmana

SYNONYMS

aho--alas; me--my; paramam--extreme; kastam--miserable condition; abhut--became; avijita-atmanah--because my senses were uncontrolled; yena--by which; viplavitam--destroyed; brahma--all my brahminical qualifications; vrsalyam--through a sudrani, a maidservant; jayata--being born; atmana--by me.

TRANSLATION

Ajamila said: Alas, being a servant of my senses, how degraded I became! I fell down from my position as a duly qualified brahmana and begot children in the womb of a prostitute.

PURPORT

The men of the higher classes--the brahmanas, ksatriyas and vaisyas--do not beget children in the wombs of lower-class women. Therefore the custom in Vedic society is to examine the horoscopes of a girl and boy being considered for marriage to see whether their combination is suitable. Vedic astrology reveals whether one has been born in the vipra-varna, ksatriya-varna, vaisya-varna or sudra-varna, according to the three qualities of material nature. This must be examined because a marriage between a boy of the vipra-varna and a girl of the sudra-varna is incompatible; married life would be miserable for both husband and wife. Consequently a boy should marry a girl of the same category. Of course, this is trai-gunya, a material calculation according to the Vedas, but if the boy and girl are devotees there need be no such considerations. A devotee is transcendental, and therefore in a marriage between devotees, the boy and girl form a very happy combination.

TEXT 27

TEXT

dhin mam vigarhitam sadbhir

duskrtam kula-kajjalam

hitva balam satim yo 'ham

sura-pim asatim agam

SYNONYMS

dhik mam--all condemnation upon me; vigarhitam--condemned; sadbhih--by honest men; duskrtam--who has committed sinful acts; kula-kajjalam--who has defamed the family tradition; hitva--giving up; balam--a young wife; satim--chaste; yah--who; aham--I; surapim--with a woman accustomed to drinking wine; asatim--unchaste; agam--I had sexual intercourse.

TRANSLATION

Alas, all condemnation upon me! I acted so sinfully that I degraded my family tradition. Indeed, I gave up my chaste and beautiful young wife to have sexual intercourse with a fallen prostitute accustomed to drinking wine. All condemnation upon me!

PURPORT

This is the mentality of one who is becoming a pure devotee. When one is elevated to the platform of devotional service by the grace of the Lord and the spiritual master, one first regrets his past sinful activities. This helps one advance in spiritual life. The Visnudutas had given Ajamila the chance to become a pure devotee, and the duty of a pure devotee is to regret his past sinful activities in illicit sex, intoxication, meat-eating and gambling. Not only should one give up his past bad habits, but he must always regret his past sinful acts. This is the standard of pure devotion.

TEXT 28

TEXT

vrddhav anathau pitarau

nanya-bandhu tapasvinau

aho mayadhuna tyaktav

akrtajnena nicavat

SYNONYMS

vrddhau--old; anathau--who had no other person to look after their comforts; pitarau--my father and mother; na anya-bandhu--who had no other friend; tapasvinau--who underwent great difficulties; aho--alas; maya--by me; adhuna--at that moment; tyaktau--were given up; akrta-jnena--ungrateful; nica-vat--like the most abominable low-class person.

TRANSLATION

My father and mother were old and had no other son or friend to look after them. Because I did not take care of them, they lived with great difficulty. Alas, like an abominable lower-class man, I ungratefully left them in that condition.

PURPORT

According to Vedic civilization, everyone has the responsibility for taking care of brahmanas, old men, women, children and cows. This is the duty of everyone, especially an upper-class person. Because of his association with a prostitute, Ajamila abandoned all his duties. Regretting this, Ajamila now considered himself quite fallen.

TEXT 29

TEXT

so 'ham vyaktam patisyami

narake bhrsa-darune

dharma-ghnah kamino yatra

vindanti yama-yatanah

SYNONYMS

sah--such a person; aham--I; vyaktam--it is now clear; patisyami--will fall down; narake--in hell; bhrsa-darune--most miserable; dharma-ghnah--they who break the principles of religion; kaminah--who are too lusty; yatra--where; vindanti--undergo; yama-yatanah--the miserable conditions imposed by Yamaraja.

TRANSLATION

It is now clear that as a consequence of such activities, a sinful person like me must be thrown into hellish conditions meant for those who have broken religious principles and must there suffer extreme miseries.

TEXT 30

TEXT

kim idam svapna aho svit

saksad drstam ihadbhutam

kva yata adya te ye mam

vyakarsan pasa-panayah

SYNONYMS

kim--whether; idam--this; svapne--in a dream; aho svit--or; saksat--directly; drstam--seen; iha--here; adbhutam--wonderful; kva--where; yatah--have gone; adya--now; te--all of them; ye--who; mam--me; vyakarsan--were dragging; pasa-panayah--with ropes in their hands.

TRANSLATION

Was this a dream I saw, or was it reality? I saw fearsome men with ropes in their hands coming to arrest me and drag me away. Where have they gone?

TEXT 31

TEXT

atha te kva gatah siddhas

catvaras caru-darsanah

vyamocayan niyamanam

baddhva pasair adho bhuvah

SYNONYMS

atha--thereafter; te--those persons; kva--where; gatah--went; siddhah--liberated; catvarah--four personalities; caru-darsanah--extremely beautiful to see; vyamocayan--they released; niyamanam--me, who was being carried away; baddhva--being arrested; pasaih--by ropes; adhah bhuvah--downward to the hellish region.

TRANSLATION

And where have those four liberated and very beautiful persons gone who released me from arrest and saved me from being dragged down to the hellish regions?

PURPORT

As we have learned from the descriptions in the Fifth Canto, the hellish planets are situated in the lower portions of this universe. Therefore they are called adho bhuvah. Ajamila could understand that the Yamadutas had come from that region.

TEXT 32

TEXT

athapi me durbhagasya

vibudhottama-darsane

bhavitavyam mangalena

yenatma me prasidati

SYNONYMS

atha--therefore; api--although; me--of me; durbhagasya--so unfortunate; vibudha-uttama--exalted devotees; darsane--because of seeing; bhavitavyam--there must be; mangalena--auspicious activities; yena--by which; atma--self; me--my; prasidati--actually becomes happy.

TRANSLATION

I am certainly most abominable and unfortunate to have merged in an ocean of sinful activities, but nevertheless, because of my previous spiritual activities, I could see those four exalted personalities who came to rescue me. Now I feel exceedingly happy because of their visit.

PURPORT

As stated in Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 22.54):

'sadhu-sanga', 'sadhu-sanga'----sarva-sastre kaya

lava-matra sadhu-sange sarva-siddhi haya

"Association with devotees is recommended by all the sastras because by even a moment of such association one can receive the seed for all perfection." In the beginning of his life Ajamila was certainly very pure, and he associated with devotees and brahmanas; because of that pious activity, even though he was fallen, he was inspired to name his son Narayana. Certainly this was due to good counsel given from within by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (15.15), sarvasya caham hrdi sannivisto mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca: "I am seated in everyone's heart, and from Me come remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness." The Lord, who is situated in everyone's heart, is so kind that if one has ever rendered service to Him, the Lord never forgets him. Thus the Lord, from within, gave Ajamila the opportunity to name his youngest son Narayana so that in affection he would constantly call "Narayana! Narayana!" and thus be saved from the most fearful and dangerous condition at the time of his death. Such is the mercy of Krsna. Guru-krsna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija: by the mercy of the guru and Krsna, one receives the seed of bhakti. This association saves a devotee from the greatest fear. In our Krsna consciousness movement we therefore change a devotee's name to a form that reminds him of Visnu. If at the time of death the devotee can remember his own name, such as Krsnadasa or Govinda dasa, he can be saved from the greatest danger. Therefore the change of names at the time of initiation is essential. The Krsna consciousness movement is so meticulous that it gives one a good opportunity to remember Krsna somehow or other.

TEXT 33

TEXT

anyatha mriyamanasya

nasucer vrsali-pateh

vaikuntha-nama-grahanam

jihva vaktum iharhati

SYNONYMS

anyatha--otherwise; mriyamanasya--of a person who is just ready for death; na--not; asuceh--most unclean; vrsali-pateh--the keeper of a prostitute; vaikuntha--of the Lord of Vaikuntha; nama-grahanam--the chanting of the holy name; jihva--the tongue; vaktum--to speak; iha--in this situation; arhati--is able.

TRANSLATION

Were it not for my past devotional service, how could I, a most unclean keeper of a prostitute, have gotten an opportunity to chant the holy name of Vaikunthapati when I was just ready to die? Certainly it could not have been possible.

PURPORT

The name Vaikunthapati, which means "the master of the spiritual world," is not different from the name Vaikuntha. Ajamila, who was now a realized soul, could understand that because of his past spiritual activities in devotional service, he had gotten this opportunity to chant the holy name of Vaikunthapati in his horrible condition at the time of death.

TEXT 34

TEXT

kva caham kitavah papo

brahma-ghno nirapatrapah

kva ca narayanety etad

bhagavan-nama mangalam

SYNONYMS

kva--where; ca--also; aham--I; kitavah--a cheater; papah--all sins personified; brahma-ghnah--the killer of my brahminical culture; nirapatrapah--shameless; kva--where; ca--also; narayana--Narayana; iti--thus; etat--this; bhagavat-nama--the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mangalam--all-auspicious.

TRANSLATION

Ajamila continued: I am a shameless cheater who has killed his brahminical culture. Indeed, I am sin personified. Where am I in comparison to the all-auspicious chanting of the holy name of Lord Narayana?

PURPORT

Those engaged in broadcasting the holy name of Narayana, Krsna, through the Krsna consciousness movement should always consider what our position was before we came and what it is now. We had fallen into abominable lives as meat-eaters, drunkards and woman hunters who performed all kinds of sinful activities, but now we have been given the opportunity to chant the Hare Krsna mantra. Therefore we should always appreciate this opportunity. By the grace of the Lord we are opening many branches, and we should use this good fortune to chant the holy name of the Lord and serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead directly. We must be conscious of the difference between our present and past conditions and should always be very careful not to fall from the most exalted life.

TEXT 35

TEXT

so 'ham tatha yatisyami

yata-cittendriyanilah

yatha na bhuya atmanam

andhe tamasi majjaye

SYNONYMS

sah--such a person; aham--I; tatha--in that way; yatisyami--I shall endeavor; yata-citta-indriya--controlling the mind and senses; anilah--and the internal airs; yatha--so that; na--not; bhuyah--again; atmanam--my soul; andhe--in darkness; tamasi--in ignorance; majjaye--I drown.

TRANSLATION

I am such a sinful person, but since I have now gotten this opportunity, I must completely control my mind, life and senses and always engage in devotional service so that I may not fall again into the deep darkness and ignorance of material life.

PURPORT

Every one of us should have this determination. We have been elevated to an exalted position by the mercy of Krsna and the spiritual master, and if we remember that this is a great opportunity and pray to Krsna that we will not fall again, our lives will be successful.

TEXTS 36-37

TEXT

vimucya tam imam bandham

avidya-kama-karmajam

sarva-bhuta-suhrc chanto

maitrah karuna atmavan

mocaye grastam atmanam

yosin-mayyatma-mayaya

vikridito yayaivaham

krida-mrga ivadhamah

SYNONYMS

vimucya--having become free from; tam--that; imam--this; bandham--bondage; avidya--due to ignorance; kama--due to lusty desire; karma-jam--caused by activities; sarva-bhuta--of all living entities; suhrt--friend; santah--very peaceful; maitrah--friendly; karunah--merciful; atma-van--self-realized; mocaye--I shall disentangle; grastam--encaged; atmanam--my soul; yosit-mayya--in the form of woman; atma-mayaya--by the illusory energy of the Lord; vikriditah--played with; yaya--by which; eva--certainly; aham--I; krida-mrgah--a controlled animal; iva--like; adhamah--so fallen.

TRANSLATION

Because of identifying oneself with the body, one is subjected to desires for sense gratification, and thus one engages in many different types of pious and impious action. This is what constitutes material bondage. Now I shall disentangle myself from my material bondage, which has been caused by the Supreme Personality of Godhead's illusory energy in the form of a woman. Being a most fallen soul, I was victimized by the illusory energy and have become like a dancing dog led around by a woman's hand. Now I shall give up all lusty desires and free myself from this illusion. I shall become a merciful, well-wishing friend to all living entities and always absorb myself in Krsna consciousness.

PURPORT

This should be the standard of determination for all Krsna conscious persons. A Krsna conscious person should free himself from the clutches of maya, and he should also be compassionate to all others suffering in those clutches. The activities of the Krsna consciousness movement are meant not only for oneself but for others also. This is the perfection of Krsna consciousness. One who is interested in his own salvation is not as advanced in Krsna consciousness as one who feels compassion for others and who therefore propagates the Krsna consciousness movement. Such an advanced devotee will never fall down, for Krsna will give him special protection. That is the sum and substance of the Krsna consciousness movement. Everyone is like a play toy in the hands of the illusory energy and is acting as she moves him. One should come to Krsna consciousness to release oneself and also to release others.

TEXT 38

TEXT

mamaham iti dehadau

hitvamithyartha-dhir matim

dhasye mano bhagavati

suddham tat-kirtanadibhih

SYNONYMS

mama--my; aham--I; iti--thus; deha-adau--in the body and things related to the body; hitva--giving up; amithya--not false; artha--on values; dhih--with my consciousness; matim--the attitude; dhasye--I shall engage; manah--my mind; bhagavati--on the Supreme Personality of Godhead; suddham--pure; tat--His name; kirtana-adibhih--by chanting, hearing and so on.

TRANSLATION

Simply because I chanted the holy name of the Lord in the association of devotees, my heart is now becoming purified. Therefore I shall not fall victim again to the false lures of material sense gratification. Now that I have become fixed in the Absolute Truth, henceforward I shall not identify myself with the body. I shall give up false conceptions of "I" and "mine" and fix my mind on the lotus feet of Krsna.

PURPORT

How a living entity becomes a victim of the material condition is lucidly explained in this verse. The beginning is to misidentify the body as one's self. Therefore Bhagavad-gita begins with the spiritual instruction that one is not the body, but is within the body. This consciousness can be possible only if one chants the holy name of Krsna, the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, and always keeps oneself in the association of devotees. This is the secret of success. Therefore we stress that one should chant the holy name of the Lord and keep oneself free from the contaminations of this material world, especially the contaminations of lusty desires for illicit sex, meat-eating, intoxication and gambling. With determination, one should vow to follow these principles and thus be saved from the miserable condition of material existence. The first necessity is to become freed from the bodily concept of life.

TEXT 39

TEXT

iti jata-sunirvedah

ksana-sangena sadhusu

ganga-dvaram upeyaya

mukta-sarvanubandhanah

SYNONYMS

iti--thus; jata-sunirvedah--(Ajamila) who had become detached from the material conception of life; ksana-sangena--by a moment's association; sadhusu--with devotees; ganga-dvaram--to Hardwar (hari-dvara), the doorway to Hari (because the Ganges begins there, Hardwar is also called ganga-dvara); upeyaya--went; mukta--being freed from; sarva-anubandhanah--all kinds of material bondage.

TRANSLATION

Because of a moment's association with devotees [the Visnudutas], Ajamila detached himself from the material conception of life with determination. Thus freed from all material attraction, he immediately started for Hardwar.

PURPORT

The word mukta-sarvanubandhanah indicates that after this incident, Ajamila, not caring for his wife and children, went straight to Hardwar for further advancement in his spiritual life. Our Krsna consciousness movement now has centers in Vrndavana and Navadvipa so that those who want to live a retired life, whether they be devotees or not, can go there and with determination give up the bodily concept of life. One is welcome to live in those holy places for the rest of his life in order to achieve the highest success by the very simple method of chanting the holy name of the Lord and taking prasada. Thus one may return home, back to Godhead. We do not have a center in Hardwar, but Vrndavana and Sridhama Mayapur are better for devotees than any other places. The Caitanya Candrodaya temple offers one a good opportunity to associate with devotees. Let us all take advantage of this opportunity.

TEXT 40

TEXT

sa tasmin deva-sadana

asino yogam asthitah

pratyahrtendriya-gramo

yuyoja mana atmani

SYNONYMS

sah--he (Ajamila); tasmin--at that place (Hardwar); deva-sadane--in one Visnu temple; asinah--being situated; yogam asthitah--performed bhakti-yoga; pratyahrta--withdrawn from all activities of sense gratification; indriya-gramah--his senses; yuyoja--he fixed; manah--the mind; atmani--on the self or the Supersoul, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

In Hardwar, Ajamila took shelter at a Visnu temple, where he executed the process of bhakti-yoga. He controlled his senses and fully applied his mind in the service of the Lord.

PURPORT

The devotees who have joined the Krsna consciousness movement may live comfortably in our many temples and engage in the devotional service of the Lord. Thus they can control the mind and senses and achieve the highest success in life. This is the process descending from time immemorial. Learning from the life of Ajamila, we should vow with determination to do what is necessary to follow this path.

TEXT 41

TEXT

tato gunebhya atmanam

viyujyatma-samadhina

yuyuje bhagavad-dhamni

brahmany anubhavatmani

SYNONYMS

tatah--thereafter; gunebhyah--from the modes of material nature; atmanam--the mind; viyujya--detaching; atma-samadhina--by being fully engaged in devotional service; yuyuje--engaged; bhagavat-dhamni--in the form of the Lord; brahmani--which is Parabrahman (not idol worship); anubhava-atmani--which is always thought of (beginning from the lotus feet and gradually progressing upward).

TRANSLATION

Ajamila fully engaged in devotional service. Thus he detached his mind from the process of sense gratification and became fully absorbed in thinking of the form of the Lord.

PURPORT

If one worships the Deity in the temple, one's mind will naturally be absorbed in thought of the Lord and His form. There is no distinction between the form of the Lord and the Lord Himself. Therefore bhakti-yoga is the most easy system of yoga. Yogis try to concentrate their minds upon the form of the Supersoul, Visnu, within the heart, but this same objective is easily achieved when one's mind is absorbed in the Deity worshiped in the temple. In every temple there is a transcendental form of the Lord, and one may easily think of this form. By seeing the Lord during arati, by offering bhoga and by constantly thinking of the form of the Deity, one becomes a first-class yogi. This is the best process of yoga, as confirmed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead in Bhagavad-gita (6.47):

yoginam api sarvesam

mad-gatenantaratmana

sraddhavan bhajate yo mam

sa me yuktatamo matah

"Of all yogis, he who always abides in Me with great faith, worshiping Me in transcendental loving service, is most intimately united with Me in yoga and is the highest of all." The first-class yogi is he who controls his senses and detaches himself from material activities by always thinking of the form of the Lord.

TEXT 42

TEXT

yarhy uparata-dhis tasminn

adraksit purusan purah

upalabhyopalabdhan prag

vavande sirasa dvijah

SYNONYMS

yarhi--when; uparata-dhih--his mind and intelligence were fixed; tasmin--at that time; adraksit--had seen; purusan--the persons (the order carriers of Lord Visnu); purah--before him; upalabhya--getting; upalabdhan--who were gotten; prak--previously; vavande--offered obeisances; sirasa--by the head; dvijah--the brahmana.

TRANSLATION

When his intelligence and mind were fixed upon the form of the Lord, the brahmana Ajamila once again saw before him four celestial persons. He could understand that they were those he had seen previously, and thus he offered them his obeisances by bowing down before them.

PURPORT

The Visnudutas who had rescued Ajamila came before him again when his mind was firmly fixed upon the form of the Lord. The Visnudutas had gone away for some time to give Ajamila a chance to become firmly fixed in meditation upon the Lord. Now that his devotion had matured, they returned to take him. Understanding that the same Visnudutas had returned, Ajamila offered them his obeisances by bowing down before them.

TEXT 43

TEXT

hitva kalevaram tirthe

gangayam darsanad anu

sadyah svarupam jagrhe

bhagavat-parsva-vartinam

SYNONYMS

hitva--giving up; kalevaram--the material body; tirthe--in the holy place; gangayam--on the bank of the Ganges; darsanat anu--after seeing; sadyah--immediately; sva-rupam--his original spiritual form; jagrhe--he assumed; bhagavat-parsva-vartinam--which is fit for an associate of the Lord.

TRANSLATION

Upon seeing the Visnudutas, Ajamila gave up his material body at Hardwar on the bank of the Ganges. He regained his original spiritual body, which was a body appropriate for an associate of the Lord.

PURPORT

The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (4.9):

janma karma ca me divyam

evam yo vetti tattvatah

tyaktva deham punar janma

naiti mam eti so 'rjuna

"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna."

The result of perfection in Krsna consciousness is that after giving up one's material body, one is immediately transferred to the spiritual world in one's original spiritual body to become an associate of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Some devotees go to Vaikunthaloka, and others go to Goloka Vrndavana to become associates of Krsna.

TEXT 44

TEXT

sakam vihayasa vipro

mahapurusa-kinkaraih

haimam vimanam aruhya

yayau yatra sriyah patih

SYNONYMS

sakam--along; vihayasa--by the path in the sky, or the airways; viprah--the brahmana (Ajamila); mahapurusa-kinkaraih--with the order carriers of Lord Visnu; haimam--made of gold; vimanam--an airplane; aruhya--boarding; yayau--went; yatra--where; sriyah patih--Lord Visnu, the husband of the goddess of fortune.

TRANSLATION

Accompanied by the order carriers of Lord Visnu, Ajamila boarded an airplane made of gold. Passing through the airways, he went directly to the abode of Lord Visnu, the husband of the goddess of fortune.

PURPORT

For many years, material scientists have tried to go to the moon, but they are still unable to go there. However, the spiritual airplanes from the spiritual planets can take one back home, back to Godhead, in a second. The speed of such a spiritual plane can only be imagined. Spirit is finer than the mind, and everyone has experience of how swiftly the mind travels from one place to another. Therefore one can imagine the swiftness of the spiritual form by comparing it to the speed of the mind. In less than even a moment, a perfect devotee can return home, back to Godhead, immediately after giving up his material body.

TEXT 45

TEXT

evam sa viplavita-sarva-dharma

dasyah patih patito garhya-karmana

nipatyamano niraye hata-vratah

sadyo vimukto bhagavan-nama grhnan

SYNONYMS

evam--in this way; sah--he (Ajamila); viplavita-sarva-dharmah--who gave up all religious principles; dasyah patih--the husband of a prostitute; patitah--fallen; garhya-karmana--by being engaged in abominable activities; nipatyamanah--falling; niraye--in hellish life; hata-vratah--who broke all his vows; sadyah--immediately; vimuktah--liberated; bhagavat-nama--the holy name of the Lord; grhnan--chanting.

TRANSLATION

Ajamila was a brahmana who because of bad association had given up all brahminical culture and religious principles. Becoming most fallen, he stole, drank and performed other abominable acts. He even kept a prostitute. Thus he was destined to be carried away to hell by the order carriers of Yamaraja, but he was immediately rescued simply by a glimpse of the chanting of the holy name Narayana.

TEXT 46

TEXT

natah param karma-nibandha-krntanam

mumuksatam tirtha-padanukirtanat

na yat punah karmasu sajjate mano

rajas-tamobhyam kalilam tato 'nyatha

SYNONYMS

na--not; atah--therefore; param--better means; karma-nibandha--the obligation to suffer or undergo tribulations as a result of fruitive activities; krntanam--that which can completely cut off; mumuksatam--of persons desiring to get out of the clutches of material bondage; tirtha-pada--about the Supreme Personality of Godhead, at whose feet all the holy places stand; anukirtanat--than constantly chanting under the direction of the bona fide spiritual master; na--not; yat--because; punah--again; karmasu--in fruitive activities; sajjate--becomes attached; manah--the mind; rajah-tamobhyam--by the modes of passion and ignorance; kalilam--contaminated; tatah--thereafter; anyatha--by any other means.

TRANSLATION

Therefore one who desires freedom from material bondage should adopt the process of chanting and glorifying the name, fame, form and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, at whose feet all the holy places stand. One cannot derive the proper benefit from other methods, such as pious atonement, speculative knowledge and meditation in mystic yoga, because even after following such methods one takes to fruitive activities again, unable to control his mind, which is contaminated by the base qualities of nature, namely passion and ignorance.

PURPORT

It has actually been seen that even after achieving so-called perfection, many karmis, jnanis and yogis become attached to material activities again. Many so-called svamis and yogis give up material activities as false (jagan mithya), but after some time they nevertheless resume material activities by opening hospitals and schools or performing other activities for the benefit of the public. Sometimes they participate in politics, although still falsely declaring themselves sannyasis, members of the renounced order. The perfect conclusion, however, is that if one actually desires to get out of the material world, he must take to devotional service, which begins with sravanam kirtanam visnoh: chanting and hearing the glories of the Lord. The Krsna consciousness movement has actually proved this. In the Western countries, many young boys who were addicted to drugs and who had many other bad habits, which they could not give up, abandoned all those propensities and very seriously engaged in chanting the glories of the Lord as soon as they joined the Krsna consciousness movement. In other words, this process is the perfect method of atonement for actions performed in rajah and tamah (passion and ignorance). As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.19):

tada rajas-tamo-bhavah

kama-lobhadayas ca ye

ceta etair anaviddham

sthitam sattve prasidati

As a result of rajah and tamah, one becomes increasingly lusty and greedy, but when one takes to the process of chanting and hearing, one comes to the platform of goodness and becomes happy. As he advances in devotional service, all his doubts are completely eradicated (bhidyate hrdaya-granthis chidyante sarva-samsayah). Thus the knot of his desire for fruitive activities is cut to pieces.

TEXTS 47-48

TEXT

ya etam paramam guhyam

itihasam aghapaham

srnuyac chraddhaya yukto

yas ca bhaktyanukirtayet

na vai sa narakam yati

neksito yama-kinkaraih

yady apy amangalo martyo

visnu-loke mahiyate

SYNONYMS

yah--anyone who; etam--this; paramam--very; guhyam--confidential; itihasam--historical narration; agha-apaham--which frees one from all reactions to sins; srnuyat--hears; sraddhaya--with faith; yuktah--endowed; yah--one who; ca--also; bhaktya--with great devotion; anukirtayet--repeats; na--not; vai--indeed; sah--such a person; narakam--to hell; yati--goes; na--not; iksitah--is observed; yama-kinkaraih--by the order carriers of Yamaraja; yadi api--although; amangalah--inauspicious; martyah--a living entity with a material body; visnu-loke--in the spiritual world; mahiyate--is welcomed and respectfully received.

TRANSLATION

Because this very confidential historical narration has the potency to vanquish all sinful reactions, one who hears or describes it with faith and devotion is no longer doomed to hellish life, regardless of his having a material body and regardless of how sinful he may have been. Indeed, the Yamadutas, who carry out the orders of Yamaraja, do not approach him even to see him. After giving up his body, he returns home, back to Godhead, where he is very respectfully received and worshiped.

TEXT 49

TEXT

mriyamano harer nama

grnan putropacaritam

ajamilo 'py agad dhama

kim uta sraddhaya grnan

SYNONYMS

mriyamanah--at the time of death; hareh nama--the holy name of Hari; grnan--chanting; putra-upacaritam--indicating his son; ajamilah--Ajamila; api--even; agat--went; dhama--to the spiritual world; kim uta--what to speak of; sraddhaya--with faith and love; grnan--chanting.

TRANSLATION

While suffering at the time of death, Ajamila chanted the holy name of the Lord, and although the chanting was directed toward his son, he nevertheless returned home, back to Godhead. Therefore if one faithfully and inoffensively chants the holy name of the Lord, where is the doubt that he will return to Godhead?

PURPORT

At the time of death one is certainly bewildered because his bodily functions are in disorder. At that time, even one who throughout his life has practiced chanting the holy name of the Lord may not be able to chant the Hare Krsna mantra very distinctly. Nevertheless, such a person receives all the benefits of chanting the holy name. While the body is fit therefore, why should we not chant the holy name of the Lord loudly and distinctly? If one does so, it is quite possible that even at the time of death he will be properly able to chant the holy name of the Lord with love and faith. In conclusion, one who chants the holy name of the Lord constantly is guaranteed to return home, back to Godhead, without a doubt.

Supplementary note to this chapter.

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura's commentary to texts nine and ten of this chapter form a dialogue concerning how one can become free from all sinful reactions simply by chanting the holy name of the Lord.

Someone may say, "It may be accepted that by chanting the holy name of the Lord one becomes freed from all the reactions of sinful life. However, if one commits sinful acts in full consciousness, not only once but many, many times, he is unable to free himself from the reactions of such sins even after atoning for them for twelve years or more. How is it possible, then, that simply by once chanting the holy name of the Lord one immediately becomes freed from the reactions of such sins?"

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura replies by quoting verses nine and ten of this chapter: "The chanting of the holy name of Lord Visnu is the best process of atonement for a thief of gold or other valuables, for a drunkard, for one who betrays a friend or relative, for one who kills a brahmana, or for one who indulges in sex with the wife of his guru or another superior. It is also the best method of atonement for one who murders women, the king or his father, for one who slaughters cows, and for all other sinful men. Simply by chanting the holy name of Lord Visnu, such sinful persons may attract the attention of the Supreme Lord, who therefore considers "Because this man has chanted My holy name, My duty is to give him protection.' "

One may atone for sinful life and vanquish all sinful reactions by chanting the holy name, although this is not called atonement. Ordinary atonement may temporarily protect a sinful person, but it does not completely cleanse his heart of the deep-rooted desire to commit sinful acts. Therefore atonement is not as powerful as the chanting of the holy name of the Lord. In the sastras it is said that if a person only once chants the holy name and completely surrenders unto the lotus feet of the Lord, the Lord immediately considers him His ward and is always inclined to give him protection. This is confirmed by Sridhara Svami. Thus when Ajamila was in great danger of being carried off by the order carriers of Yamaraja, the Lord immediately sent His personal order carriers to protect him, and because Ajamila was freed from all sinful reactions, the Visnudutas spoke on his behalf.

Ajamila had named his son Narayana, and because he loved the boy very much, he would call him again and again. Although he was calling for his son, the name itself was powerful because the name Narayana is not different from the Supreme Lord Narayana. When Ajamila named his son Narayana, all the reactions of his sinful life were neutralized, and as he continued calling his son and thus chanting the holy name of Narayana thousands of times, he was actually unconsciously advancing in Krsna consciousness.

One may argue, "Since he was constantly chanting the name of Narayana, how was it possible for him to be associating with a prostitute and thinking of wine?" By his sinful actions he was bringing suffering upon himself again and again, and therefore one may say that his ultimate chanting of Narayana was the cause of his being freed. However, his chanting would then have been a nama-aparadha. Namno balad yasya hi papa-buddhih: one who continues to act sinfully and tries to neutralize his sins by chanting the holy name of the Lord is a nama-aparadhi, an offender to the holy name. In response it may be said that Ajamila's chanting was inoffensive because he did not chant the name of Narayana with the purpose of counteracting his sins. He did not know that he was addicted to sinful actions, nor did he know that his chanting of the name of Narayana was neutralizing them. Thus he did not commit a nama-aparadha, and his repeated chanting of the holy name of Narayana while calling his son may be called pure chanting. Because of this pure chanting, Ajamila unconsciously accumulated the results of bhakti. Indeed, even his first utterance of the holy name was sufficient to nullify all the sinful reactions of his life. To cite a logical example, a fig tree does not immediately yield fruits, but in time the fruits are available. Similarly, Ajamila's devotional service grew little by little, and therefore although he committed very sinful acts, the reactions did not affect him. In the sastras it is said that if one chants the holy name of the Lord even once, the reactions of past, present or future sinful life do not affect him. To give another example, if one extracts the poison fangs of a serpent, this saves the serpent's future victims from poisonous effects, even if the serpent bites repeatedly. Similarly, if a devotee chants the holy name even once inoffensively, this protects him eternally. He need only wait for the results of the chanting to mature in due course of time.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Second Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "Ajamila Delivered by the Visnudutas."

Chapter Three

Yamaraja Instructs His Messengers

As related in this chapter, the Yamadutas approached Yamaraja, who very exhaustively explained bhagavata-dharma, the religious principle of devotional service. Yamaraja thus satisfied the Yamadutas, who had been very disappointed. Yamaraja said, "Although Ajamila was calling for his son, he chanted the holy name of the Lord, Narayana, and simply by a glimpse of the chanting of the holy name, he immediately achieved the association of Lord Visnu's order carriers, who saved him from your attempt to arrest him. This is quite all right. It is a fact that even a chronically sinful person who chants the holy name of the Lord, although not completely without offenses, does not take another material birth."

By chanting the holy name of the Lord, Ajamila had met four order carriers of Lord Visnu. They were very beautiful and had quickly come to rescue him. Yamaraja now described them. "The Visnudutas are all pure devotees of the Lord, the Supreme Person in regard to the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this cosmic manifestation. Neither King Indra, Varuna, Siva, Brahma, the seven rsis nor I myself can understand the transcendental activities of the Supreme Lord, who is self-sufficient and beyond the reach of the material senses. With material senses, no one can attain enlightenment about Him. The Lord, the master of the illusory energy, possesses transcendental qualities for the good fortune of everyone, and His devotees are also qualified in that way. The devotees, concerned only with rescuing the fallen souls from this material world, apparently take birth in different places in the material world just to save the conditioned souls. If one is somewhat interested in spiritual life, the devotees of the Lord protect him in many ways."

Yamaraja continued, "The essence of sanatana-dharma, or eternal religion, is extremely confidential. No one but the Lord Himself can deliver that confidential religious system to human society. It is by the mercy of the Lord that the transcendental system of religion can be understood by His pure devotees, and specifically by the twelve mahajanas--Lord Brahma, Narada Muni, Lord Siva, the Kumaras, Kapila, Manu, Prahlada, Janaka, Bhisma, Bali, Sukadeva Gosvami and me. Other learned scholars, headed by Jaimini, are almost always covered by the illusory energy, and therefore they are more or less attracted by the flowery language of the three Vedas, namely Rg, Yajur and Sama, which are called trayi. Instead of becoming pure devotees, people captivated by the flowery words of these three Vedas are interested in the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies. They cannot understand the glories of chanting the holy name of the Lord. Intelligent persons, however, take to the devotional service of the Lord. When they chant the holy name of the Lord without offenses, they are no longer subject to my rulings. If by chance they commit some sinful act, they are protected by the holy name of the Lord because that is where their interest lies. The four weapons of the Lord, especially the club and the Sudarsana cakra, always protect the devotees. One who chants, hears or remembers the holy name of the Lord without duplicity, or who prays or offers obeisances to the Lord, becomes perfect, whereas even a learned person may be called to hell if he is bereft of devotional service."

After Yamaraja thus described the glories of the Lord and His devotees, Sukadeva Gosvami further explained the potency of chanting the holy name and the futility of performing Vedic ritualistic ceremonies and pious activities for atonement.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-rajovaca

nisamya devah sva-bhatopavarnitam

pratyaha kim tan api dharmarajah

evam hatajno vihatan murarer

naidesikair yasya vase jano 'yam

SYNONYMS

sri-raja uvaca--the King said; nisamya--after hearing; devah--Lord Yamaraja; sva-bhata--of his own servants; upavarnitam--the statements; pratyaha--replied; kim--what; tan--unto them; api--also; dharma-rajah--Yamaraja, the superintendent of death and the judge of religious and irreligious activities; evam--thus; hata-ajnah--whose order was foiled; vihatan--who were defeated; murareh naidesikaih--by the order carriers of Murari, Krsna; yasya--of whom; vase--under the subjugation; janah ayam--all the people of the world.

TRANSLATION

King Pariksit said: O my lord, O Sukadeva Gosvami, Yamaraja is the controller of all living entities in terms of their religious and irreligious activities, but his order had been foiled. When his servants, the Yamadutas, informed him of their defeat by the Visnudutas, who had stopped them from arresting Ajamila, what did he reply?

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says that although the statements of the Yamadutas were fully upheld by Vedic principles, the statements of the Visnudutas were triumphant. This was confirmed by Yamaraja himself.

TEXT 2

TEXT

yamasya devasya na danda-bhangah

kutascanarse sruta-purva asit

etan mune vrscati loka-samsayam

na hi tvad-anya iti me viniscitam

SYNONYMS

yamasya--of Yamaraja; devasya--the demigod in charge of judgment; na--not; danda-bhangah--the breaking of the order; kutascana--from anywhere; rse--O great sage; sruta-purvah--heard before; asit--was; etat--this; mune--O great sage; vrscati--can eradicate; loka-samsayam--the doubt of people; na--not; hi--indeed; tvat-anyah--anyone other than you; iti--thus; me--by me; viniscitam--concluded.

TRANSLATION

O great sage, never before has it been heard anywhere that an order from Yamaraja has been baffled. Therefore I think that people will have doubts about this that no one but you can eradicate. Since that is my firm conviction, kindly explain the reasons for these events.

TEXT 3

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

bhagavat-purusai rajan

yamyah pratihatodyamah

patim vijnapayam asur

yamam samyamani-patim

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sukadeva Gosvami said; bhagavat-purusaih--by the order carriers of the Lord, the Visnudutas; rajan--O King; yamyah--the order carriers of Yamaraja; pratihata-udyamah--whose efforts were defeated; patim--their master; vijnapayam asuh--informed; yamam--Yamaraja; samyamani-patim--the master of the city Samyamani.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami replied: My dear King, when the order carriers of Yamaraja were baffled and defeated by the order carriers of Visnu, they approached their master, the controller of Samyamani-puri and master of sinful persons, to tell him of this incident.

TEXT 4

TEXT

yamaduta ucuh

kati santiha sastaro

jiva-lokasya vai prabho

trai-vidhyam kurvatah karma

phalabhivyakti-hetavah

SYNONYMS

yamadutah ucuh--the order carriers of Yamaraja said; kati--how many; santi--are there; iha--in this world; sastarah--controllers or rulers; jiva-lokasya--of this material world; vai--indeed; prabho--O master; trai-vidhyam--under the three modes of material nature; kurvatah--performing; karma--activity; phala--of the results; abhivyakti--of the manifestation; hetavah--causes.

TRANSLATION

The Yamadutas said: Our dear lord, how many controllers or rulers are there in this material world? How many causes are responsible for manifesting the various results of activities performed under the three modes of material nature [sattva-guna, rajo-guna and tamo-guna]?

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says that the Yamadutas, the order carriers of Yamaraja, were so disappointed that they asked their master, almost in great anger, whether there were many masters other than him. Furthermore, because the Yamadutas had been defeated and their master could not protect them, they were inclined to say that there was no need to serve such a master. If a servant cannot carry out the orders of his master without being defeated, what is the use of serving such a powerless master?

TEXT 5

TEXT

yadi syur bahavo loke

sastaro danda-dharinah

kasya syatam na va kasya

mrtyus camrtam eva va

SYNONYMS

yadi--if; syuh--there are; bahavah--many; loke--in this world; sastarah--rulers or controllers; danda-dharinah--who punish the sinful men; kasya--of whom; syatam--there may be; na--not; va--or; kasya--of whom; mrtyuh--distress or unhappiness; ca--and; amrtam--happiness; eva--certainly; va--or.

TRANSLATION

If in this universe there are many rulers and justices who disagree about punishment and reward, their contradictory actions will neutralize each other, and no one will be punished or rewarded. Otherwise, if their contradictory acts fail to neutralize each other, everyone will have to be both punished and rewarded.

PURPORT

Because the Yamadutas had been unsuccessful in carrying out the order of Yamaraja, they doubted whether Yamaraja actually had the power to punish the sinful. Although they had gone to arrest Ajamila, following Yamaraja's order, they found themselves unsuccessful because of the order of some higher authority. Therefore they were unsure of whether there were many authorities or only one. If there were many authorities who gave different judgments, which could be contradictory, a person might be wrongly punished or wrongly rewarded, or he might be neither punished nor rewarded. According to our experience in the material world, a person punished in one court may appeal to another. Thus the same man may be either punished or rewarded according to different judgments. However, in the law of nature or the court of the Supreme Personality of Godhead there cannot be such contradictory judgments. The judges and their judgments must be perfect and free from contradictions. Actually the position of Yamaraja was very awkward in the case of Ajamila because the Yamadutas were right in attempting to arrest Ajamila, but the Visnudutas had baffled them. Although Yamaraja, under these circumstances, was accused by both the Visnudutas and the Yamadutas, he is perfect in administering justice because he is empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore he will explain what his real position is and how everyone is controlled by the supreme controller, the Personality of Godhead.

TEXT 6

TEXT

kintu sastr-bahutve syad

bahunam iha karminam

sastrtvam upacaro hi

yatha mandala-vartinam

SYNONYMS

kintu--but; sastr--of governors or judges; bahutve--in the plurality; syat--there may be; bahunam--of many; iha--in this world; karminam--persons performing actions; sastrtvam--departmental management; upacarah--administration; hi--indeed; yatha--just like; mandala-vartinam--of the departmental heads.

TRANSLATION

The Yamadutas continued: Since there are many different karmis, or workers, there may be different judges or rulers to give them justice, but just as one central emperor controls different departmental rulers, there must be one supreme controller to guide all the judges.

PURPORT

In governmental management there may be departmental officials to give justice to different persons, but the law must be one, and that central law must control everyone. The Yamadutas could not imagine that two judges would give two different verdicts in the same case, and therefore they wanted to know who the central judge is. The Yamadutas were certain that Ajamila was a most sinful man, but although Yamaraja wanted to punish him, the Visnudutas excused him. This was a puzzling situation that the Yamadutas wanted Yamaraja to clarify.

TEXT 7

TEXT

atas tvam eko bhutanam

sesvaranam adhisvarah

sasta danda-dharo nrnam

subhasubha-vivecanah

SYNONYMS

atah--as such; tvam--you; ekah--one; bhutanam--of all living beings; sa-isvaranam--including all the demigods; adhisvarah--the supreme master; sasta--the supreme ruler; danda-dharah--the supreme administrator of punishment; nrnam--of human society; subha-asubha-vivecanah--who discriminates between what is auspicious and inauspicious.

TRANSLATION

The supreme judge must be one, not many. It was our understanding that you are that supreme judge and that you have jurisdiction even over the demigods. Our impression was that you are the master of all living entities, the supreme authority who discriminates between the pious and impious activities of all human beings.

TEXT 8

TEXT

tasya te vihito dando

na loke vartate 'dhuna

caturbhir adbhutaih siddhair

ajna te vipralambhita

SYNONYMS

tasya--of the influence; te--of you; vihitah--ordained; dandah--punishment; na--not; loke--within this world; vartate--exists; adhuna--now; caturbhih--by four; adbhutaih--very wonderful; siddhaih--perfected persons; ajna--the order; te--your; vipralambhita--surpassed.

TRANSLATION

But now we see that the punishment ordained under your authority is no longer effective, since your order has been transgressed by four wonderful and perfect persons.

PURPORT

The Yamadutas had been under the impression that Yamaraja was the only person in charge of administering justice. They were fully confident that no one could counteract his judgments, but now, to their surprise, his order had been violated by the four wonderful persons from Siddhaloka.

TEXT 9

TEXT

niyamanam tavadesad

asmabhir yatana-grhan

vyamocayan patakinam

chittva pasan prasahya te

SYNONYMS

niyamanam--being brought; tava adesat--by your order; asmabhih--by us; yatana-grhan--to the torture chambers, the hellish planets; vyamocayan--released; patakinam--the sinful Ajamila; chittva--cutting; pasan--the ropes; prasahya--by force; te--they.

TRANSLATION

We were bringing the most sinful Ajamila toward the hellish planets, following your order, when those beautiful persons from Siddhaloka forcibly cut the knots of the ropes with which we were arresting him.

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura remarks that the Yamadutas wanted to bring the Visnudutas before Yamaraja. If Yamaraja could then have punished the Visnudutas, the Yamadutas would have been satisfied.

TEXT 10

TEXT

tams te veditum icchamo

yadi no manyase ksamam

narayanety abhihite

ma bhair ity ayayur drutam

SYNONYMS

tan--about them; te--from you; veditum--to know; icchamah--we wish; yadi--if; nah--for us; manyase--you think; ksamam--suitable; narayana--Narayana; iti--thus; abhihite--being uttered; ma--do not; bhaih--fear; iti--thus; ayayuh--they arrived; drutam--very soon.

TRANSLATION

As soon as the sinful Ajamila uttered the name Narayana, these four beautiful men immediately arrived and reassured him, saying, "Do not fear. Do not fear." We wish to know about them from Your Lordship. If you think we are able to understand them, kindly describe who they are.

PURPORT

The order carriers of Yamaraja, being very much aggrieved because of their defeat by the four Visnudutas, wanted to bring them before Yamaraja and, if possible, punish them. Otherwise they desired to commit suicide. Before pursuing either course, however, they wanted to know about the Visnudutas from Yamaraja, who is also omniscient.

TEXT 11

TEXT

sri-badarayanir uvaca

iti devah sa aprstah

praja-samyamano yamah

pritah sva-dutan pratyaha

smaran padambujam hareh

SYNONYMS

sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sukadeva Gosvami said; iti--thus; devah--the demigod; sah--he; aprstah--being questioned; praja-samyamanah yamah--Lord Yamaraja, who controls the living entities; pritah--being pleased; sva-dutan--to his own servants; pratyaha--replied; smaran--remembering; pada-ambujam--the lotus feet; hareh--of Hari, the Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: Thus having been questioned, Lord Yamaraja, the supreme controller of the living entities, was very pleased with his order carriers because of hearing from them the holy name of Narayana. He remembered the lotus feet of the Lord and began to reply.

PURPORT

Srila Yamaraja, the supreme controller of the living entities in terms of their pious and impious activities, was very pleased with his servants because they had chanted the holy name of Narayana in his dominion. Yamaraja has to deal with men who are all sinful and who can hardly understand Narayana. Consequently when his order carriers uttered the name of Narayana, he was extremely pleased, for he also is a Vaisnava.

TEXT 12

TEXT

yama uvaca

paro mad-anyo jagatas tasthusas ca

otam protam patavad yatra visvam

yad-amsato 'sya sthiti-janma-nasa

nasy otavad yasya vase ca lokah

SYNONYMS

yamah uvaca--Yamaraja replied; parah--superior; mat--than me; anyah--another; jagatah--of all moving things; tasthusah--of nonmoving things; ca--and; otam--crosswise; protam--lengthwise; patavat--like a woven cloth; yatra--in whom; visvam--the cosmic manifestation; yat--of whom; amsatah--from the partial expansions; asya--of this universe; sthiti--the maintenance; janma--the creation; nasah--the annihilation; nasi--in the nose; ota-vat--like the rope; yasya--of whom; vase--under the control; ca--and; lokah--the whole creation.

TRANSLATION

Yamaraja said: My dear servants, you have accepted me as the Supreme, but factually I am not. Above me, and above all the other demigods, including Indra and Candra, is the one supreme master and controller. The partial manifestations of His personality are Brahma, Visnu and Siva, who are in charge of the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this universe. He is like the two threads that form the length and breadth of a woven cloth. The entire world is controlled by Him just as a bull is controlled by a rope in its nose.

PURPORT

The order carriers of Yamaraja suspected that there was a ruler even above Yamaraja. To eradicate their doubts, Yamaraja immediately replied, "Yes, there is one supreme controller above everything." Yamaraja is in charge of some of the moving living entities, namely the human beings, but the animals, who also move, are not under his control. Only human beings have consciousness of right and wrong, and among them only those who perform sinful activities come under the control of Yamaraja. Therefore although Yamaraja is a controller, he is only a departmental controller of a few living entities. There are other demigods who control many other departments, but above them all is one supreme controller, Krsna. Isvarah paramah krsnah sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah: the supreme controller is Krsna. Others, who control their own departments in the affairs of the universe, are insignificant in comparison to Krsna, the supreme controller. Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (7.7), mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya: "My dear Dhananjaya [Arjuna], no one is superior to Me." Therefore Yamaraja immediately cleared away the doubts of his assistants, the Yamadutas, by confirming that there is a supreme controller above all others.

Srila Madhvacarya explains that the words otam protam refer to the cause of all causes. The Supreme Lord is both vertical and horizontal to the cosmic manifestation. This is confirmed by the following verse from the Skanda Purana:

yatha kantha-patah sutra

otah protas ca sa sthitah

evam visnav idam visvam

otam protam ca samsthitam

Like the two threads, horizontal and vertical, of which a quilt is manufactured, Lord Visnu is situated as the vertical and horizontal cause of the cosmic manifestation.

TEXT 13

TEXT

yo namabhir vaci janam nijayam

badhnati tantryam iva damabhir gah

yasmai balim ta ime nama-karma-

nibandha-baddhas cakita vahanti

SYNONYMS

yah--He who; namabhih--by different names; vaci--to the Vedic language; janam--all people; nijayam--which has emanated from Himself; badhnati--binds; tantryam--to a rope; iva--like; damabhih--by cords; gah--bulls; yasmai--unto whom; balim--a small presentation of taxes; te--all of them; ime--these; nama-karma--of names and different activities; nibandha--by the obligations; baddhah--bound; cakitah--being fearful; vahanti--carry.

TRANSLATION

Just as the driver of a bullock cart ties ropes through the nostrils of his bulls to control them, the Supreme Personality of Godhead binds all men through the ropes of His words in the Vedas, which set forth the names and activities of the distinct orders of human society [brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra]. In fear, the members of these orders all worship the Supreme Lord by offering Him presentations according to their respective activities.

PURPORT

In this material world, everyone is conditioned, regardless of who he is. One may be a human being, a demigod or an animal, tree or plant, but everything is controlled by the laws of nature, and behind this natural control is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is confirmed by Bhagavad-gita (9.10), wherein Krsna says, mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sa-caracaram: "The material nature is working under My direction and producing all moving and nonmoving beings." Thus Krsna is behind the natural machine, which works under His control.

Apart from other living entities, the living being in the human form of body is systematically controlled by the Vedic injunctions in terms of the divisions of varna and asrama. A human being is expected to follow the rules and regulations of varna and asrama; otherwise he cannot escape punishment by Yamaraja. The point is that every human being is expected to elevate himself to the position of a brahmana, the most intelligent man, and then one must transcend that position to become a Vaisnava. This is the perfection of life. The brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra can elevate themselves by worshiping the Lord according to their activities (sve sve karmany abhiratah samsiddhim labhate narah). The divisions of varna and asrama are necessary to insure the proper execution of duties and peaceful existence for everyone, but everyone is directed to worship the Supreme Lord, who is all-pervading (yena sarvam idam tatam). The Supreme Lord exists vertically and horizontally (otam protam), and therefore if one follows the Vedic injunctions by worshiping the Supreme Lord according to one's ability, his life will be perfect. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.13):

atah pumbhir dvija-srestha

varnasrama-vibhagasah

svanusthitasya dharmasya

samsiddhir hari-tosanam

"O best among the twice-born, it is therefore concluded that the highest perfection one can achieve, by discharging his prescribed duties [dharma] according to caste divisions and orders of life, is to please the Lord Hari." The varnasrama institution offers the perfect process for making one eligible to return home, back to Godhead, because the aim of every varna and asrama is to please the Supreme Lord. One can please the Lord under the direction of a bona fide spiritual master. and if one does so his life is perfect. The Supreme Lord is worshipable. and everyone worships Him directly or indirectly. Those who worship Him directly get the results of liberation quickly, whereas the liberation of those who serve Him indirectly is delayed.

The words namabhir vaci are very important. In the varnasrama institution, there are different names--brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya, sudra, brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasi. The vak, or Vedic injunctions, give directions for all these divisions. Everyone is expected to offer obeisances to the Supreme Lord and perform duties as indicated in the Vedas.

TEXTS 14-15

TEXT

aham mahendro nirrtih pracetah

somo 'gnir isah pavano virincih

aditya-visve vasavo 'tha sadhya

marud-gana rudra-ganah sasiddhah

anye ca ye visva-srjo 'maresa

bhrgv-adayo 'sprsta-rajas-tamaskah

yasyehitam na viduh sprsta-mayah

sattva-pradhana api kim tato 'nye

SYNONYMS

aham--I, Yamaraja; mahendrah--Indra, the King of heaven; nirrtih--Nirrti; pracetah--Varuna, the controller of water; somah--the moon; agnih--fire; isah--Lord Siva; pavanah--the demigod of the air; virincih--Lord Brahma; aditya--the sun; visve--Visvasu; vasavah--the eight Vasus; atha--also; sadhyah--the demigods; marut-ganah--masters of the wind; rudra-ganah--the expansions of Lord Siva; sa-siddhah--with the inhabitants of Siddhaloka; anye--others; ca--and; ye--who; visva-srjah--Marici and the other creators of the universal affairs; amara-isah--the demigods like Brhaspati; bhrgu-adayah--the great sages headed by Bhrgu; asprsta--who have not been contaminated; rajah-tamaskah--by the lower modes of material nature (rajo-guna and tamo-guna); yasya--of whom; ihitam--the activity; na viduh--do not know; sprsta-mayah--who are illusioned by the illusory energy; sattva-pradhanah--chiefly in the mode of goodness; api--although; kim--what to speak of; tatah--than them; anye--others.

TRANSLATION

I, Yamaraja; Indra, the King of heaven; Nirrti; Varuna; Candra, the moon-god; Agni; Lord Siva; Pavana; Lord Brahma; Surya, the sun-god; Visvasu; the eight Vasus; the Sadhyas; the Maruts; the Rudras; the Siddhas; and Marici and the other great rsis engaged in maintaining the departmental affairs of the universe, as well as the best of the demigods headed by Brhaspati, and the great sages headed by Bhrgu are all certainly freed from the influence of the two base material modes of nature, namely passion and ignorance. Nevertheless, although we are in the mode of goodness, we cannot understand the activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. What, then, is to be said of others, who, under illusion, merely speculate to know God?

PURPORT

The men and other living entities within this cosmic manifestation are controlled by the three modes of nature. For the living entities controlled by the base qualities of nature, passion and ignorance, there is no possibility of understanding God. Even those in the mode of goodness, like the many demigods and great rsis described in these verses, cannot understand the activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As stated in Bhagavad-gita, one who is situated in the devotional service of the Lord is transcendental to all the material qualities. Therefore the Lord personally says that no one can understand Him but the bhaktas, who are transcendental to all material qualities (bhaktya mam abhijanati). As stated by Bhismadeva to Maharaja Yudhisthira in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.9.16):

na hy asya karhicid rajan

puman veda vidhitsitam

yad-vijijnasaya yukta

muhyanti kavayo 'pi hi

"O King, no one can know the plan of the Lord [Sri Krsna]. Even though great philosophers inquire exhaustively, they are bewildered." No one, therefore, can understand God by speculative knowledge. Indeed, by speculation one will be bewildered (muhyanti). This is also confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (7.3):

manusyanam sahasresu

kascid yatati siddhaye

yatatam api siddhanam

kascin mam vetti tattvatah

Among many thousands of men, one may endeavor for perfection, and even among the siddhas, those who have already become perfect, only one who adopts the process of bhakti, devotional service, can understand Krsna.

TEXT 16

TEXT

yam vai na gobhir manasasubhir va

hrda gira vasu-bhrto vicaksate

atmanam antar-hrdi santam atmanam

caksur yathaivakrtayas tatah param

SYNONYMS

yam--whom; vai--indeed; na--not; gobhih--by the senses; manasa--by the mind; asubhih--by the life breath; va--or; hrda--by thoughts; gira--by words; va--or; asu-bhrtah--the living entities; vicaksate--see or know; atmanam--the Supersoul; antah-hrdi--within the core of the heart; santam--existing; atmanam--of the living entities; caksuh--the eyes; yatha--just like; eva--indeed; akrtayah--the different parts or limbs of the body; tatah--than them; param--higher.

TRANSLATION

As the different limbs of the body cannot see the eyes, the living entities cannot see the Supreme Lord, who is situated as the Supersoul in everyone's heart. Not by the senses, by the mind, by the life air, by thoughts within the heart, or by the vibration of words can the living entities ascertain the real situation of the Supreme Lord.

PURPORT

Although the different parts of the body do not have the power to see the eyes, the eyes direct the movements of the body's different parts. The legs move forward because the eyes see what is in front of them, and the hand touches because the eyes see touchable entities. Similarly, every living being acts according to the direction of the Supersoul, who is situated within the heart. As the Lord Himself confirms in Bhagavad-gita (15.15), sarvasya caham hrdi sannivisto mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca: "I am sitting in everyone's heart and giving directions for remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness." Elsewhere in Bhagavad-gita it is stated, isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati: "The Supreme Lord, as the Supersoul, is situated within the heart." The living entity cannot do anything without the sanction of the Supersoul. The Supersoul is acting at every moment, but the living entity cannot understand the form and activities of the Supersoul by manipulating his senses. The example of the eyes and the bodily limbs is very appropriate. If the limbs could see, they could walk forward without the help of the eyes, but that is impossible. Although one cannot see the Supersoul in one's heart through sensual activities, His direction is necessary.

TEXT 17

TEXT

tasyatma-tantrasya harer adhisituh

parasya mayadhipater mahatmanah

prayena duta iha vai manoharas

caranti tad-rupa-guna-svabhavah

SYNONYMS

tasya--of Him; atma-tantrasya--being self-sufficient, not dependent on any other person; hareh--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adhisituh--who is the master of everything; parasya--the Transcendence; maya-adhipateh--the master of the illusory energy; maha-atmanah--of the Supreme Soul; prayena--almost; dutah--the order carriers; iha--in this world; vai--indeed; manoharah--pleasing in their dealings and bodily features; caranti--they move; tat--of Him; rupa--possessing the bodily features; guna--the transcendental qualities; svabhavah--and nature.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is self-sufficient and fully independent. He is the master of everyone and everything, including the illusory energy. He has His form, qualities and features; and similarly His order carriers, the Vaisnavas, who are very beautiful, possess bodily features, transcendental qualities and a transcendental nature almost like His. They always wander within this world with full independence.

PURPORT

Yamaraja was describing the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme controller, but the order carriers of Yamaraja were very eager to know about the Visnudutas, who had defeated them in their encounter with Ajamila. Yamaraja therefore stated that the Visnudutas resemble the Supreme Personality of Godhead in their bodily features, transcendental qualities and nature. In other words, the Visnudutas, or Vaisnavas, are almost as qualified as the Supreme Lord. Yamaraja informed the Yamadutas that the Visnudutas are no less powerful than Lord Visnu. Since Visnu is above Yamaraja, the Visnudutas are above the Yamadutas. Persons protected by the Visnudutas, therefore, cannot be touched by the Yamadutas.

TEXT 18

TEXT

bhutani visnoh sura-pujitani

durdarsa-lingani mahadbhutani

raksanti tad-bhaktimatah parebhyo

mattas ca martyan atha sarvatas ca

SYNONYMS

bhutani--living entities or servants; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; sura-pujitani--who are worshiped by the demigods; durdarsa-lingani--possessing forms not easily seen; maha-adbhutani--greatly wonderful; raksanti--they protect; tat-bhakti-matah--the devotees of the Lord; parebhyah--from others who are inimical; mattah--from me (Yamaraja) and my order carriers; ca--and; martyan--the human beings; atha--thus; sarvatah--from everything; ca--and.

TRANSLATION

The order carriers of Lord Visnu, who are worshiped even by the demigods, possess wonderful bodily features exactly like those of Visnu and are very rarely seen. The Visnudutas protect the devotees of the Lord from the hands of enemies, from envious persons and even from my jurisdiction, as well as from natural disturbances.

PURPORT

Yamaraja has specifically described the qualities of the Visnudutas to convince his own servants not to be envious of them. Yamaraja warned the Yamadutas that the Visnudutas are worshiped with respectful obeisances by the demigods and are always very alert to protect the devotees of the Lord from the hands of enemies, from natural disturbances and from all dangerous conditions in this material world. Sometimes the members of the Krsna Consciousness Society are afraid of the impending danger of world war and ask what would happen to them if a war should occur. In all kinds of danger, they should be confident of their protection by the Visnudutas or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (kaunteya pratijanihi na me bhaktah pranasyati). Material danger is not meant for devotees. This is also confirmed in Srimad-Bhagavatam. Padam padam yad vipadam na tesam: in this material world there are dangers at every step, but they are not meant for devotees who have fully surrendered unto the lotus feet of the Lord. The pure devotees of Lord Visnu may rest assured of the Lord's protection, and as long as they are in this material world they should fully engage in devotional service by preaching the cult of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Lord Krsna, namely the Hare Krsna movement of Krsna consciousness.

TEXT 19

TEXT

dharmam tu saksad bhagavat-pranitam

na vai vidur rsayo napi devah

na siddha-mukhya asura manusyah

kuto nu vidyadhara-caranadayah

SYNONYMS

dharmam--real religious principles, or bona fide laws of religion; tu--but; saksat--directly; bhagavat--by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pranitam--enacted; na--not; vai--indeed; viduh--they know; rsayah--the great rsis such as Bhrgu; na--not; api--also; devah--the demigods; na--nor; siddha-mukhyah--the chief leaders of Siddhaloka; asurah--the demons; manusyah--the inhabitants of Bhurloka, the human beings; kutah--where; nu--indeed; vidyadhara--the lesser demigods known as Vidyadharas; carana--the residents of the planets where people are by nature great musicians and singers; adayah--and so on.

TRANSLATION

Real religious principles are enacted by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although fully situated in the mode of goodness, even the great rsis who occupy the topmost planets cannot ascertain the real religious principles, nor can the demigods or the leaders of Siddhaloka, to say nothing of the asuras, ordinary human beings, Vidyadharas and Caranas.

PURPORT

When challenged by the Visnudutas to describe the principles of religion, the Yamadutas said, veda-pranihito dharmah: the religious principles are the principles enacted in the Vedic literature. They did not know, however, that the Vedic literature contains ritualistic ceremonies that are not transcendental, but are meant to keep peace and order among materialistic persons in the material world. Real religious principles are nistraigunya, above the three modes of material nature, or transcendental. The Yamadutas did not know these transcendental religious principles, and therefore when prevented from arresting Ajamila they were surprised. Materialistic persons who attach all their faith to the Vedic rituals are described in Bhagavad-gita (2.42), wherein Krsna says, veda-vada-ratah partha nanyad astiti vadinah: the supposed followers of the Vedas say that there is nothing beyond the Vedic ceremonies. Indeed, there is a group of men in India who are very fond of the Vedic rituals, not understanding the meaning of these rituals, which are intended to elevate one gradually to the transcendental platform of knowing Krsna (vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah). Those who do not know this principle but who simply attach their faith to the Vedic rituals are called veda-vada-ratah.

Herein it is stated that the real religious principle is that which is given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That principle is stated in Bhagavad-gita. Sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja: one should give up all other duties and surrender unto the lotus feet of Krsna. That is the real religious principle everyone should follow. Even though one follows Vedic scriptures, one may not know this transcendental principle, for it is not known to everyone. To say nothing of human beings, even the demigods in the upper planetary systems are unaware of it. This transcendental religious principle must be understood from the Supreme Personality of Godhead directly or from His special representative, as stated in the next verses.

TEXTS 20-21

TEXT

svayambhur naradah sambhuh

kumarah kapilo manuh

prahlado janako bhismo

balir vaiyasakir vayam

dvadasaite vijanimo

dharmam bhagavatam bhatah

guhyam visuddham durbodham

yam jnatvamrtam asnute

SYNONYMS

svayambhuh--Lord Brahma; naradah--the great saint Narada; sambhuh--Lord Siva; kumarah--the four Kumaras; kapilah--Lord Kapila; manuh--Svayambhuva Manu; prahladah--Prahlada Maharaja; janakah--Janaka Maharaja; bhismah--Grandfather Bhisma; balih--Bali Maharaja; vaiyasakih--Sukadeva, the son of Vyasadeva; vayam--we; dvadasa--twelve; ete--these; vijanimah--know; dharmam--real religious principles; bhagavatam--which teach a person how to love the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhatah--O my dear servants; guhyam--very confidential; visuddham--transcendental, not contaminated by the material modes of nature; durbodham--not easily understood; yam--which; jnatva--understanding; amrtam--eternal life; asnute--he enjoys.

TRANSLATION

Lord Brahma, Bhagavan Narada, Lord Siva, the four Kumaras, Lord Kapila [the son of Devahuti], Svayambhuva Manu, Prahlada Maharaja, Janaka Maharaja, Grandfather Bhisma, Bali Maharaja, Sukadeva Gosvami and I myself know the real religious principle. My dear servants, this transcendental religious principle, which is known as bhagavata-dharma, or surrender unto the Supreme Lord and love for Him, is uncontaminated by the material modes of nature. It is very confidential and difficult for ordinary human beings to understand, but if by chance one fortunately understands it, he is immediately liberated, and thus he returns home, back to Godhead.

PURPORT

In Bhagavad-gita Lord Krsna refers to bhagavata-dharma as the most confidential religious principle (sarva-guhyatamam, guhyad guhyataram). Krsna says to Arjuna, "Because you are My very dear friend, I am explaining to you the most confidential religion." Sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja: "Give up all other duties and surrender unto Me." One may ask, "If this principle is very rarely understood, what is the use of it?" In answer, Yamaraja states herein that this religious principle is understandable if one follows the parampara system of Lord Brahma, Lord Siva, the four Kumaras and the other standard authorities. There are four lines of disciplic succession: one from Lord Brahma, one from Lord Siva, one from Laksmi, the goddess of fortune, and one from the Kumaras. The disciplic succession from Lord Brahma is called the Brahma-sampradaya, the succession from Lord Siva (Sambhu) is called the Rudra-sampradaya, the one from the goddess of fortune, Laksmiji, is called the Sri-sampradaya, and the one from the Kumaras is called the Kumara-sampradaya. One must take shelter of one of these four sampradayas in order to understand the most confidential religious system. In the Padma Purana it is said, sampradaya-vihina ye mantras te nisphala matah: if one does not follow the four recognized disciplic successions, his mantra or initiation is useless. In the present day there are many apasampradayas, or sampradayas which are not bona fide, which have no link to authorities like Lord Brahma, Lord Siva, the Kumaras or Laksmi. People are misguided by such sampradayas. The sastras say that being initiated in such a sampradaya is a useless waste of time, for it will never enable one to understand the real religious principles.

TEXT 22

TEXT

etavan eva loke 'smin

pumsam dharmah parah smrtah

bhakti-yogo bhagavati

tan-nama-grahanadibhih

SYNONYMS

etavan--this much; eva--indeed; loke asmin--in this material world; pumsam--of the living entities; dharmah--the religious principles; parah--transcendental; smrtah--recognized; bhakti-yogah--bhakti-yoga, or devotional service; bhagavati--to the Supreme Personality of Godhead (not to the demigods); tat--His; nama--of the holy name; grahana-adibhih--beginning with chanting.

TRANSLATION

Devotional service, beginning with the chanting of the holy name of the Lord, is the ultimate religious principle for the living entity in human society.

PURPORT

As stated in the previous verse, dharmam bhagavatam, real religious principles, are bhagavata-dharma, the principles described in Srimad-Bhagavatam itself or in Bhagavad-gita, the preliminary study of the Bhagavatam. What are these principles? The Bhagavatam says, dharmah projjhita-kaitavo 'tra: in Srimad-Bhagavatam there are no cheating religious systems. Everything in the Bhagavatam is directly connected with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Bhagavatam further says, sa vai pumsam paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhoksaje: the supreme religion is that which teaches its followers how to love the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is beyond the reach of experimental knowledge. Such a religious system begins with tan-nama-grahana, chanting of the holy name of the Lord (sravanam kirtanam visnoh smaranam pada-sevanam). After chanting the holy name of the Lord and dancing in ecstasy, one gradually sees the form of the Lord, the pastimes of the Lord and the transcendental qualities of the Lord. This way one fully understands the situation of the Personality of Godhead. One can come to this understanding of the Lord, how He descends into the material world, how He takes His births and what activities He performs, but one can know this only by executing devotional service. As stated in Bhagavad-gita, bhaktya mam abhijanati: simply by devotional service one can understand everything about the Supreme Lord. If one fortunately understands the Supreme Lord in this way, the result is tyaktva deham punar janma naiti: after giving up his material body, he no longer has to take birth in this material world. Instead, he returns home, back to Godhead. That is the ultimate perfection. Therefore Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (8.15):

mam upetya punar janma

duhkhalayam asasvatam

napnuvanti mahatmanah

samsiddhim paramam gatah

"After attaining Me, the great souls, who are yogis in devotion, never return to this temporary world, which is full of miseries, because they have attained the highest perfection."

TEXT 23

TEXT

namoccarana-mahatmyam

hareh pasyata putrakah

ajamilo 'pi yenaiva

mrtyu-pasad amucyata

SYNONYMS

nama--of the holy name; uccarana--of the pronouncing; mahatmyam--the exalted position; hareh--of the Supreme Lord; pasyata--just see; putrakah--O my dear servants, who are like my sons; ajamilah api--even Ajamila (who was considered greatly sinful); yena--by the chanting of which; eva--certainly; mrtyu-pasat--from the ropes of death; amucyata--was delivered.

TRANSLATION

My dear servants, who are as good as my sons, just see how glorious is the chanting of the holy name of the Lord. The greatly sinful Ajamila chanted only to call his son, not knowing that he was chanting the Lord's holy name. Nevertheless, by chanting the holy name of the Lord, he remembered Narayana, and thus he was immediately saved from the ropes of death.

PURPORT

There is no need to conduct research into the significance of the chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra. The history of Ajamila is sufficient proof of the power of the Lord's holy name and the exalted position of a person who chants the holy name incessantly. Therefore Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu advised:

harer nama harer nama

harer namaiva kevalam

kalau nasty eva nasty eva

nasty eva gatir anyatha

In this age of Kali, no one can perform all the ritualistic ceremonies for becoming liberated; that is extremely difficult. Therefore all the sastras and all the acaryas have recommended that in this age one chant the holy name.

TEXT 24

TEXT

etavatalam agha-nirharanaya pumsam

sankirtanam bhagavato guna-karma-namnam

vikrusya putram aghavan yad ajamilo 'pi

narayaneti mriyamana iyaya muktim

SYNONYMS

etavata--with this much; alam--sufficient; agha-nirharanaya--for taking away the reactions of sinful activities; pumsam--of human beings; sankirtanam--the congregational chanting; bhagavatah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; guna--of the transcendental qualities; karma-namnam--and of His names according to His activities and pastimes; vikrusya--crying to without offense; putram--his son; aghavan--the sinful; yat--since; ajamilah api--even Ajamila; narayana--the Lord's name, Narayana; iti--thus; mriyamanah--dying; iyaya--achieved; muktim--liberation.

TRANSLATION

Therefore it should be understood that one is easily relieved from all sinful reactions by chanting the holy name of the Lord and chanting of His qualities and activities. This is the only process recommended for relief from sinful reactions. Even if one chants the holy name of the Lord with improper pronunciation, he will achieve relief from material bondage if he chants without offenses. Ajamila, for example, was extremely sinful, but while dying he merely chanted the holy name, and although calling his son, he achieved complete liberation because he remembered the name of Narayana.

PURPORT

In the assembly of Raghunatha dasa Gosvami's father, Haridasa Thakura confirmed that simply by chanting the holy name of the Lord one is liberated, even if he does not chant completely inoffensively. Smarta-brahmanas and Mayavadis do not believe that one can achieve liberation in this way, but the truth of Haridasa Thakura's statement is supported by many quotations from Srimad-Bhagavatam.

In his commentary on this verse, for example, Sridhara Svami gives the following quotation:

sayam pratar grnan bhaktya

duhkha-gramad vimucyate

"If one always chants the holy name of the Lord with great devotion in the evening and in the morning, one can become free from all material miseries." Another quotation confirms that one can achieve liberation if one hears the holy name of the Lord constantly, every day with great respect (anudinam idam adarena srnvan). Another quotation says:

sravanam kirtanam dhyanam

harer adbhuta-karmanah

janma-karma-gunanam ca

tad-arthe 'khila-cestitam

"One should always chant and hear about the extraordinarily wonderful activities of the Lord, one should meditate upon these activities, and one should endeavor to please the Lord." (Bhag. 11.3.27)

Sridhara Svami also quotes from the Puranas, papa-ksayas ca bhavati smaratam tam ahar-nisam: "One can become free from all sinful reactions simply by remembering the lotus feet of the Lord day and night [ahar-nisam]." Furthermore, he quotes from Bhagavatam (6.3.31):

tasmat sankirtanam visnor

jagan-mangalam amhasam

mahatam api kauravya

viddhy aikantika-niskrtam

All these quotations prove that one who constantly engages in chanting and hearing of the holy activities, name, fame and form of the Lord is liberated. As stated wonderfully in this verse, etavatalam agha-nirharanaya pumsam: simply by uttering the name of the Lord, one is freed from all sinful reactions.

The word alam, which is used in this verse, indicates that simply uttering the holy name of the Lord is sufficient. This word is used with different imports. As stated in the Amara-kosa, the most authorized dictionary in the Sanskrit language, alam bhusana-paryapti-sakti-varana-vacakam: the word alam is used to mean "ornament," "sufficiency," "power" and "restraint." Here the word alam is used to indicate that there is no need of any other process, for the chanting of the holy name of the Lord is sufficient. Even if one chants imperfectly, one becomes free from all sinful reactions by chanting.

This power of chanting the holy name was proved by the liberation of Ajamila. When Ajamila chanted the holy name of Narayana, he did not precisely remember the Supreme Lord; instead, he remembered his own son. At the time of death, Ajamila certainly was not very clean; indeed, he was famous as a great sinner. Furthermore, one's physiological condition is completely disturbed at the time of death, and in such an awkward condition it would certainly have been very difficult for Ajamila to have chanted clearly. Nevertheless, Ajamila achieved liberation simply by chanting the holy name of the Lord. Therefore, what is to be said of those who are not sinful like Ajamila? It is to be concluded that with a strong vow one should chant the holy name of the Lord--Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare--for thus one will certainly be delivered from the clutches of maya by the grace of Krsna.

The chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra is recommended even for persons who commit offenses, because if they continue chanting they will gradually chant offenselessly. By chanting the Hare Krsna mantra without offenses, one increases his love for Krsna. As stated by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, prema pum-artho mahan: one's main concern should be to increase one's attachment to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and to increase one's love for Him.

In this regard Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura quotes the following verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.19.24):

evam dharmair manusyanam

uddhavatmani vedinam

mayi sanjayate bhaktih

ko 'nyo 'rtho 'syavasisyate

"My dear Uddhava, the supreme religious system for human society is that by which one can awaken his dormant love for Me." Commenting on this verse, Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura describes the word bhakti by saying premaivoktah. Kah anyah arthah asya: in the presence of bhakti, what is the necessity of liberation?

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura also quotes this verse from the Padma Purana:

namaparadha-yuktanam

namany eva haranty agham

avisranti-prayuktani

tany evartha-karani ca

Even if in the beginning one chants the Hare Krsna mantra with offenses, one will become free from such offenses by chanting again and again. Papa-ksayas ca bhavati smaratam tam ahar-nisam: one becomes free from all sinful reactions if one chants day and night, following the recommendation of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. It was Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu who quoted the following verse:

harer nama harer nama

harer namaiva kevalam

kalau nasty eva nasty eva

nasty eva gatir anyatha

"In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy the only means of deliverance is chanting the holy name of the Lord. There is no other way. There is no other way. There is no other way." If the members of the Krsna consciousness movement strictly follow this recommendation of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, their position will always be secure.

TEXT 25

TEXT

prayena veda tad idam na mahajano 'yam

devya vimohita-matir bata mayayalam

trayyam jadi-krta-matir madhu-puspitayam

vaitanike mahati karmani yujyamanah

SYNONYMS

prayena--almost always; veda--know; tat--that; idam--this; na--not; mahajanah--great personalities besides Svayambhu, Sambhu and the other ten; ayam--this; devya--by the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vimohita-matih--whose intelligence is bewildered; bata--indeed; mayaya--by the illusory energy; alam--greatly; trayyam--in the three Vedas; jadi-krta-matih--whose intelligence has been dulled; madhu-puspitayam--in the flowery Vedic language describing the results of ritualistic performances; vaitanike--in the performances mentioned in the Vedas; mahati--very great; karmani--fruitive activities; yujyamanah--being engaged.

TRANSLATION

Because they are bewildered by the illusory energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Yajnavalkya and Jaimini and other compilers of the religious scriptures cannot know the secret, confidential religious system of the twelve mahajanas. They cannot understand the transcendental value of performing devotional service or chanting the Hare Krsna mantra. Because their minds are attracted to the ritualistic ceremonies mentioned in the Vedas--especially the Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Rg Veda--their intelligence has become dull. Thus they are busy collecting the ingredients for ritualistic ceremonies that yield only temporary benefits, such as elevation to Svargaloka for material happiness. They are not attracted to the sankirtana movement; instead, they are interested in dharma, artha, kama and moksa.

PURPORT

Since one may easily achieve the highest success by chanting the holy name of the Lord, one may ask why there are so many Vedic ritualistic ceremonies and why people are attracted to them. This verse answers that question. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (15.15), vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah: the real purpose of studying the Vedas is to approach the lotus feet of Lord Krsna. Unfortunately, unintelligent people bewildered by the grandeur of Vedic yajnas want to see gorgeous sacrifices performed. They want Vedic mantras chanted and huge amounts of money spent for such ceremonies. Sometimes we have to observe the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies to please such unintelligent men. Recently, when we established a large Krsna-Balarama temple in Vrndavana, we were obliged to have Vedic ceremonies enacted by brahmanas because the inhabitants of Vrndavana, especially the smarta-brahmanas, would not accept Europeans and Americans as bona fide brahmanas. Thus we had to engage brahmanas to perform costly yajnas. In spite of these yajnas, the members of our Society performed sankirtana loudly with mrdangas, and I considered the sankirtana more important than the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies. Both the ceremonies and the sankirtana were going on simultaneously. The ceremonies were meant for persons interested in Vedic rituals for elevation to heavenly planets (jadi-krta-matir madhu-puspitayam), whereas the sankirtana was meant for pure devotees interested in pleasing the Supreme Personality of Godhead. We would simply have performed sankirtana, but then the inhabitants of Vrndavana would not have taken the installation ceremony seriously. As explained here, the Vedic performances are meant for those whose intelligence has been dulled by the flowery language of the Vedas, which describe fruitive activities intended to elevate one to the higher planets.

Especially in this age of Kali, sankirtana alone is sufficient. If the members of our temples in the different parts of the world simply continue sankirtana before the Deity, especially before Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, they will remain perfect. There is no need of any other performances. Nevertheless, to keep oneself clean in habits and mind, Deity worship and other regulative principles are required. Srila Jiva Gosvami says that although sankirtana is sufficient for the perfection of life, the arcana, or worship of the Deity in the temple, must continue in order that the devotees may stay clean and pure. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura therefore recommended that one follow both processes simultaneously. We strictly follow his principle of performing Deity worship and sankirtana along parallel lines. This we should continue.

TEXT 26

TEXT

evam vimrsya sudhiyo bhagavaty anante

sarvatmana vidadhate khalu bhava-yogam

te me na dandam arhanty atha yady amisam

syat patakam tad api hanty urugaya-vadah

SYNONYMS

evam--thus; vimrsya--considering; su-dhiyah--those whose intelligence is sharp; bhagavati--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; anante--the unlimited; sarva-atmana--with all their heart and soul; vidadhate--take to; khalu--indeed; bhava-yogam--the process of devotional service; te--such persons; me--my; na--not; dandam--punishment; arhanti--deserve; atha--therefore; yadi--if; amisam--of them; syat--there is; patakam--some sinful activity; tat--that; api--also; hanti--destroys; urugaya-vadah--the chanting of the holy name of the Supreme Lord.

TRANSLATION

Considering all these points, therefore, intelligent men decide to solve all problems by adopting the devotional service of chanting the holy name of the Lord, who is situated in everyone's heart and who is a mine of all auspicious qualities. Such persons are not within my jurisdiction for punishment. Generally they never commit sinful activities, but even if by mistake or because of bewilderment or illusion they sometimes commit sinful acts, they are protected from sinful reactions because they always chant the Hare Krsna mantra.

PURPORT

In this regard Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura quotes the following verse from the prayers of Lord Brahma (Bhag. 10.14.29):

athapi te deva padambuja-dvaya-

prasada-lesanugrhita eva hi

janati tattvam bhagavan-mahimno

na canya eko 'pi ciram vicinvan

The purport is that even though one is a very learned scholar of the Vedic sastras, he may be completely unaware of the existence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His name, fame, qualities and so forth, whereas one who is not a great scholar can understand the position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead if he somehow or other becomes a pure devotee of the Lord by engaging in devotional service. Therefore this verse spoken by Yamaraja says, evam vimrsya sudhiyo bhagavati: those who engage in the loving service of the Lord become sudhiyah, intelligent, but this is not so of a Vedic scholar who does not understand Krsna's name, fame and qualities. A pure devotee is one whose intelligence is clear; he is truly thoughtful because he engages in the service of the Lord--not as a matter of show, but with love, with his mind, words and body. Nondevotees may make a show of religion, but it is not very effective because although they ostentatiously attend a temple or church, they are thinking of something else. Such persons are neglecting their religious duty and are punishable by Yamaraja. But a devotee who commits sinful acts, which he may do unwillingly or accidentally because of his former habits, is excused. That is the value of the sankirtana movement.

TEXT 27

TEXT

te deva-siddha-parigita-pavitra-gatha

ye sadhavah samadrso bhagavat-prapannah

tan nopasidata harer gadayabhiguptan

naisam vayam na ca vayah prabhavama dande

SYNONYMS

te--they; deva--by the demigods; siddha--and the inhabitants of Siddhaloka; parigita--sung; pavitra-gathah--whose pure narrations; ye--who; sadhavah--devotees; samadrsah--who see everyone equally; bhagavat-prapannah--being surrendered to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tan--them; na--not; upasidata--should go near; hareh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; gadaya--by the club; abhiguptan--being fully protected; na--not; esam--of these; vayam--we; na ca--and also not; vayah--unlimited time; prabhavama--are competent; dande--in punishing.

TRANSLATION

My dear servants, please do not approach such devotees, for they have fully surrendered to the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They are equal to everyone, and their narrations are sung by the demigods and the inhabitants of Siddhaloka. Please do not even go near them. They are always protected by the club of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and therefore Lord Brahma and I and even the time factor are not competent to chastise them.

PURPORT

In effect, Yamaraja warned his servants, "My dear servants, despite what you may have done previously to disturb the devotees, henceforward you should stop. The actions of devotees who have surrendered unto the lotus feet of the Lord and who constantly chant the holy name of the Lord are praised by the demigods and the residents of Siddhaloka. Those devotees are so respectable and exalted that Lord Visnu personally protects them with the club in His hand. Therefore, regardless of what you have done this time, henceforward you should not approach such devotees; otherwise you will be killed by the club of Lord Visnu. This is my warning. Lord Visnu has a club and cakra to punish nondevotees. Do not risk punishment by attempting to disturb the devotees. Not to speak of you, if even Lord Brahma or I were to punish them, Lord Visnu would punish us. Therefore do not disturb the devotees any further."

TEXT 28

TEXT

tan anayadhvam asato vimukhan mukunda-

padaravinda-makaranda-rasad ajasram

niskincanaih paramahamsa-kulair asangair

justad grhe niraya-vartmani baddha-trsnan

SYNONYMS

tan--them; anayadhvam--bring before me; asatah--nondevotees (those who have not taken to Krsna consciousness); vimukhan--who have turned against; mukunda--of Mukunda, the Supreme personality of Godhead; pada-aravinda--of the lotus feet; makaranda--of the honey; rasat--the taste; ajasram--continuously; niskincanaih--by persons completely free from material attachment; paramahamsa-kulaih--by the paramahamsas, the most exalted personalities; asangaih--who have no material attachment; justat--which is enjoyed; grhe--to household life; niraya-vartmani--the path leading to hell; baddha-trsnan--whose desires are bound.

TRANSLATION

Paramahamsas are exalted persons who have no taste for material enjoyment and who drink the honey of the Lord's lotus feet. My dear servants, bring to me for punishment only persons who are averse to the taste of that honey, who do not associate with paramahamsas and who are attached to family life and worldly enjoyment, which form the path to hell.

PURPORT

After warning the Yamadutas not to approach the devotees, Yamaraja now indicates who is to be brought before him. He specifically advises the Yamadutas to bring him the materialistic persons who are attached to household life merely for sex. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam, yan maithunadi-grhamedhi-sukham hi tuccham: people are attached to household life for sex only. They are always harassed in many ways by their material engagements, and their only happiness is that after working very hard all day, at night they sleep and indulge in sex. Nidraya hriyate naktam vyavayena ca va vayah: at night, materialistic householders sleep or indulge in sex life. Diva carthehaya rajan kutumba-bharanena va: during the day they are busy trying to find out where money is, and if they get money they spend it to maintain their families. Yamaraja specifically advises his servants to bring these persons to him for punishment and not to bring the devotees, who always lick the honey at the lotus feet of the Lord, who are equal to everyone, and who try to preach Krsna consciousness because of sympathy for all living entities. Devotees are not liable to punishment by Yamaraja, but persons who have no information of Krsna consciousness cannot be protected by their material life of so-called family enjoyment. Srimad-Bhagavatam says (2.1.4):

dehapatya-kalatradisv

atma-sainyesv asatsv api

tesam pramatto nidhanam

pasyann api na pasyati

Such persons complacently believe that their nations, communities or families can protect them, unaware that all such fallible soldiers will be destroyed in due course of time. In conclusion, one should try to associate with persons who engage in devotional service twenty-four hours a day.

TEXT 29

TEXT

jihva na vakti bhagavad-guna-namadheyam

cetas ca na smarati tac-caranaravindam

krsnaya no namati yac-chira ekadapi

tan anayadhvam asato 'krta-visnu-krtyan

SYNONYMS

jihva--the tongue; na--not; vakti--chants; bhagavat--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; guna--transcendental qualities; nama--and the holy name; dheyam--imparting; cetah--the heart; ca--also; na--not; smarati--remembers; tat--His; carana-aravindam--lotus feet; krsnaya--unto Lord Krsna through His Deity in the temple; no--not; namati--bows; yat--whose; sirah--head; ekada api--even once; tan--them; anayadhvam--bring before me; asatah--the nondevotees; akrta--not performing; visnu-krtyan--duties toward Lord Visnu.

TRANSLATION

My dear servants, please bring to me only those sinful persons who do not use their tongues to chant the holy name and qualities of Krsna, whose hearts do not remember the lotus feet of Krsna even once, and whose heads do not bow down even once before Lord Krsna. Send me those who do not perform their duties toward Visnu, which are the only duties in human life. Please bring me all such fools and rascals.

PURPORT

The word visnu-krtyan is very important in this verse because the purpose of human life is to please Lord Visnu. Varnasrama-dharma is also meant for that purpose. As stated in the Visnu Purana (3.8.9):

varnasramacaravata

purusena parah puman

visnur aradhyate pantha

nanyat tat-tosa-karanam

Human society is meant to follow strictly the varnasrama-dharma, which divides society into four social divisions (brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra) and four spiritual divisions (brahmacarya, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa). Varnasrama-dharma easily brings one nearer to Lord Visnu, who is the only true objective in human society. Na te viduh svartha-gatim hi visnum: unfortunately, however, people do not know that their self-interest is to return home, back to Godhead, or to approach Lord Visnu. Durasaya ye bahir-artha-maninah: instead, they are simply bewildered. Every human being is expected to perform duties meant for approaching Lord Visnu. Therefore Yamaraja advises the Yamadutas to bring him those persons who have forgotten their duties toward Visnu (akrta-visnu-krtyan). One who does not chant the holy name of Visnu (Krsna), who does not bow down to the Deity of Visnu, and who does not remember the lotus feet of Visnu is punishable by Yamaraja. In summary, all avaisnavas, persons unconcerned with Lord Visnu, are punishable by Yamaraja.

TEXT 30

TEXT

tat ksamyatam sa bhagavan purusah purano

narayanah sva-purusair yad asat krtam nah

svanam aho na vidusam racitanjalinam

ksantir gariyasi namah purusaya bhumne

SYNONYMS

tat--that; ksamyatam--let it be excused; sah--He; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; purusah--the Supreme Person; puranah--the oldest; narayanah--Lord Narayana; sva-purusaih--by my own servants; yat--which; asat--impudence; krtam--performed; nah--of us; svanam--of my own men; aho--alas; na vidusam--not knowing; racita-anjalinam--folding our hands together to beg Your pardon; ksantih--forgiveness; gariyasi--in the glorious; namah--respectful obeisances; purusaya--unto the person; bhumne--supreme and all-pervading.

TRANSLATION

[Then Yamaraja, considering himself and his servants to be offenders, spoke as follows, begging pardon from the Lord.] O my Lord, my servants have surely committed a great offense by arresting a Vaisnava such as Ajamila. O Narayana, O supreme and oldest person, please forgive us. Because of our ignorance, we failed to recognize Ajamila as a servant of Your Lordship, and thus we have certainly committed a great offense. Therefore with folded hands we beg Your pardon. My Lord, since You are supremely merciful and are always full of good qualities, please pardon us. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You.

PURPORT

Lord Yamaraja took upon himself the responsibility for the offense committed by his servants. If the servant of an establishment makes a mistake, the establishment takes responsibility for it. Although Yamaraja is above offenses, his servants, practically with his permission, went to arrest Ajamila, which was a great offense. The nyaya-sastra confirms, bhrtyaparadhe svamino dandah: if a servant makes a mistake, the master is punishable because he is responsible for the offense. Taking this seriously, Yamaraja, along with his servants, prayed with folded hands to be excused by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana.

TEXT 31

TEXT

tasmat sankirtanam visnor

jagan-mangalam amhasam

mahatam api kauravya

viddhy aikantika-niskrtam

SYNONYMS

tasmat--therefore; sankirtanam--the congregational chanting of the holy name; visnoh--of Lord Visnu; jagat-mangalam--the most auspicious performance within this material world; amhasam--for sinful activities; mahatam api--even though very great; kauravya--O descendant of the Kuru family; viddhi--understand; aikantika--the ultimate; niskrtam--atonement.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, the chanting of the holy name of the Lord is able to uproot even the reactions of the greatest sins. Therefore the chanting of the sankirtana movement is the most auspicious activity in the entire universe. Please try to understand this so that others will take it seriously.

PURPORT

We should note that although Ajamila chanted the name of Narayana imperfectly, he was delivered from all sinful reactions. The chanting of the holy name is so auspicious that it can free everyone from the reactions of sinful activities. One should not conclude that one may continue to sin with the intention of chanting Hare Krsna to neutralize the reactions. Rather, one should be very careful to be free from all sins and never think of counteracting sinful activities by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra, for this is another offense. If by chance a devotee accidentally performs some sinful activity, the Lord will excuse him, but one should not intentionally perform sinful acts.

TEXT 32

TEXT

srnvatam grnatam viryany

uddamani harer muhuh

yatha sujataya bhaktya

suddhyen natma vratadibhih

SYNONYMS

srnvatam--of those hearing; grnatam--and chanting; viryani--the wonderful activities; uddamani--able to counteract sin; hareh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; muhuh--always; yatha--as; su-jataya--easily brought forth; bhaktya--by devotional service; suddhyet--may be purified; na--not; atma--the heart and soul; vrata-adibhih--by performing ritualistic ceremonies.

TRANSLATION

One who constantly hears and chants the holy name of the Lord and hears and chants about His activities can very easily attain the platform of pure devotional service, which can cleanse the dirt from one's heart. One cannot achieve such purification merely by observing vows and performing Vedic ritualistic ceremonies.

PURPORT

One may very easily practice chanting and hearing the holy name of the Lord and thus become ecstatic in spiritual life. Padma Purana states:

namaparadha-yuktanam

namany eva haranty agham

avisranti-prayuktani

tany evartha-karani ca

Even if one chants the Hare Krsna maha-mantra offensively, one can avoid offenses by continuously chanting without deviation. One who becomes accustomed to this practice will always remain in a pure transcendental position, untouchable by sinful reactions. Sukadeva Gosvami especially requested King Pariksit to note this fact very carefully. There is no profit, however, in executing the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies. By performing such activities one may go to the higher planetary systems, but as stated in Bhagavad-gita (9.21), ksine punye martya-lokam visanti: when the period of one's enjoyment in the heavenly planets is terminated because of the limited extent of the results of one's pious activities, one must return to earth. Thus there is no use in endeavoring to travel up and down in the universe. It is better to chant the holy name of the Lord so that one may become fully purified and eligible to return home, back to Godhead. That is the aim of life, and that is the perfection of life.

TEXT 33

TEXT

krsnanghri-padma-madhu-lin na punar visrsta-

maya-gunesu ramate vrjinavahesu

anyas tu kama-hata atma-rajah pramarstum

iheta karma yata eva rajah punah syat

SYNONYMS

krsna-anghri-padma--of the lotus feet of Lord Krsna; madhu--the honey; lit--one who licks; na--not; punah--again; visrsta--already renounced; maya-gunesu--in the material modes of nature; ramate--desires to enjoy; vrjina-avahesu--which brings distress; anyah--another; tu--however; kama-hatah--being enchanted by lust; atma-rajah--the sinful infection of the heart; pramarstum--to cleanse; iheta--may perform; karma--activities; yatah--after which; eva--indeed; rajah--the sinful activity; punah--again; syat--appears.

TRANSLATION

Devotees who always lick the honey from the lotus feet of Lord Krsna do not care at all for material activities, which are performed under the three modes of material nature and which bring only misery. Indeed, devotees never give up the lotus feet of Krsna to return to material activities. Others, however, who are addicted to Vedic rituals because they have neglected the service of the Lord's lotus feet and are enchanted by lusty desires, sometimes perform acts of atonement. Nevertheless, being incompletely purified, they return to sinful activities again and again.

PURPORT

A devotee's duty is to chant the Hare Krsna mantra. One may sometimes chant with offenses and sometimes without offenses, but if one seriously adopts this process, he will achieve perfection, which cannot be achieved through Vedic ritualistic ceremonies of atonement. Persons who are attached to the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies, but do not believe in devotional service, who advise atonement, but do not appreciate the chanting of the Lord's holy name, fail to achieve the highest perfection. Devotees, therefore, being completely detached from material enjoyment, never give up Krsna consciousness for Vedic ritualistic ceremonies. Those who are attached to Vedic ritualistic ceremonies because of lusty desires are subjected to the tribulations of material existence again and again. Maharaja Pariksit has compared their activities to kunjara-sauca, the bathing of an elephant.

TEXT 34

TEXT

ittham svabhartr-gaditam bhagavan-mahitvam

samsmrtya vismita-dhiyo yama-kinkaras te

naivacyutasraya-janam pratisankamana

drastum ca bibhyati tatah prabhrti sma rajan

SYNONYMS

ittham--of such power; sva-bhartr-gaditam--explained by their master (Yamaraja); bhagavat-mahitvam--the extraordinary glory of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His name, fame, form and attributes; samsmrtya--remembering; vismita-dhiyah--whose minds were struck with wonder; yama-kinkarah--all the servants of Yamaraja; te--they; na--not; eva--indeed; acyuta-asraya-janam--a person sheltered by the lotus feet of Acyuta, Lord Krsna; pratisankamanah--always fearing; drastum--to see; ca--and; bibhyati--they are afraid; tatah prabhrti--beginning from then; sma--indeed; rajan--O King.

TRANSLATION

After hearing from the mouth of their master about the extraordinary glories of the Lord and His name, fame and attributes, the Yamadutas were struck with wonder. Since then, as soon as they see a devotee, they fear him and dare not look at him again.

PURPORT

Since this incident, the Yamadutas have given up the dangerous behavior of approaching devotees. For the Yamadutas, a devotee is dangerous.

TEXT 35

TEXT

itihasam imam guhyam

bhagavan kumbha-sambhavah

kathayam asa malaya

asino harim arcayan

SYNONYMS

itihasam--history; imam--this; guhyam--very confidential; bhagavan--the most powerful; kumbha-sambhavah--Agastya Muni, the son of Kumbha; kathayam asa--explained; malaye--in the Malaya Hills; asinah--residing; harim arcayan--worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

When the great sage Agastya, the son of Kumbha, was residing in the Malaya Hills and worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead, I approached him, and he explained to me this confidential history.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Third Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "Yamaraja Instructs His Messengers."

Chapter Four

The Hamsa-guhya Prayers

After Maharaja Pariksit appealed to Sukadeva Gosvami to describe in further detail the creation of the living entities within this universe, Sukadeva Gosvami informed him that when the Pracetas, the ten sons of Pracinabarhi, entered the sea to execute austerities, the planet earth was neglected because of the absence of a king. Naturally many weeds and unnecessary trees grew, and no food grains were produced. Indeed, all the land became like a forest. When the ten Pracetas came out of the sea and saw the entire world full of trees, they were very angry with the trees and decided to destroy them all to rectify the situation. Thus the Pracetas created wind and fire to burn the trees to ashes. Soma, however, the king of the moon and the king of all vegetation, forbade the Pracetas to destroy the trees, since the trees are the source of fruit and flowers for all living beings. Just to satisfy the Pracetas, Soma gave them a beautiful girl born of Pramloca Apsara. By the semen of all the Pracetas, Daksa was born of that girl.

In the beginning, Daksa created all the demigods, demons and human beings, but when he found the population not increasing properly, he took sannyasa and went to Vindhya Mountain. where be underwent severe austerities and offered Lord Visnu a particular prayer known as Hamsa-guhya, by which Lord Visnu became very pleased with him. The contents of the prayer were as follows.

"The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul, Lord Hari, is the controller of both the living entities and the material nature. He is self-sufficient and self-effulgent. As the subject matter of perception is not the cause of our perceiving senses, so the living entity, although within his body, does not cause his eternal friend the Supersoul, who is the cause of creation of all the senses. Because of the living entity's ignorance, his senses are engaged with material objects. Since the living entity is alive, he can understand the creation of this material world to some extent, but he cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is beyond the conception of the body, mind and intelligence. Nevertheless, great sages who are always in meditation can see the personal form of the Lord within their hearts.

"Since an ordinary living being is materially contaminated, his words and intelligence are also material. Therefore he cannot ascertain the Supreme Personality of Godhead by manipulating his material senses. The conception of God derived through the material senses is inaccurate because the Supreme Lord is beyond the material senses, but when one engages his senses in devotional service, the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead is revealed on the platform of the soul. When that Supreme Godhead becomes the aim of one's life, one is said to have attained spiritual knowledge.

"The Supreme Brahman is the cause of all causes because He originally existed before the creation. He is the original cause of everything, both material and spiritual, and His existence is independent. However, the Lord has a potency called avidya, the illusory energy, which induces the false arguer to think himself perfect and which induces the illusory energy to bewilder the conditioned soul. That Supreme Brahman, the Supersoul, is very affectionate to His devotees. To bestow mercy upon them, He discloses His form, name, attributes and qualities to be worshiped within this material world.

"Unfortunately, however, those who are materially absorbed worship various demigods. As the air passes over a lotus flower and carries the scent of the flower with it, or as the air sometimes carries dust and therefore assumes colors, the Supreme Personality of Godhead appears as the various demigods according to the desires of His various foolish worshipers, but actually He is the supreme truth, Lord Visnu. To fulfill the desires of His devotees, He appears in various incarnations, and therefore there is no need to worship the demigods."

Being very satisfied by the prayers of Daksa, Lord Visnu appeared before Daksa with eight arms. The Lord was dressed in yellow garments and had a blackish complexion. Understanding that Daksa was very eager to follow the path of enjoyment, the Lord awarded him the potency to enjoy the illusory energy. The Lord offered him the daughter of Pancajana named Asikni, who was suitable for Maharaja Daksa to enjoy in sex. Indeed, Daksa received his name because he was very expert in sex life. After awarding this benediction, Lord Visnu disappeared.

TEXTS 1-2

TEXT

sri-rajovaca

devasura-nrnam sargo

naganam mrga-paksinam

samasikas tvaya prokto

yas tu svayambhuve 'ntare

tasyaiva vyasam icchami

jnatum te bhagavan yatha

anusargam yaya saktya

sasarja bhagavan parah

SYNONYMS

sri-raja uvaca--the King said; deva-asura-nrnam--of the demigods, the demons and the human beings; sargah--the creation; naganam--of the Nagas (serpentine living entities); mrga-paksinam--of the beasts and birds; samasikah--briefly; tvaya--by you; proktah--described; yah--which; tu--however; svayambhuve--of Svayambhuva Manu; antare--within the period; tasya--of this; eva--indeed; vyasam--the detailed account; icchami--I wish; jnatum--to know; te--from you; bhagavan--O my lord; yatha--as well as; anusargam--the subsequent creation; yaya--by which; saktya--potency; sasarja--created; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; parah--transcendental.

TRANSLATION

The blessed King said to Sukadeva Gosvami: My dear lord, the demigods, demons, human beings, Nagas, beasts and birds were created during the reign of Svayambhuva Manu. You have spoken about this creation briefly [in the Third Canto]. Now I wish to know about it elaborately. I also wish to know about the potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by which He brought about the secondary creation.

TEXT 3

TEXT

sri-suta uvaca

iti samprasnam akarnya

rajarser badarayanih

pratinandya maha-yogi

jagada muni-sattamah

SYNONYMS

sri-sutah uvaca--Suta Gosvami said; iti--thus; samprasnam--the inquiry; akarnya--hearing; rajarseh--of King Pariksit; badarayanih--Sukadeva Gosvami; pratinandya--praising; maha-yogi--the great yogi; jagada--replied; muni-sattamah--O best of the sages.

TRANSLATION

Suta Gosvami said: O great sages [assembled at Naimisaranya], after the great yogi Sukadeva Gosvami heard King Pariksit's inquiry, he praised it and thus replied.

TEXT 4

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

yada pracetasah putra

dasa pracinabarhisah

antah-samudrad unmagna

dadrsur gam drumair vrtam

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sukadeva Gosvami said; yada--when; pracetasah--the Pracetas; putrah--the sons; dasa--ten; pracinabarhisah--of King Pracinabarhi; antah-samudrat--from within the ocean; unmagnah--emerged; dadrsuh--they saw; gam--the entire planet; drumaih vrtam--covered with trees.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami said: When the ten sons of Pracinabarhi emerged from the waters, in which they were performing austerities, they saw that the entire surface of the world was covered by trees.

PURPORT

When King Pracinabarhi was performing Vedic rituals in which the killing of animals was recommended, Narada Muni, out of compassion, advised him to stop. Pracinabarhi understood Narada properly and then left the kingdom to perform austerities in the forest. His ten sons, however, were performing austerities within the water, and therefore there was no king to see to the management of the world. When the ten sons, the Pracetas, came out of the water, they saw that the earth was overrun with trees.

When the government neglects agriculture, which is necessary for the production of food, the land becomes covered with unnecessary trees. Of course, many trees are useful because they produce fruits and flowers, but many other trees are unnecessary. They could be used as fuel and the land cleared and used for agriculture. When the government is negligent, less grain is produced. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (18.44), krsi-go-raksya-vanijyam vaisya-karma svabhava jam: the proper engagements for vaisyas, according to their nature, are to farm and to protect cows. The duty of the government and the ksatriyas is to see that the members of the third class, the vaisyas, who are neither brahmanas nor ksatriyas, are thus properly engaged. Ksatriyas are meant to protect human beings, whereas vaisyas are meant to protect useful animals, especially cows.

TEXT 5

TEXT

drumebhyah krudhyamanas te

tapo-dipita-manyavah

mukhato vayum agnim ca

sasrjus tad-didhaksaya

SYNONYMS

drumebhyah--unto the trees; krudhyamanah--being very angry; te--they (the ten sons of Pracinabarhi); tapah-dipita-manyavah--whose anger was inflamed because of long austerities; mukhatah--from the mouth; vayum--wind; agnim--fire; ca--and; sasrjuh--they created; tat--those forests; didhaksaya--with the desire to burn.

TRANSLATION

Because of having undergone long austerities in the water, the Pracetas were very angry at the trees. Desiring to burn them to ashes, they generated wind and fire from their mouths.

PURPORT

Here the word tapo-dipita-manyavah indicates that persons who have undergone severe austerity (tapasya) are endowed with great mystic power, as evinced by the Pracetas, who created fire and wind from their mouths. Although devotees undergo severe tapasya, however, they are vimanyavah, sadhavah, which means that they are never angry. They are always decorated with good qualities. Bhagavatam (3.25.21) states:

titiksavah karunikah

suhrdah sarva-dehinam

ajata-satravah santah

sadhavah sadhu-bhusanah

A sadhu, a devotee, is never angry. Actually the real feature of devotees who undergo tapasya, austerity, is forgiveness. Although a Vaisnava has sufficient power in tapasya, he does not become angry when put into difficulty. If one undergoes tapasya but does not become a Vaisnava, however, one does not develop good qualities. For example, Hiranyakasipu and Ravana also performed great austerities, but they did so to demonstrate their demoniac tendencies. Vaisnavas must meet many opponents while preaching the glories of the Lord, but Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu recommends that they not become angry while preaching. Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu has given this formula: trnad api sunicena taror api sahisnuna. amanina manadena kirtaniyah sada harih. "One should chant the holy name of the Lord in a humble state of mind, thinking oneself lower than the straw in the street; one should be more tolerant than a tree, devoid of all sense of false prestige and should be ready to offer all respect to others. In such a state of mind one can chant the holy name of the Lord constantly." Those engaged in preaching the glories of the Lord should be humbler than grass and more tolerant than a tree; then they can preach the glories of the Lord without difficulty.

TEXT 6

TEXT

tabhyam nirdahyamanams tan

upalabhya kurudvaha

rajovaca mahan somo

manyum prasamayann iva

SYNONYMS

tabhyam--by the wind and fire; nirdahyamanan--being burned; tan--them (the trees); upalabhya--seeing; kurudvaha--O Maharaja Pariksit; raja--the king of the forest; uvaca--said; mahan--the great; somah--predominating deity of the moon, Somadeva; manyum--the anger; prasamayan--pacifying; iva--like.

TRANSLATION

My dear King Pariksit, when Soma, the king of the trees and predominating deity of the moon, saw the fire and wind burning all the trees to ashes, he felt great sympathy because he is the maintainer of all herbs and trees. To appease the anger of the Pracetas, Soma spoke as follows.

PURPORT

It is understood from this verse that the predominating deity of the moon is the maintainer of all the trees and plants throughout the universe. It is due to the moonshine that trees and plants grow very luxuriantly. Therefore how can we accept the so-called scientists whose moon expeditions have informed us that there are no trees or vegetation on the moon? Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says, somo vrksadhisthata sa eva vrksanam raja: Soma, the predominating deity of the moon, is the king of all vegetation. How can we believe that the maintainer of vegetation has no vegetation on his own planet?

TEXT 7

TEXT

na drumebhyo maha-bhaga

dinebhyo drogdhum arhatha

vivardhayisavo yuyam

prajanam patayah smrtah

SYNONYMS

na--not; drumebhyah--the trees; maha-bhagah--O greatly fortunate ones; dinebhyah--who are very poor; drogdhum--to burn to ashes; arhatha--you deserve; vivardhayisavah--desiring to bring about an increase; yuyam--you; prajanam--of all living entities who have taken shelter of you; patayah--the masters or protectors; smrtah--known as.

TRANSLATION

O greatly fortunate ones, you should not kill these poor trees by burning them to ashes. Your duty is to wish the citizens [prajas] all prosperity and to act as their protectors.

PURPORT

It is indicated herein that the government or king has the duty of protecting not only the human beings, but all other living entities, including animals, trees and plants. No living entity should be killed unnecessarily.

TEXT 8

TEXT

aho prajapati-patir

bhagavan harir avyayah

vanaspatin osadhis ca

sasarjorjam isam vibhuh

SYNONYMS

aho--alas; prajapati-patih--the Lord of all the lords of created beings; bhagavan harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari; avyayah--indestructible; vanaspatin--the trees and plants; osadhih--the herbs; ca--and; sasarja--created; urjam--invigorating; isam--food; vibhuh--the Supreme Being.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Hari, is the master of all living entities, including all the prajapatis, such as Lord Brahma. Because He is the all-pervading and indestructible master, He has created all these trees and vegetables as eatables for other living entities.

PURPORT

Soma, the predominating deity of the moon, reminded the Pracetas that this vegetation had been created by the Lord of lords to provide food for everyone. If the Pracetas tried to kill them off, their own subjects would also suffer, for trees are also required for food.

TEXT 9

TEXT

annam caranam acara

hy apadah pada-carinam

ahasta hasta-yuktanam

dvi-padam ca catus-padah

SYNONYMS

annam--food; caranam--of those that move on wings; acarah--the nonmoving (fruits and flowers); hi--indeed; apadah--the living entities without legs, like the grass; pada-carinam--of the animals who move on legs, like the cows and buffalo; ahastah--animals without hands; hasta-yuktanam--of the animals with hands, like the tigers; dvi-padam--of human beings, who have two legs; ca--and; catuh-padah--the four-legged animals like the deer.

TRANSLATION

By nature's arrangement, fruits and flowers are considered the food of insects and birds; grass and other legless living entities are meant to be the food of four-legged animals like cows and buffalo; animals that cannot use their front legs as hands are meant to be the food of animals like tigers, which have claws; and four-legged animals like deer and goats, as well as food grains, are meant to be the food of human beings.

PURPORT

By nature's law, or the arrangement of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one kind of living entity is eatable by other living entities. As mentioned herein, dvi-padam ca catus-padah: the four-legged animals (catus-padah), as well as food grains, are eatables for human beings (dvi-padam). These four-legged animals are those such as deer and goats, not cows, which are meant to be protected. Generally the men of the higher classes of society--the brahmanas, ksatriyas and vaisyas--do not eat meat. Sometimes ksatriyas go to the forest to kill animals like deer because they have to learn the art of killing, and sometimes they eat the animals also. Sudras, too, eat animals such as goats. Cows, however, are never meant to be killed or eaten by human beings. In every sastra, cow killing is vehemently condemned. Indeed, one who kills a cow must suffer for as many years as there are hairs on the body of a cow. Manu-samhita says, pravrttir esa bhutanam nivrttis tu maha-phala: we have many tendencies in this material world, but in human life one is meant to learn how to curb those tendencies. Those who desire to eat meat may satisfy the demands of their tongues by eating lower animals, but they should never kill cows, who are actually accepted as the mothers of human society because they supply milk. The sastra especially recommends, krsi-go-raksya: the vaisya section of humanity should arrange for the food of the entire society through agricultural activities and should give full protection to the cows, which are the most useful animals because they supply milk to human society.

TEXT 10

TEXT

yuyam ca pitranvadista

deva-devena canaghah

praja-sargaya hi katham

vrksan nirdagdhum arhatha

SYNONYMS

yuyam--you; ca--also; pitra--by your father; anvadistah--ordered; deva-devena--by the Personality of Godhead, the master of the masters; ca--also; anaghah--O sinless ones; praja-sargaya--for generating the population; hi--indeed; katham--how; vrksan--the trees; nirdagdhum--to burn to ashes; arhatha--are able.

TRANSLATION

O pure-hearted ones, your father, Pracinabarhi, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead have ordered you to generate population. Therefore how can you burn to ashes these trees and herbs, which are needed for the maintenance of your subjects and descendants?

TEXT 11

TEXT

atisthata satam margam

kopam yacchata dipitam

pitra pitamahenapi

justam vah prapitamahaih

SYNONYMS

atisthata--just follow; satam margam--the path of the great saintly personalities; kopam--the anger; yacchata--subdue; dipitam--which is now awakened; pitra--by the father; pitamahena api--and by the grandfather; justam--executed; vah--your; prapitamahaih--by the great-grandfathers.

TRANSLATION

The path of goodness traversed by your father, grandfather and great-grandfathers is that of maintaining the subjects [prajas], including the men, animals and trees. That is the path you should follow. Unnecessary anger is contrary to your duty. Therefore I request you to control your anger.

PURPORT

Here the words pitra pitamahenapi justam vah prapitamahaih depict an honest royal family, consisting of the kings, their father, their grandfather and their great-grandfathers. Such a royal family has a prestigious position because it maintains the citizens, or prajas. The word praja refers to one who has taken birth within the jurisdiction of the government. The exalted royal families were conscious that all living beings, whether human, animal or lower than animal, should be given protection. The modern democratic system cannot be exalted in this way because the leaders elected strive only for power and have no sense of responsibility. In a monarchy, a king with a prestigious position follows the great deeds of his forefathers. Thus Soma, the king of the moon, here reminds the Pracetas about the glories of their father, grandfather and great-grandfathers.

TEXT 12

TEXT

tokanam pitarau bandhu

drsah paksma striyah patih

patih prajanam bhiksunam

grhy ajnanam budhah suhrt

SYNONYMS

tokanam--of children; pitarau--the two parents; bandhu--the friends; drsah--of the eye; paksma--the eyelid; striyah--of the woman; patih--the husband; patih--the protector; prajanam--of the subjects; bhiksunam--of the beggars; grhi--the householder; ajnanam--of the ignorant; budhah--the learned; su-hrt--the friend.

TRANSLATION

As the father and mother are the friends and maintainers of their children, as the eyelid is the protector of the eye, as the husband is the maintainer and protector of a woman, as the householder is the maintainer and protector of beggars, and as the learned is the friend of the ignorant, so the king is the protector and giver of life to all his subjects. The trees are also subjects of the king. Therefore they should be given protection.

PURPORT

By the supreme will of the Personality of Godhead, there are various protectors and maintainers for helpless living entities. The trees are also considered prajas, subjects of the king, and therefore the duty of the monarch is to protect even the trees, not to speak of others. The king is duty-bound to protect the living entities in his kingdom. Thus although the parents are directly responsible for the protection and maintenance of their children, the duty of the king is to see that all parents do their duty properly. Similarly, the king is also responsible for overseeing the other protectors mentioned in this verse. It may also be noted that the beggars who should be maintained by the householders are not professional beggars, but sannyasis and brahmanas, to whom the householders should supply food and clothing.

TEXT 13

TEXT

antar dehesu bhutanam

atmaste harir isvarah

sarvam tad-dhisnyam iksadhvam

evam vas tosito hy asau

SYNONYMS

antah dehesu--within the bodies (in the cores of the hearts); bhutanam--of all living entities; atma--the Supersoul; aste--resides; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; isvarah--the Lord or director; sarvam--all; tat-dhisnyam--His place of residence; iksadhvam--try to see; evam--in this way; vah--with you; tositah--satisfied; hi--indeed; asau--that Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is situated as the Supersoul within the cores of the hearts of all living entities, whether moving or nonmoving, including men, birds, animals, trees and, indeed, all living entities. Therefore you should consider every body a residence or temple of the Lord. By such vision you will satisfy the Lord. You should not angrily kill these living entities in the forms of trees.

PURPORT

As stated in Bhagavad-gita and confirmed by all the Vedic scriptures, isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati: the Supersoul is situated within everyone's heart. Therefore, since everyone's body is the residence of the Supreme Lord, one should not destroy the body because of unnecessary envy. That will dissatisfy the Supersoul. Soma told the Pracetas that because they had tried to satisfy the Supersoul, now they should not displease Him.

TEXT 14

TEXT

yah samutpatitam deha

akasan manyum ulbanam

atma-jijnasaya yacchet

sa gunan ativartate

SYNONYMS

yah--anyone who; samutpatitam--suddenly awakened; dehe--in the body; akasat--from the sky; manyum--anger; ulbanam--powerful; atma-jijnasaya--by inquiry into spiritual realization or self-realization; yacchet--subdues; sah--that person; gunan--the modes of material nature; ativartate--transcends.

TRANSLATION

One who inquires into self-realization and thus subdues his powerful anger--which awakens suddenly in the body as if falling from the sky--transcends the influence of the modes of material nature.

PURPORT

When one becomes angry, he forgets himself and his situation, but if one is able to consider his situation by knowledge, one transcends the influence of the modes of material nature. One is always a servant of lusty desires, anger, greed, illusion, envy and so forth, but if one obtains sufficient strength in spiritual advancement, one can control them. One who obtains such control will always be transcendentally situated, untouched by the modes of material nature. This is only possible when one fully engages in the service of the Lord. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (14.26):

mam ca yo 'vyabhicarena

bhakti-yogena sevate

sa gunan samatityaitan

brahma-bhuyah

"One who engages in full devotional service, who does not fall down in any circumstance, at once transcends the modes of material nature and thus comes to the spiritual platform." By engaging one in devotional service, the Krsna consciousness movement keeps one always transcendental to anger, greed, lust, envy and so forth. One must perform devotional service because otherwise one will become victimized by the modes of material nature.

TEXT 15

TEXT

alam dagdhair drumair dinaih

khilanam sivam astu vah

varksi hy esa vara kanya

patnitve pratigrhyatam

SYNONYMS

alam--enough; dagdhaih--with burning; drumaih--the trees; dinaih--poor; khilanam--of the remainder of the trees; sivam--all good fortune; astu--let there be; vah--of you; varksi--raised by the trees; hi--indeed; esa--this; vara--choice; kanya--daughter; patnitve--into wifehood; pratigrhyatam--let her be accepted.

TRANSLATION

There is no need to burn these poor trees any longer. Let whatever trees still remain be happy. Indeed, you should also be happy. Now, here is a beautiful, well-qualified girl named Marisa, who was raised by the trees as their daughter. You may accept this beautiful girl as your wife.

TEXT 16

TEXT

ity amantrya vararoham

kanyam apsarasim nrpa

somo raja yayau dattva

te dharmenopayemire

SYNONYMS

iti--thus; amantrya--addressing; vara-aroham--possessing high, beautiful hips; kanyam--the girl; apsarasim--born of an Apsara; nrpa--O King; somah--Soma, the predominating deity of the moon; raja--the king; yayau--returned; dattva--delivering; te--they; dharmena--according to religious principles; upayemire--married.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, after thus pacifying the Pracetas, Soma, the king of the moon, gave them the beautiful girl born of Pramloca Apsara. The Pracetas all received Pramloca's daughter, who had high, very beautiful hips, and married her according to the religious system.

TEXT 17

TEXT

tebhyas tasyam samabhavad

daksah pracetasah kila

yasya praja-visargena

loka apuritas trayah

SYNONYMS

tebhyah--from all the Pracetas; tasyam--in her; samabhavat--was generated; daksah--Daksa, the expert in begetting children; pracetasah--the son of the Pracetas; kila--indeed; yasya--of whom; praja-visargena--by the generation of living entities; lokah--the worlds; apuritah--filled; trayah--three.

TRANSLATION

In the womb of that girl the Pracetas all begot a son named Daksa, who filled the three worlds with living entities.

PURPORT

Daksa was first born during the reign of Svayambhuva Manu, but because of offending Lord Siva he was punished by having the head of a goat substituted for his own head. Thus insulted, he had to give up that body, and in the sixth manvantara, called the Caksusa manvantara, he was born of the womb of Marisa as Daksa. In this connection Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura quotes this verse:

caksuse tv antare prapte

prak-sarge kala-vidrute

yah sasarja praja istah

sa dakso daiva-coditah

"His previous body had been destroyed, but he, the same Daksa, inspired by the supreme will, created all the desired living entities in the Caksusa manvantara." (Bhag. 4.30.49) Thus Daksa regained his previous opulence and again begot thousands and millions of children to fill the three worlds.

TEXT 18

TEXT

yatha sasarja bhutani

dakso duhitr-vatsalah

retasa manasa caiva

tan mamavahitah srnu

SYNONYMS

yatha--as; sasarja--created; bhutani--the living entities; daksah--Daksa; duhitr-vatsalah--who is very affectionate to his daughters; retasa--by semen; manasa--by the mind; ca--also; eva--indeed; tat--that; mama--from me; avahitah--being attentive; srnu--please hear.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Please hear from me with great attention how Prajapati Daksa, who was very affectionate to his daughters, created different types of living entities through his semen and through his mind.

PURPORT

The word duhitr-vatsalah indicates that all the prajas were born from Daksa's daughters. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says that apparently Daksa had no son.

TEXT 19

TEXT

manasaivasrjat purvam

prajapatir imah prajah

devasura-manusyadin

nabhah-sthala-jalaukasah

SYNONYMS

manasa--by the mind; eva--indeed; asrjat--created; purvam--in the beginning; prajapatih--the prajapati (Daksa); imah--these; prajah--living entities; deva--the demigods; asura--the demons; manusya-adin--and other living entities, headed by the human beings; nabhah--in the skies; sthala--on the land; jala--or within the water; okasah--who have their abodes.

TRANSLATION

With his mind, Prajapati Daksa first created all kinds of demigods, demons, human beings, birds, beasts, aquatics and so on.

TEXT 20

TEXT

tam abrmhitam alokya

praja-sargam prajapatih

vindhya-padan upavrajya

so 'carad duskaram tapah

SYNONYMS

tam--that; abrmhitam--not increasing; alokya--seeing; praja-sargam--the creation of the living entities; prajapatih--Daksa, the generator of living entities; vindhya-padan--the mountains near the Vindhya mountain range; upavrajya--going to; sah--he; acarat--executed; duskaram--very difficult; tapah--austerities.

TRANSLATION

But when Prajapati Daksa saw that he was not properly generating all kinds of living entities, he approached a mountain near the Vindhya mountain range, and there he executed very difficult austerities.

TEXT 21

TEXT

tatraghamarsanam nama

tirtham papa-haram param

upasprsyanusavanam

tapasatosayad dharim

SYNONYMS

tatra--there; aghamarsanam--Aghamarsana; nama--named; tirtham--the holy place; papa-haram--suitable for destroying all sinful reactions; param--best; upasprsya--performing acamana and bathing; anusavanam--regularly; tapasa--by austerity; atosayat--caused pleasure; harim--to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

Near that mountain was a very holy place named Aghamarsana. There Prajapati Daksa executed ritualistic ceremonies and satisfied the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, by engaging in great austerities to please Him.

TEXT 22

TEXT

astausid dhamsa-guhyena

bhagavantam adhoksajam

tubhyam tad abhidhasyami

kasyatusyad yatha harih

SYNONYMS

astausit--satisfied; hamsa-guhyena--by the celebrated prayers known as Hamsa-guhya; bhagavantam--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adhoksajam--who is beyond the reach of the senses; tubhyam--unto you; tat--that; abhidhasyami--I shall explain; kasya--with Daksa, the prajapati; atusyat--was satisfied; yatha--how; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, I shall fully explain to you the Hamsa-guhya prayers, which were offered to the Supreme Personality of Godhead by Daksa, and I shall explain how the Lord was pleased with him for those prayers.

PURPORT

It is to be understood that the Hamsa-guhya prayers were not composed by Daksa, but were existing in the Vedic literature.

TEXT 23

TEXT

sri-prajapatir uvaca

namah parayavitathanubhutaye

guna-trayabhasa-nimitta-bandhave

adrsta-dhamne guna-tattva-buddhibhir

nivrtta-manaya dadhe svayambhuve

SYNONYMS

sri-prajapatih uvaca--the prajapati Daksa said; namah--all respectful obeisances; paraya--unto the Transcendence; avitatha--correct; anubhutaye--unto Him whose spiritual potency brings about realization of Him; guna-traya--of the three material modes of nature; abhasa--of the living entities who have the appearance; nimitta--and of the material energy; bandhave--unto the controller; adrsta-dhamne--who is not perceived in His abode; guna-tattva-buddhibhih--by the conditioned souls whose poor intelligence dictates that real truth is found in the manifestations of the three modes of material nature; nivrtta-manaya--who has surpassed all material measurements and calculations; dadhe--I offer; svayambhuve--unto the Supreme Lord, who is manifest with no cause.

TRANSLATION

Prajapati Daksa said: The Supreme Personality of Godhead is transcendental to the illusory energy and the physical categories it produces. He possesses the potency for unfailing knowledge and supreme willpower, and He is the controller of the living entities and the illusory energy. The conditioned souls who have accepted this material manifestation as everything cannot see Him, for He is above the evidence of experimental knowledge. Self-evident and self-sufficient, He is not caused by any superior cause. Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.

PURPORT

The transcendental position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is explained herewith. He is not perceivable by the conditioned souls, who are accustomed to material vision and cannot understand that the Supreme Personality of Godhead exists in His abode, which is beyond that vision. Even if a materialistic person could count all the atoms in the universe, he would still be unable to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As confirmed in Brahma-samhita (5.34):

panthas tu koti-sata-vatsara-sampragamyo

vayor athapi manaso muni-pungavanam

so 'py asti yat-prapada-simny avicintya-tattve

govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami

The conditioned souls may try to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead for many billions of years through their mental speculative processes, traveling at the speed of the mind or the wind, but still the Absolute Truth will remain inconceivable to them because a materialistic person cannot measure the length and breadth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead's unlimited existence. If the Absolute Truth is beyond measurement, one may ask, how can one realize Him? The answer is given here by the word svayambhuve: one may understand Him or not, but nevertheless He is existing in His own spiritual potency.

TEXT 24

TEXT

na yasya sakhyam puruso 'vaiti sakhyuh

sakha vasan samvasatah pure 'smin

guno yatha gunino vyakta-drstes

tasmai mahesaya namaskaromi

SYNONYMS

na--not; yasya--whose; sakhyam--fraternity; purusah--the living entity; avaiti--knows; sakhyuh--of the supreme friend; sakha--the friend; vasan--living; samvasatah--of the one living with; pure--in the body; asmin--this; gunah--the object of sense perception; yatha--just like; guninah--of its respective sense organ; vyakta-drsteh--who oversees the material manifestation; tasmai--unto Him; maha-isaya--unto the supreme controller; namaskaromi--I offer my obeisances.

TRANSLATION

As the sense objects [form, taste, touch, smell and sound] cannot understand how the senses perceive them, so the conditioned soul, although residing in his body along with the Supersoul, cannot understand how the supreme spiritual person, the master of the material creation, directs his senses. Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto that Supreme Person, who is the supreme controller.

PURPORT

The individual soul and the Supreme Soul live together within the body. This is confirmed in the Upanisads by the analogy that two friendly birds live in one tree--one bird eating the fruit of the tree and the other simply witnessing and directing. Although the individual living being, who is compared to the bird that is eating, is sitting with his friend the Supreme Soul, the individual living being cannot see Him. Actually the Supersoul is directing the workings of his senses in the enjoyment of sense objects, but as these sense objects cannot see the senses, the conditioned soul cannot see the directing soul. The conditioned soul has desires, and the Supreme Soul fulfills them, but the conditioned soul is unable to see the Supreme Soul. Thus Prajapati Daksa offers his obeisances to the Supreme Soul, the Supersoul, even though unable to see Him. Another example given is that although ordinary citizens work under the direction of the government, they cannot understand how they are being governed or what the government is. In this regard, Madhvacarya quotes the following verse from the Skanda Purana:

yatha rajnah priyatvam tu

bhrtya vedena catmanah

tatha jivo na yat-sakhyam

vetti tasmai namo 'stu te

"As the various servants in the different departments of big establishments cannot see the supreme managing director under whom they are working, the conditioned souls cannot see the supreme friend sitting within their bodies. Let us therefore offer our respectful obeisances unto the Supreme, who is invisible to our material eyes."

TEXT 25

TEXT

deho 'savo 'ksa manavo bhuta-matram

atmanam anyam ca viduh param yat

sarvam puman veda gunams ca taj-jno

na veda sarva-jnam anantam ide

SYNONYMS

dehah--this body; asavah--the life airs; aksah--the different senses; manavah--the mind, understanding, intellect and ego; bhuta-matram--the five gross material elements and the sense objects (form, taste, sound and so on); atmanam--themselves; anyam--any other; ca--and; viduh--know; param--beyond; yat--that which; sarvam--everything; puman--the living being; veda--knows; gunan--the qualities of the material nature; ca--and; tat-jnah--knowing those things; na--not; veda--knows; sarva-jnam--unto the omniscient; anantam--the unlimited; ide--I offer my respectful obeisances.

TRANSLATION

Because they are only matter, the body, the life airs, the external and internal senses, the five gross elements and the subtle sense objects [form, taste, smell, sound and touch] cannot know their own nature, the nature of the other senses or the nature of their controllers. But the living being, because of his spiritual nature, can know his body, the life airs, the senses, the elements and the sense objects, and he can also know the three qualities that form their roots. Nevertheless, although the living being is completely aware of them, he is unable to see the Supreme Being, who is omniscient and unlimited. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.

PURPORT

Material scientists can make an analytical study of the physical elements, the body, the senses, the sense objects and even the air that controls the vital force, but still they cannot understand that above all these is the real spirit soul. In other words, the living entity, because of his being a spirit soul, can understand all the material objects, or, when self-realized, he can understand the Paramatma, upon whom yogis meditate. Nevertheless, the living being, even if advanced, cannot understand the Supreme Being, the Personality of Godhead, for He is ananta, unlimited, in all six opulences.

TEXT 26

TEXT

yadoparamo manaso nama-rupa-

rupasya drsta-smrti-sampramosat

ya iyate kevalaya sva-samsthaya

hamsaya tasmai suci-sadmane namah

SYNONYMS

yada--when in trance; uparamah--complete cessation; manasah--of the mind; nama-rupa--material names and forms; rupasya--of that by which they appear; drsta--of material vision; smrti--and of remembrance; sampramosat--due to the destruction; yah--who (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); iyate--is perceived; kevalaya--with spiritual; sva-samsthaya--His own original form; hamsaya--unto the supreme pure; tasmai--unto Him; suci-sadmane--who is realized only in the pure state of spiritual existence; namah--I offer my respectful obeisances.

TRANSLATION

When one's consciousness is completely purified of the contamination of material existence, gross and subtle, without being agitated as in the working and dreaming states, and when the mind is not dissolved as in susupti, deep sleep, one comes to the platform of trance. Then one's material vision and the memories of the mind, which manifests names and forms, are vanquished. Only in such a trance is the Supreme Personality of Godhead revealed. Thus let us offer our respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is seen in that uncontaminated, transcendental state.

PURPORT

There are two stages of God realization. One is called sujneyam, or very easily understood (generally by mental speculation), and the other is called durjneyam, understood only with difficulty. Paramatma realization and Brahman realization are considered sujneyam, but realization of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is durjneyam. As described here, one attains the ultimate realization of the Personality of Godhead when one gives up the activities of the mind--thinking, feeling and willing--or, in other words, when mental speculation stops. This transcendental realization is above susupti, deep sleep. In our gross conditional stage we perceive things through material experience and remembrance, and in the subtle stage we perceive the world in dreams. The process of vision also involves remembrance and also exists in a subtle form. Above gross experience and dreams is susupti, deep sleep, and when one comes to the completely spiritual platform, transcending deep sleep, he attains trance, visuddha-sattva, or vasudeva-sattva, in which the Personality of Godhead is revealed.

Atah sri-krsna-namadi na bhaved grahyam indriyaih: as long as one is situated in duality, on the sensual platform, gross or subtle, realization of the original Personality of Godhead is impossible. Sevonmukhe hi jihvadau svayam eva sphuraty adah: but when one engages his senses in the service of the Lord--specifically, when one engages the tongue in chanting the Hare Krsna mantra and tasting only Krsna prasada with a spirit of service--the Supreme Personality of Godhead is revealed. This is indicated in this verse by the word suci-sadmane. Suci means purified. By the spirit of rendering service with one's senses, one's entire existence becomes suci-sadma, the platform of uncontaminated purity. Daksa therefore offers his respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is revealed on the platform of suci-sadma. In this regard Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura quotes the following prayer by Lord Brahma from the Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.6): tathapi bhuman mahimagunasya te viboddhum arhaty amalantar-atmabhih. "One whose heart has become completely purified, my Lord, can understand the transcendental qualities of Your Lordship and can understand the greatness of Your activities."

TEXTS 27-28

TEXT

manisino 'ntar-hrdi sannivesitam

sva-saktibhir navabhis ca trivrdbhih

vahnim yatha daruni pancadasyam

manisaya niskarsanti gudham

sa vai mamasesa-visesa-maya-

nisedha-nirvana-sukhanubhutih

sa sarva-nama sa ca visva-rupah

prasidatam aniruktatma-saktih

SYNONYMS

manisinah--great learned brahmanas performing ritualistic ceremonies and sacrifices; antah-hrdi--within the core of the heart; sannivesitam--being situated; sva-saktibhih--with His own spiritual potencies; navabhih--also with the nine different material potencies (the material nature, the total material energy, the ego, the mind and the five objects of the senses); ca--and (the five gross material elements and the ten acting and knowledge-gathering senses); trivrdbhih--by the three material modes of nature; vahnim--fire; yatha--just like; daruni--within wood; pancadasyam--produced by chanting the fifteen hymns known as Samidheni mantras; manisaya--by purified intelligence; niskarsanti--extract; gudham--although not manifesting; sah--that Supreme Personality of Godhead; vai--indeed; mama--toward me; asesa--all; visesa--varieties; maya--of the illusory energy; nisedha--by the process of negation; nirvana--of liberation; sukha-anubhutih--who is realized by transcendental bliss; sah--that Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarva-nama--who is the source of all names; sah--that Supreme Personality of Godhead; ca--also; visva-rupah--the gigantic form of the universe; prasidatam--may He be merciful; anirukta--inconceivable; atma-saktih--the reservoir of all spiritual potencies.

TRANSLATION

Just as great learned brahmanas who are expert in performing ritualistic ceremonies and sacrifices can extract the fire dormant within wooden fuel by chanting the fifteen Samidheni mantras, thus proving the efficacy of the Vedic mantras, so those who are actually advanced in consciousness--in other words, those who are Krsna conscious--can find the Supersoul, who by His own spiritual potency is situated within the heart. The heart is covered by the three modes of material nature and the nine material elements [material nature, the total material energy, the ego, the mind and the five objects of sense gratification], and also by the five material elements and the ten senses. These twenty-seven elements constitute the external energy of the Lord. Great yogis meditate upon the Lord, who is situated as the Supersoul, Paramatma, within the core of the heart. May that Supersoul be pleased with me. The Supersoul is realized when one is eager for liberation from the unlimited varieties of material life. One actually attains such liberation when he engages in the transcendental loving service of the Lord and realizes the Lord because of his attitude of service. The Lord may be addressed by various spiritual names, which are inconceivable to the material senses. When will that Supreme Personality of Godhead be pleased with me?

PURPORT

In his commentary to this verse, Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura uses the word durvijneyam, which means "very difficult to realize." The pure stage of existence is described in Bhagavad-gita (7.28), wherein Krsna says:

yesam tv anta-gatam papam

jananam punya-karmanam

te dvandva-moha-nirmukta

bhajante mam drdha-vratah

"Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination."

Elsewhere in Bhagavad-gita (9.14) the Lord says:

satatam kirtayanto mam

yatantas ca drdha-vratah

namasyantas ca mam bhaktya

nitya-yukta upasate

"Always chanting My glories, endeavoring with great determination, bowing down before Me, these great souls perpetually worship Me with devotion."

One can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead after transcending all material impediments. Therefore Lord Krsna also says in the Gita (7.3):

manusyanam sahasresu

kascid yatati siddhaye

yatatam api siddhanam

kascin mam vetti tattvatah

"Out of many thousands among men, one may endeavor for perfection, and of those who have achieved perfection, hardly one knows Me in truth."

To understand Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one must undergo severe penances and austerities, but since the path of devotional service is perfect, by following this process one can very easily come to the spiritual platform and understand the Lord. This, too, is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (18.55), wherein Krsna says:

bhaktya mam abhijanati

yavan yas casmi tattvatah

tato mam tattvato jnatva

visate tad-anantaram

"One can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead as He is only by devotional service. And when one is in full consciousness of the Supreme Lord by such devotion, he can enter into the kingdom of God."

Thus although the subject matter is durvijneyam, extremely difficult to understand, it becomes easy if one follows the prescribed method. Coming in touch with the Supreme Personality of Godhead is possible through pure devotional service, which begins with sravanam kirtanam visnoh. In this regard, Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura quotes a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.8.5): pravistah karna-randhrena svanam bhava-saroruham. The process of hearing and chanting enters the core of the heart, and in this way one becomes a pure devotee. By continuing this process, one comes to the stage of transcendental love, and then he appreciates the transcendental name, form, qualities and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In other words, a pure devotee, by devotional service, is able to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead despite many material impediments, which are all various energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Easily making his way through these impediments, a devotee comes directly in contact with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. After all, the material impediments described in these verses are but various energies of the Lord. When a devotee is eager to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he prays to the Lord:

ayi nanda-tanuja kinkaram

patitam mam visame bhavambudhau

krpaya tava pada-pankaja-

sthita-dhuli-sadrsam vicintaya

"O son of Maharaja Nanda [Krsna], I am Your eternal servitor, yet somehow or other I have fallen into the ocean of birth and death. Please pick me up from this ocean of death and place me as one of the atoms at Your lotus feet." Being pleased with the devotee, the Lord turns all his material impediments into spiritual service. In this connection Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura quotes a verse from the Visnu Purana:

hladini sandhini samvit

tvayy eka sarva-samsthitau

hlada-tapa-kari misra

tvayi no guna-varjite

In the material world, the spiritual energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is manifested as tapa-kari, which means "causing miseries." Everyone hankers for happiness, but although happiness originally comes from the pleasure potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, in the material world, because of material activities, the pleasure potency of the Lord becomes a source of miseries (hlada-tapa-kari). False happiness in the material world is the source of distress, but when one's endeavors for happiness are redirected toward the satisfaction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this tapa-kari element of misery is vanquished. An example given in this connection is that extracting fire from wood is certainly difficult, but when the fire comes out it burns the wood to ashes. In other words, experiencing the Supreme Personality of Godhead is extremely difficult for those devoid of devotional service, but everything becomes easier for a devotee, and thus he can very easily meet the Supreme Lord.

Here the prayers say that the form of the Lord is beyond the jurisdiction of material form and is therefore inconceivable. A devotee prays, however, "My dear Lord, be pleased with me so that I may very easily see Your transcendental form and potency." Nondevotees try to understand the Supreme Brahman by discussions of neti neti. Nisedha-nirvana-sukhanubhutih: a devotee, however, simply by chanting the holy name of the Lord, avoids such laborious speculations and realizes the existence of the Lord very easily.

TEXT 29

TEXT

yad yan niruktam vacasa nirupitam

dhiyaksabhir va manasota yasya

ma bhut svarupam guna-rupam hi tat tat

sa vai gunapaya-visarga-laksanah

SYNONYMS

yat yat--whatever; niruktam--expressed; vacasa--by words; nirupitam--ascertained; dhiya--by so-called meditation or intelligence; aksabhih--by the senses; va--or; manasa--by the mind; uta--certainly; yasya--of whom; ma bhut--may not be; sva-rupam--the actual form of the Lord; guna-rupam--consisting of the three qualities; hi--indeed; tat tat--that; sah--that Supreme Personality of Godhead; vai--indeed; guna-apaya--the cause of the annihilation of everything made of the material modes of nature; visarga--and the creation; laksanah--appearing as.

TRANSLATION

Anything expressed by material vibrations, anything ascertained by material intelligence and anything experienced by the material senses or concocted within the material mind is but an effect of the modes of material nature and therefore has nothing to do with the real nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Supreme Lord is beyond the creation of this material world, for He is the source of the material qualities and creation. As the cause of all causes, He exists before the creation and after the creation. I wish to offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.

PURPORT

One who manufactures names, forms, qualities or paraphernalia pertaining to the Supreme Personality of Godhead cannot understand Him, since He is beyond creation. The Supreme Lord is the creator of everything, and this means that He existed when there was no creation. In other words, His name, form and qualities are not materially created entities; they are transcendental always. Therefore by our material concoctions, vibrations and thoughts we cannot ascertain the Supreme Lord. This is explained in the verse atah sri-krsna-namadi na bhaved grahyam indriyaih.

Pracetasa, Daksa, herein offers prayers unto the Transcendence, not to anyone within the material creation. Only fools and rascals think God a material creation. This is confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (9.11):

avajananti mam mudha

manusim tanum asritam

param bhavam ajananto

mama bhuta-mahesvaram

"Fools deride Me when I descend in the human form. They do not know My transcendental nature and My supreme dominion over all that be." Therefore, one must receive knowledge from a person to whom the Lord has revealed Himself; there is no value in creating an imaginary name or form for the Lord. Sripada Sankaracarya was an impersonalist, but nevertheless he said, narayanah paro 'vyaktat: Narayana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is not a person of the material world. We cannot assign Narayana a material designation, as the foolish attempt to do when they speak of daridra-narayana (poor Narayana). Narayana is always transcendental, beyond this material creation. How can He become daridra-narayana? Poverty is found within this material world, but in the spiritual world, there is no such thing as poverty. Therefore the idea of daridra-narayana is merely a concoction.

Daksa very carefully points out that material designations cannot be names of the worshipable Lord: yad yan niruktam vacasa nirupitam. Nirukta refers to the Vedic dictionary. One cannot properly understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead merely by picking up expressions from a dictionary. In praying to the Lord, Daksa does not wish material names and forms to be the objects of his worship; rather, he wants to worship the Lord, who existed before the creation of material dictionaries and names. As confirmed in the Vedas, yato vaco nivartante. aprapya manasa saha: the name, form, attributes and paraphernalia of the Lord cannot be ascertained through a material dictionary. However, if one reaches the transcendental platform of understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he becomes well acquainted with everything, material and spiritual. This is confirmed in another Vedic mantra: tam eva viditvati mrtyum eti. If one can somehow or other, by the grace of the Lord, understand the transcendental position of the Lord, one becomes eternal. This is further confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (4.9):

janma karma ca me divyam

evam yo vetti tattvatah

tyaktva deham punar janma

naiti mam eti so 'rjuna

"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." Simply by understanding the Supreme Lord, one goes beyond birth, death, old age and disease. Srila Sukadeva Gosvami therefore advised Maharaja Pariksit in Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.1.5):

tasmad bharata sarvatma

bhagavan isvaro harih

srotavyah kirtitavyas ca

smartavyas cecchatabhayam

"O descendant of King Bharata, one who desires to be free from all miseries must hear, glorify and also remember the Personality of Godhead. who is the Supersoul, the controller and the savior from all miseries."

TEXT 30

TEXT

yasmin yato yena ca yasya yasmai

yad yo yatha kurute karyate ca

paravaresam paramam prak prasiddham

tad brahma tad dhetur ananyad ekam

SYNONYMS

yasmin--in whom (the Supreme Personality of Godhead or the supreme place of repose); yatah--from whom (everything emanates); yena--by whom (everything is enacted); ca--also; yasya--to whom everything belongs; yasmai--to whom (everything is offered); yat--which; yah--who; yatha--as; kurute--executes; karyate--is performed; ca--also; para-avaresam--of both, in the material and spiritual existence; paramam--the supreme; prak--the origin; prasiddham--well known to everyone; tat--that; brahma--the Supreme Brahman; tat hetuh--the cause of all causes; ananyat--having no other cause; ekam--one without a second.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Brahman, Krsna, is the ultimate resting place and source of everything. Everything is done by Him, everything belongs to Him, and everything is offered to Him. He is the ultimate objective, and whether acting or causing others to act, He is the ultimate doer. There are many causes, high and low, but since He is the cause of all causes, He is well known as the Supreme Brahman who existed before all activities. He is one without a second and has no other cause. I therefore offer my respects unto Him.

PURPORT

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, is the original cause, as confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (aham sarvasya prabhavah). Even this material world, which is conducted under the modes of material nature, is caused by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who therefore also has an intimate relationship with the material world. If the material world were not a part of His body, the Supreme Lord, the supreme cause, would be incomplete. Therefore we hear, vasudevah sarvam iti sa mahatma sudurlabhah: if one knows that Vasudeva is the original cause of all causes, he becomes a perfect mahatma.

The Brahma-samhita (5.1) declares:

isvarah paramah krsnah

sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah

anadir adir govindah

sarva-karana-karanam

"Krsna, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes." The Supreme Brahman (tad brahma) is the cause of all causes, but He has no cause. Anadir adir govindah sarva-karana-karanam: Govinda, Krsna, is the original cause of all causes, but He has no cause for His appearance as Govinda. Govinda expands in multifarious forms, but nevertheless they are one. As confirmed by Madhvacarya, ananyah sadrsabhavad eko rupady-abhedatah: Krsna has no cause nor any equal, and He is one because His various forms, as svamsa and vibhinnamsa, are nondifferent from Himself.

TEXT 31

TEXT

yac-chaktayo vadatam vadinam vai

vivada-samvada-bhuvo bhavanti

kurvanti caisam muhur atma-moham

tasmai namo 'nanta-gunaya bhumne

SYNONYMS

yat-saktayah--whose multifarious potencies; vadatam--speaking different philosophies; vadinam--of the speakers; vai--indeed; vivada--of argument; samvada--and agreement; bhuvah--the causes; bhavanti--are; kurvanti--create; ca--and; esam--of them (the theorists); muhuh--continuously; atma-moham--bewilderment regarding the existence of the soul; tasmai--unto Him; namah--my respectful obeisances; ananta--unlimited; gunaya--possessing transcendental attributes; bhumne--the all-pervading Godhead.

TRANSLATION

Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead, who possesses unlimited transcendental qualities. Acting from within the cores of the hearts of all philosophers, who propagate various views, He causes them to forget their own souls while sometimes agreeing and sometimes disagreeing among themselves. Thus He creates within this material world a situation in which they are unable to come to a conclusion. I offer my obeisances unto Him.

PURPORT

Since time immemorial or since the creation of the cosmic manifestation, the conditioned souls have formed various parties of philosophical speculation, but this is not true of the devotees. Nondevotees have different ideas of creation, maintenance and annihilation, and therefore they are called vadis and prativadis--proponents and counterproponents. It is understood from the statement of Mahabharata that there are many munis, or speculators:

tarko 'pratisthah srutayo vibhinna

nasav rsir yasya matam na bhinnam

All speculators must disagree with other speculators; otherwise, why should there be so many opposing parties concerned with ascertaining the supreme cause?

Philosophy means finding the ultimate cause. As Vedanta-sutra very reasonably says, athato brahma jijnasa: human life is meant for understanding the ultimate cause. Devotees accept that the ultimate cause is Krsna because this conclusion is supported by all Vedic literature and also by Krsna Himself, who says, aham sarvasya prabhavah: "I am the source of everything." Devotees have no problem understanding the ultimate cause of everything, but nondevotees must face many opposing elements because everyone who wants to be a prominent philosopher invents his own way. In India there are many parties of philosophers, such as the dvaita-vadis, advaita-vadis, vaisesikas, mimamsakas, Mayavadis and svabhava-vadis, and each of them opposes the others. Similarly, in the Western countries there are also many philosophers with different views of creation, life, maintenance and annihilation. Thus it is undoubtedly a fact that there are countless philosophers throughout the world, each of them contradicting the others.

Now, one might ask why there are so many philosophers if the ultimate goal of philosophy is one. Undoubtedly the ultimate cause is one--the Supreme Brahman. As Arjuna told Krsna in Bhagavad-gita (10.12):

param brahma param dhama

pavitram paramam bhavan

purusam sasvatam divyam

adi-devam ajam vibhum

"You are the Supreme Brahman, the ultimate, the supreme abode and purifier, the Absolute Truth and the eternal divine person. You are the primal God, transcendental and original, and You are the unborn and all-pervading beauty." Nondevotee speculators, however, do not accept an ultimate cause (sarva-karana-karanam). Because they are ignorant and bewildered concerning the soul and its activities, even though some of them have a vague idea of the soul, many controversies arise, and the philosophical speculators can never reach a conclusion. All of these speculators are envious of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and as Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (16.19-20):

tan aham dvisatah kruran

samsaresu naradhaman

ksipamy ajasram asubhan

asurisv eva yonisu

asurim yonim apanna

mudha janmani janmani

mam aprapyaiva kaunteya

tato yanty adhamam gatim

"Those who are envious and mischievous, who are the lowest among men, are cast by Me into the ocean of material existence, into various demoniac species of life. Attaining repeated birth among the species of demoniac life, such persons can never approach Me. Gradually they sink down to the most abominable type of existence." Because of their envy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, nondevotees are born in demoniac families life after life. They are great offenders, and because of their offenses the Supreme Lord keeps them always bewildered. Kurvanti caisam muhur atma-moham: the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, purposely keeps them in darkness (atma-moham).

The great authority Parasara, the father of Vyasadeva, explains the Supreme Personality of Godhead thus:

jnana-sakti-balaisvarya-

virya-tejamsy asesatah

bhagavac-chabda-vacyani

vina heyair gunadibhih

The demoniac speculators cannot understand the transcendental qualities, form, pastimes, strength, knowledge and opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, which are all free from material contamination (vina heyair gunadibhih). These speculators are envious of the existence of the Lord. Jagad ahur anisvaram: their conclusion is that the entire cosmic manifestation has no controller, but is just working naturally. Thus they are kept in constant darkness, birth after birth, and cannot understand the real cause of all causes. This is the reason why there are so many schools of philosophical speculation.

TEXT 32

TEXT

astiti nastiti ca vastu-nisthayor

eka-sthayor bhinna-viruddha-dharmanoh

aveksitam kincana yoga-sankhyayoh

samam param hy anukulam brhat tat

SYNONYMS

asti--there is; iti--thus; na--not; asti--there is; iti--thus; ca--and; vastu-nisthayoh--professing knowledge of the ultimate cause; eka-sthayoh--with one and the same subject matter, establishing Brahman; bhinna--demonstrating different; viruddha-dharmanoh--and opposing characteristics; aveksitam--perceived; kincana--that something which; yoga-sankhyayoh--of mystic yoga and the Sankhya philosophy (analysis of the ways of nature); samam--the same; param--transcendental; hi--indeed; anukulam--dwelling place; brhat tat--that ultimate cause.

TRANSLATION

There are two parties--namely, the theists and the atheists. The theist, who accepts the Supersoul, finds the spiritual cause through mystic yoga. The Sankhyite, however, who merely analyzes the material elements, comes to a conclusion of impersonalism and does not accept a supreme cause--whether Bhagavan, Paramatma or even Brahman. Instead, he is preoccupied with the superfluous, external activities of material nature. Ultimately, however, both parties demonstrate the Absolute Truth because although they offer opposing statements, their object is the same ultimate cause. They are both approaching the same Supreme Brahman, to whom I offer my respectful obeisances.

PURPORT

Actually there are two sides to this argument. Some say that the Absolute has no form (nirakara), and others say that the Absolute has a form (sakara). Therefore the word form is the common factor, although some accept it (asti or astika) whereas others try to negate it (nasti or nastika). Since the devotee considers the word "form" (akara) the common factor for both, he offers his respectful obeisances to the form, although others may go on arguing about whether the Absolute has a form or not.

In this verse the word yoga-sankhyayoh is very important. Yoga means bhakti-yoga because yogis also accept the existence of the all-pervading Supreme Soul and try to see that Supreme Soul within their hearts. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (12.13.1), dhyanavasthita-tad-gatena manasa pasyanti yam yoginah. The devotee tries to come directly in touch with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whereas the yogi tries to find the Supersoul within the heart by meditation. Thus, both directly and indirectly, yoga means bhakti-yoga. Sankhya, however, means physical study of the cosmic situation through speculative knowledge. This is generally known as jnana-sastra. The Sankhyites are attached to the impersonal Brahman, but the Absolute Truth is known in three ways. Brahmeti paramatmeti bhagavan iti sabdyate: the Absolute Truth is one, but some accept Him as impersonal Brahman, some as the Supersoul existing everywhere, and some as Bhagavan, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The central point is the Absolute Truth.

Although the impersonalists and personalists fight with one another, they focus upon the same Parabrahman, the same Absolute Truth. In the yoga-sastras, Krsna is described as follows: krsnam pisangambaram ambujeksanam catur-bhujam sankha-gadady-udayudham. Thus the pleasing appearance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead's bodily features, His limbs and His dress are described. The sankhya-sastra, however, denies the existence of the Lord's transcendental form. The sankhya-sastra says that the Supreme Absolute Truth has no hands, no legs and no name: hy anama-rupa-guna-pani-padam acaksur asrotram ekam advitiyam api nama-rupadikam nasti. The Vedic mantras say, apani-pado javano grahita: the Supreme Lord has no legs and hands, but He can accept whatever is offered to Him. Actually such statements accept that the Supreme has hands and legs, but deny that He has material hands and legs. This is why the Absolute is called aprakrta. Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, has a sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, a form of eternity, knowledge and bliss, not a material form. The Sankhyites, or jnanis, deny the material form, and the devotees also know very well that the Absolute Truth, Bhagavan, has no material form.

isvarah paramah krsnah

sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah

anadir adir govindah

sarva-karana-karanam

"Krsna, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes." The conception of the Absolute without hands and legs and the conception of the Absolute with hands and legs are apparently contradictory, but they both coincide with the same truth about the Supreme Absolute Person. Therefore the word vastu-nisthayoh, which is used herein, indicates that both the yogis and Sankhyites have faith in the reality, but are arguing about it from the different viewpoints of material and spiritual identities. Parabrahman, or brhat, is the common point. The Sankhyites and yogis are both situated in that same Brahman, but they differ because of different angles of vision.

The directions given by the bhakti-sastra point one in the perfect direction because the Supreme Personality of Godhead says in Bhagavad-gita, bhaktya mam abhijanati: "Only by devotional service am I to be known." The bhaktas know that the Supreme Person has no material form, whereas the jnanis simply deny the material form. One should therefore take shelter of the bhakti-marga, the path of devotion; then everything will be clear. Jnanis concentrate on the virat-rupa, the gigantic universal form of the Lord. This is a good system in the beginning for those who are extremely materialistic, but there is no need to think continuously of the virat-rupa. When Arjuna was shown the virat-rupa of Krsna, he saw it, but he did not want to see it perpetually. He therefore requested the Lord to return to His original form as two-armed Krsna. In conclusion, learned scholars find no contradictions in the devotees' concentration upon the spiritual form of the Lord (isvarah paramah krsnah sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah). In this regard, Srila Madhvacarya says that less intelligent nondevotees think that their conclusion is the ultimate, but because devotees are completely learned, they can understand that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the ultimate goal.

TEXT 33

TEXT

yo 'nugrahartham bhajatam pada-mulam

anama-rupo bhagavan anantah

namani rupani ca janma-karmabhir

bheje sa mahyam paramah prasidatu

SYNONYMS

yah--who (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); anugraha-artham--to show His causeless mercy; bhajatam--to the devotees who always render devotional service; pada-mulam--to His transcendental lotus feet; anama--with no material name; rupah--or material form; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; anantah--unlimited, all-pervading and eternally existing; namani--transcendental holy names; rupani--His transcendental forms; ca--also; janma-karmabhih--with His transcendental birth and activities; bheje--manifests; sah--He; mahyam--unto me; paramah--the Supreme; prasidatu--may He be merciful.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is inconceivably opulent, who is devoid of all material names, forms and pastimes, and who is all-pervading, is especially merciful to the devotees who worship His lotus feet. Thus He exhibits transcendental forms and names with His different pastimes. May that Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, be merciful to me.

PURPORT

In regard to the significant word anama-rupah, Sri Sridhara Svami says, prakrta-nama-rupa-rahito 'pi. The word anama, which means "having no name," indicates that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has no material name. Simply by chanting the name of Narayana to call his son, Ajamila attained salvation. This means that Narayana is not an ordinary mundane name; it is nonmaterial. The word anama, therefore, indicates that the names of the Supreme Lord do not belong to this material world. The vibration of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra is not a material sound, and similarly the form of the Lord and His appearance and activities are all nonmaterial. To show His causeless mercy to the devotees, as well as to the nondevotees, Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appears in this material world with names, forms and pastimes, all of which are transcendental. Unintelligent men who cannot understand this think that these names, forms and pastimes are material, and therefore they deny that He has a name or a form.

Considered with scrutiny, the conclusion of nondevotees, who say that God has no name, and that of devotees, who know that His name is not material, are practically the same. The Supreme Personality of Godhead has no material name, form, birth, appearance or disappearance, but nevertheless, He takes His birth (janma). As stated in Bhagavad-gita (4.6):

ajo 'pi sann avyayatma

bhutanam isvaro 'pi san

prakrtim svam adhisthaya

sambhavamy atma-mayaya

Although the Lord is unborn (aja) and His body never undergoes material changes, He nevertheless appears as an incarnation, maintaining Himself always in the transcendental stage (suddha-sattva). Thus He exhibits His transcendental forms, names and activities. That is His special mercy toward His devotees. Others may continue merely arguing about whether the Absolute Truth has form or not, but when a devotee, by the grace of the Lord, sees the Lord personally, he becomes spiritually ecstatic.

Unintelligent persons say that the Lord does nothing. Actually He has nothing to do, but nevertheless He has to do everything, because without His sanction no one can do anything. The unintelligent, however, cannot see how He is working and how the entire material nature is working under His direction. His different potencies work perfectly.

na tasya karyam karanam ca vidyate

na tat-samas cabhyadhikas ca drsyate

parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate

svabhaviki jnana-bala-kriya ca

(Svetasvatara Upanisad 6.8)

He has nothing to do personally, for since His potencies are perfect, everything is immediately done by His will. Persons to whom the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not revealed cannot see how He is working, and therefore they think that even if there is God, He has nothing to do or has no particular name.

Actually the Lord's name already exists because of His transcendental activities. The Lord is sometimes called guna-karma-nama because He is named according to His transcendental activities. For example, Krsna means "all-attractive." This is the Lord's name because His transcendental qualities make Him very attractive. As a small boy He lifted Govardhana Hill, and in His childhood He killed many demons. Such activities are very attractive, and therefore He is sometimes called Giridhari, Madhusudana, Agha-nisudana and so on. Because He acted as the son of Nanda Maharaja, He is called Nanda-tanuja. These names already exist, but since nondevotees cannot understand the names of the Lord, He is sometimes called anama, or nameless. This means that He has no material names. All His activities are spiritual, and therefore He has spiritual names.

Generally, less intelligent men are under the impression that the Lord has no form. Therefore He appears in His original form as Krsna, sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, to carry out His mission of participating in the Battle of Kuruksetra and pastimes to protect the devotees and vanquish the demons (paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam). This is His mercy. For those who think that He has no form and no work to do, Krsna comes to show that indeed He works. He works so gloriously that no one else can perform such uncommon acts. Although He appeared as a human being, He married 16,108 wives, which is impossible for a human being to do. The Lord performs such activities to show people how great He is, how affectionate He is and how merciful He is. Although His original name is Krsna (krsnas tu bhagavan svayam), He acts in unlimited ways, and therefore according to His work He has many, many thousands of names.

TEXT 34

TEXT

yah prakrtair jnana-pathair jananam

yathasayam deha-gato vibhati

yathanilah parthivam asrito gunam

sa isvaro me kurutam manoratham

SYNONYMS

yah--who; prakrtaih--lower grade; jnana-pathaih--by the paths of worship; jananam--of all living entities; yatha-asayam--according to the desire; deha-gatah--situated within the core of the heart; vibhati--manifests; yatha--just as; anilah--the air; parthivam--earthly; asritah--receiving; gunam--the quality (like flavor and color); sah--He; isvarah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; me--my; kurutam--may He fulfill; manoratham--desire (for devotional service).

TRANSLATION

As the air carries various characteristics of the physical elements, like the aroma of a flower or colors resulting from a mixture of dust in the air, the Lord appears through lower systems of worship according to one's desires, although He appears as the demigods and not in His original form. What is the use of these other forms? May the original Supreme Personality of Godhead please fulfill my desires.

PURPORT

The impersonalists imagine the various demigods to be forms of the Lord. For example, the Mayavadis worship five demigods (pancopasana). They do not actually believe in the form of the Lord, but for the sake of worship they imagine some form to be God. Generally they imagine a form of Visnu, a form of Siva, and forms of Ganesa, the sun-god and Durga. This is called pancopasana. Daksa, however, wanted to worship not an imaginary form, but the supreme form of Lord Krsna.

In this regard, Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura describes the difference between the Supreme Personality of Godhead and an ordinary living being. As pointed out in a previous verse, sarvam puman veda gunams ca taj-jno na veda sarva jnam anantam ide: the omnipotent Supreme Lord knows everything, but the living being does not actually know the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita, "I know everything, but no one knows Me." This is the difference between the Supreme Lord and an ordinary living being. In a prayer in Srimad-Bhagavatam, Queen Kunti says, "My dear Lord, You exist inside and outside, yet no one can see You."

The conditioned soul cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead by speculative knowledge or by imagination. One must therefore know the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the grace of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He reveals Himself, but He cannot be understood by speculation. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.29):

athapi te deva padambuja-dvaya-

prasada-lesanugrhita eva hi

janati tattvam bhagavan-mahimno

na canya eko 'pi ciram vicinvan

"My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the mercy of Your lotus feet, he can understand the greatness of Your personality. But those who speculate to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead are unable to know You, even though they continue to study the Vedas for many years."

This is the verdict of the sastra. An ordinary man may be a great philosopher and may speculate upon what the Absolute Truth is, what His form is and where He is existing, but be cannot understand these truths. Sevonmukhe hi jihvadau svayam eva sphuraty adah: one can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead only through devotional service. This is also explained by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself in Bhagavad-gita (18.55). Bhaktya mam abhijanati yavan yas casmi tattvatah: "One can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead as He is only by devotional service." Unintelligent persons want to imagine or concoct a form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but devotees want to worship the actual Personality of Godhead. Therefore Daksa prays, "One may think of You as personal, impersonal or imaginary, but I wish to pray to Your Lordship that You fulfill my desires to see You as You actually are."

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura comments that this verse is especially meant for the impersonalist, who thinks that he himself is the Supreme because there is no difference between the living being and God. The Mayavadi philosopher thinks that there is only one Supreme Truth and that he is also that Supreme Truth. Actually this is not knowledge but foolishness, and this verse is especially meant for such fools, whose knowledge has been stolen by illusion (mayayapahrta jnanah). Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says that such persons, jnani-maninah, think themselves very advanced, but actually they are unintelligent.

In regard to this verse, Srila Madhvacarya says:

svadeha-stham harim prahur

adhama jivam eva tu

madhyamas capy anirnitam

jivad bhinnam janardanam

There are three classes of men--the lowest (adhama), those in the middle (madhyama), and the best (uttama). The lowest (adhama) think that there is no difference between God and the living entity except that the living entity is under designations whereas the Absolute Truth has no designations. In their opinion, as soon as the designations of the material body are dissolved, the jiva, the living entity, will mix with the Supreme. They give the argument of ghatakasa-patakasa, in which the body is compared to a pot with the sky within and the sky without. When the pot breaks, the sky inside becomes one with the sky outside, and so the impersonalists say that the living being becomes one with the Supreme. This is their argument, but Srila Madhvacarya says that such an argument is put forward by the lowest class of men. Another class of men cannot ascertain what the actual form of the Supreme is, but they agree that there is a Supreme who controls the activities of the ordinary living being. Such philosophers are accepted as mediocre. The best, however. are those who understand the Supreme Lord (sac-cid-ananda-vigraha). Purnanandadi-gunakam sarva jiva-vilaksanam: His form is completely spiritual, full of bliss, and completely distinct from that of the conditioned soul or any other living entity. Uttamas tu harim prahus taratamyena tesu ca: such philosophers are the best because they know that the Supreme Personality of Godhead reveals Himself differently to worshipers in various modes of material nature. They know that there are thirty-three million demigods just to convince the conditioned soul that there is a supreme power and to induce him to agree to worship one of these demigods so that by the association of devotees he may be able to understand that Krsna is the Supreme personality of Godhead. As Lord Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita, mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya: "There is no truth superior to Me." Aham adir hi devanam: "I am the origin of all the demigods." Aham sarvasya prabhavah: "I am superior to everyone, even Lord Brahma, Lord Siva and the other demigods." These are the conclusions of the sastra, and one who accepts these conclusions should be considered a first-class philosopher. Such a philosopher knows that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Lord of the demigods (deva-devesvaram sutram anandam prana-vedinah).

TEXTS 35-39

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

iti stutah samstuvatah

sa tasminn aghamarsane

pradurasit kuru-srestha

bhagavan bhakta-vatsalah

krta-padah suparnamse

pralambasta-maha-bhujah

cakra-sankhasi-carmesu-

dhanuh-pasa-gada-dharah

pita-vasa ghana-syamah

prasanna-vadaneksanah

vana-mala-nivitango

lasac-chrivatsa-kaustubhah

maha-kirita-katakah

sphuran-makara-kundalah

kancy-anguliya-valaya-

nupurangada-bhusitah

trailokya-mohanam rupam

bibhrat tribhuvanesvarah

vrto narada-nandadyaih

parsadaih sura-yuthapaih

stuyamano 'nugayadbhih

siddha-gandharva-caranaih

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; iti--thus; stutah--being praised; samstuvatah--of Daksa, who was offering prayers; sah--that Supreme Personality of Godhead; tasmin--in that; aghamarsane--holy place celebrated as Aghamarsana; pradurasit--appeared; kuru-srestha--O best of the Kuru dynasty; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhakta-vatsalah--who is very kind to His devotees; krta-padah--whose lotus feet were placed; suparna-amse--on the shoulders of His carrier, Garuda; pralamba--very long; asta-maha-bhujah--possessing eight mighty arms; cakra--disc; sankha--conchshell; asi--sword; carma--shield; isu--arrow; dhanuh--bow; pasa--rope; gada--club; dharah--holding; pita-vasah--with yellow garments; ghana-syamah--whose bodily hue was intense blue-black; prasanna--very cheerful; vadana--whose face; iksanah--and glance; vana-mala--by a garland of forest flowers; nivita-angah--whose body was adorned from the neck down to the feet; lasat--shining; srivatsa-kaustubhah--the jewel known as Kaustubha and the mark of Srivatsa; maha-kirita--of a very large and gorgeous helmet; katakah--a circle; sphurat--glittering; makara-kundalah--earrings resembling sharks; kanci--with a belt; anguliya--finger rings; valaya--bracelets; nupura--ankle bells; angada--upper-arm bracelets; bhusitah--decorated; trai-lokya-mohanam--captivating the three worlds; rupam--His bodily features; bibhrat--shining; tri-bhuvana--of the three worlds; isvarah--the Supreme Lord; vrtah--surrounded; narada--by exalted devotees, headed by Narada; nanda-adyaih--and others, like Nanda; parsadaih--who are all eternal associates; sura-yuthapaih--as well as by the heads of the demigods; stuyamanah--being glorified; anugayadbhih--singing after Him; siddha-gandharva-caranaih--by the Siddhas, Gandharvas and Caranas.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, who is extremely affectionate to His devotees, was very pleased by the prayers offered by Daksa, and thus He appeared at that holy place known as Aghamarsana. O Maharaja Pariksit, best of the Kuru dynasty, the Lord's lotus feet rested on the shoulders of His carrier, Garuda, and He appeared with eight long, mighty, very beautiful arms. In His hands He held a disc, conchshell, sword, shield, arrow, bow, rope and club--in each hand a different weapon, all brilliantly shining. His garments were yellow and His bodily hue deep bluish. His eyes and face were very cheerful, and from His neck to His feet hung a long garland of flowers. His chest was decorated with the Kaustubha jewel and the mark of Srivatsa. On His head was a gorgeous round helmet, and His ears were decorated with earrings resembling sharks. All these ornaments were uncommonly beautiful. The Lord wore a golden belt on His waist, bracelets on His arms, rings on His fingers, and ankle bells on His feet. Thus decorated by various ornaments, Lord Hari, who is attractive to all the living entities of the three worlds, is known as Purusottama, the best personality. He was accompanied by great devotees like Narada, Nanda and all the principal demigods, led by the heavenly king, Indra, and the residents of various upper planetary systems such as Siddhaloka, Gandharvaloka and Caranaloka. Situated on both sides of the Lord and behind Him as well, these devotees offered Him prayers continuously.

TEXT 40

TEXT

rupam tan mahad-ascaryam

vicaksyagata-sadhvasah

nanama dandavad bhumau

prahrstatma prajapatih

SYNONYMS

rupam--transcendental form; tat--that; mahat-ascaryam--greatly wonderful; vicaksya--seeing; agata-sadhvasah--in the beginning becoming afraid; nanama--offered obeisances; danda-vat--like a stick; bhumau--on the ground; prahrsta-atma--being pleased in his body, mind and soul; prajapatih--the prajapati known as Daksa.

TRANSLATION

Seeing that wonderful and effulgent form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Prajapati Daksa was first somewhat afraid, but then he was very pleased to see the Lord, and he fell to the ground like a stick [dandavat] to offer his respects to the Lord.

TEXT 41

TEXT

na kincanodirayitum

asakat tivraya muda

apurita-manodvarair

hradinya iva nirjharaih

SYNONYMS

na--not; kincana--anything; udirayitum--to speak; asakat--he was able; tivraya--by very great; muda--happiness; apurita--filled; manah-dvaraih--by the senses; hradinyah--the rivers; iva--like; nirjharaih--by torrents from the mountain.

TRANSLATION

As rivers are filled by water flowing from a mountain, all of Daksa's senses were filled with pleasure. Because of his highly elevated happiness, Daksa could not say anything, but simply remained flat on the ground.

PURPORT

When one actually realizes or sees the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he is filled with complete happiness. For example, when Dhruva Maharaja saw the Lord in his presence, he said, svamin krtartho'smi varam na yace: "My dear Lord, I have nothing to ask from You. Now I am completely satisfied." Similarly, when Prajapati Daksa saw the Supreme Lord in his presence, he simply fell flat, unable to speak or ask Him for anything.

TEXT 42

TEXT

tam tathavanatam bhaktam

praja-kamam prajapatim

citta-jnah sarva-bhutanam

idam aha janardanah

SYNONYMS

tam--him (Prajapati Daksa); tatha--in that way; avanatam--prostrated before Him; bhaktam--a great devotee; praja-kamam--desiring to increase the population; prajapatim--unto the prajapati (Daksa); citta-jnah--who can understand the hearts; sarva-bhutanam--of all living entities; idam--this; aha--said; janardanah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can appease everyone's desires.

TRANSLATION

Although Prajapati Daksa could not say anything, when the Lord, who knows everyone's heart, saw His devotee prostrate in that manner and desiring to increase the population, He addressed him as follows.

TEXT 43

TEXT

sri-bhagavan uvaca

pracetasa maha-bhaga

samsiddhas tapasa bhavan

yac chraddhaya mat-paraya

mayi bhavam param gatah

SYNONYMS

sri-bhagavan uvaca--the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; pracetasa--O My dear Pracetasa; maha-bhaga--O you who are so fortunate; samsiddhah--perfected; tapasa--by your austerities; bhavan--your good self; yat--because; sraddhaya--by great faith; mat-paraya--whose object is Me; mayi--in Me; bhavam--ecstasy; param--supreme; gatah--attained.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O most fortunate Pracetasa, because of your great faith in Me, you have attained the supreme devotional ecstasy. Indeed, because of your austerities, combined with exalted devotion, your life is now successful. You have achieved complete perfection.

PURPORT

As the Lord Himself confirms in Bhagavad-gita (8.15), one reaches the highest perfection when he attains the fortune of realizing the Supreme Personality of Godhead:

mam upetya punar janma

duhkhalayam asasvatam

napnuvanti mahatmanah

samsiddhim paramam gatah

"After attaining Me, the great souls, who are yogis in devotion, never return to this temporary world, which is full of miseries, because they have attained the highest perfection." Therefore the Krsna consciousness movement teaches one to follow the path toward the topmost perfection simply by performing devotional service.

TEXT 44

TEXT

prito 'ham te praja-natha

yat te 'syodbrmhanam tapah

mamaisa kamo bhutanam

yad bhuyasur vibhutayah

SYNONYMS

pritah--very much pleased; aham--I; te--with you; praja-natha--O king of population; yat--because; te--your; asya--of this material world; udbrmhanam--causing increase; tapah--austerity; mama--My; esah--this; kamah--desire; bhutanam--of the living entities; yat--which; bhuyasuh--may there be; vibhutayah--advancement in all respects.

TRANSLATION

My dear Prajapati Daksa, you have performed extreme austerities for the welfare and growth of the world. My desire also is that everyone within this world be happy. I am therefore very pleased with you because you are endeavoring to fulfill My desire for the welfare of the entire world.

PURPORT

After every dissolution of the material cosmos, all the living entities take shelter in the body of Karanodakasayi Visnu, and when creation takes place again, they come forth from His body in their various species to resume their activities. Why does the creation take place in such a way that the living entities are put into conditioned life to suffer the threefold miseries imposed upon them by the material nature? Here the Lord says to Daksa, "You desire to benefit all living entities, and that is also My desire." The living entities who come in contact with the material world are meant to be corrected. All the living entities within this material world have revolted against the service of the Lord, and therefore they remain within this material world as ever conditioned, nitya-baddha, taking birth again and again. There is a chance, of course, of their being liberated, but nevertheless the conditioned souls, not taking advantage of this opportunity, continue in a life of sense enjoyment, and thus they are punished by birth and death again and again. This is the law of nature. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (7.14):

daivi hy esa guna-mayi

mama maya duratyaya

mam eva ye prapadyante

mayam etam taranti te

"This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me can easily cross beyond it." Elsewhere in Bhagavad-gita (15.7) the Lord says:

mamaivamso jiva-loke

jiva-bhutah sanatanah

manah sasthanindriyani

prakrti-sthani karsati

"The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal, fragmental parts. Due to conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind." The living entity's struggle for existence within the material world is due to his rebellious nature. Unless a living entity surrenders to Krsna, he must continue this life of struggle.

The Krsna consciousness movement is not a fad. It is a bona fide movement intended to promote the welfare of all conditioned souls by trying to elevate everyone to the platform of Krsna consciousness. If one does not come to this platform, he must continue in material existence perpetually, sometimes in the upper planets and sometimes in the lower planets. As confirmed in Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 20.118), kabhu svarge uthaya, kabhu narake dubaya: the conditioned soul sometimes descends into nescience and sometimes gets some relief by being relatively freed from it. This is the life of the conditioned soul.

Prajapati Daksa is trying to benefit the conditioned souls by begetting them to give them a life with a chance for liberation. Liberation means surrender to Krsna. If one begets children with the purpose of training them to surrender to Krsna, fatherhood is very good. Similarly, when the spiritual master trains the conditioned souls to become Krsna conscious, his position is successful. If one gives the conditioned souls a chance to become Krsna conscious, all his activities are approved by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is extremely pleased, as stated here (prito 'ham). Following the examples of the previous acaryas, all the members of the Krsna consciousness movement should try to benefit the conditioned souls by inducing them to become Krsna conscious and giving them all facilities to do so. Such activities constitute real welfare work. By such activities, a preacher or anyone who endeavors to spread Krsna consciousness is recognized by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As the Lord Himself confirms in Bhagavad-gita (18.68-69):

ya idam paramam guhyam

mad-bhaktesv abhidhasyati

bhaktim mayi param krtva

mam evaisyaty asamsayah

na ca tasman manusyesu

kascin me priya-krttamah

bhavita na ca me tasmad

anyah priyataro bhuvi

"For one who explains the supreme secret to the devotees, devotional service is guaranteed, and at the end he will come back to Me. There is no servant in this world more dear to Me than he, nor will there ever be one more dear."

TEXT 45

TEXT

brahma bhavo bhavantas ca

manavo vibudhesvarah

vibhutayo mama hy eta

bhutanam bhuti-hetavah

SYNONYMS

brahma--Lord Brahma; bhavah--Lord Siva; bhavantah--all of you prajapatis; ca--and; manavah--the Manus; vibudha-isvarah--all the different demigods (such as the sun, the moon, Venus, Mars and Jupiter, who are all in charge of various activities for the welfare of the world); vibhutayah--expansions of energy; mama--My; hi--indeed; etah--all these; bhutanam--of all the living entities; bhuti--of welfare; hetavah--causes.

TRANSLATION

Lord Brahma, Lord Siva, the Manus, all the other demigods in the higher planetary systems, and you prajapatis, who are increasing the population, are working for the benefit of all living entities. Thus you expansions of My marginal energy are incarnations of My various qualities.

PURPORT

There are various types of incarnations or expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The expansions of His personal self, or visnu-tattva, are called svamsa expansions, whereas the living entities, who are not visnu-tattva but jiva-tattva, are called vibhinnamsa, separated expansions. Although Prajapati Daksa is not on the same level as Lord Brahma and Lord Siva, he is compared to them because he engages in the service of the Lord. In the service of the Personality of Godhead, it is not that Lord Brahma is considered very great while an ordinary human being trying to preach the glories of the Lord is considered very low. There are no such distinctions. Regardless of whether materially high or materially low, anyone engaged in the service of the Lord is spiritually very dear to Him. In this regard, Srila Madhvacarya gives this quotation from the Tantra-nirnaya:

visesa-vyakti-patratvad

brahmadyas tu vibhutayah

tad-antaryaminas caiva

matsyadya vibhavah smrtah

From Lord Brahma down, all the living entities engaged in the service of the Lord are extraordinary and are called vibhuti. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (10.41):

yad yad vibhutimat sattvam

srimad urjitam eva va

tat tad evavagaccha tvam

mama tejo-'msa-sambhavam

"Know that all beautiful, glorious and mighty creations spring from but a spark of My splendor." A living entity especially empowered to act on behalf of the Lord is called vibhuti, whereas the visnu-tattva incarnations of the Lord, such as the Matsya avatara (kesava dhrta-mina-sarira jaya jagad-isa hare), are called vibhava.

TEXT 46

TEXT

tapo me hrdayam brahmams

tanur vidya kriyakrtih

angani kratavo jata

dharma atmasavah surah

SYNONYMS

tapah--austerities like mental control, mystic yoga and meditation; me--My; hrdayam--heart; brahman--O brahmana; tanuh--the body; vidya--the knowledge derived from Vedic scripture; kriya--spiritual activities; akrtih--form; angani--the limbs of the body; kratavah--the ritualistic ceremonies and sacrifices mentioned in the Vedic literature; jatah--completed; dharmah--the religious principles for executing the ritualistic ceremonies; atma--My soul; asavah--life airs; surah--the demigods who execute My orders in different departments of the material world.

TRANSLATION

My dear brahmana, austerity in the form of meditation is My heart, Vedic knowledge in the form of hymns and mantras constitutes My body, and spiritual activities and ecstatic emotions are My actual form. The ritualistic ceremonies and sacrifices, when properly conducted, are the various limbs of My body, the unseen good fortune proceeding from pious or spiritual activities constitutes My mind, and the demigods who execute My orders in various departments are My life and soul.

PURPORT

Sometimes atheists argue that since God is invisible to their eyes, they do not believe in God. For them the Supreme Lord is describing a method by which one can see God in His impersonal form. Intelligent persons can see God in His personal form, as stated in the sastras, but if one is very eager to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead immediately, face to face, he can see the Supreme Lord through this description, which portrays the various internal and external parts of His body.

To engage in tapasya, or denial of material activities, is the first principle of spiritual life. Then there are spiritual activities, such as the performance of Vedic ritualistic sacrifices, study of the Vedic knowledge, meditation upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. One should also respect the demigods and understand how they are situated, how they act and how they manage the activities of the various departments of this material world. In this way one can see how God is existing and how everything is managed perfectly because of the presence of the Supreme Lord. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (9.10):

mayadhyaksena prakrtih

suyate sa-caracaram

hetunanena kaunteya

jagad viparivartate

"This material nature is working under My direction, O son of Kunti, and it is producing all moving and nonmoving beings. By its rule this manifestation is created and annihilated again and again." If one is unable to see the Supreme Lord although He is present as Krsna in His various incarnations, one may see the Supreme Lord's impersonal feature, according to the direction of the Vedas, by seeing the activities of material nature.

Anything done under the direction of the Vedic injunctions is called dharma, as described by the order carriers of Yamaraja (Bhag. 6.1.40):

veda-pranihito dharmo

hy adharmas tad-viparyayah

vedo narayanah saksat

svayambhur iti susruma

"That which is prescribed in the Vedas constitutes dharma, the religious principles, and the opposite of that is irreligion. The Vedas are directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, and are self-born. This we have heard from Yamaraja."

In this connection, Srila Madhvacarya comments:

tapo 'bhimani rudras tu

visnor hrdayam asritah

vidya rupa tathaivoma

visnos tanum upasrita

srngarady-akrti-gatah

kriyatma paka-sasanah

angesu kratavah sarve

madhya-dehe ca dharma-rat

prano vayus citta-gato

brahmadyah svesu devatah

The various demigods are all acting under the protection of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and according to their various actions the demigods are differently named.

TEXT 47

TEXT

aham evasam evagre

nanyat kincantaram bahih

samjnana-matram avyaktam

prasuptam iva visvatah

SYNONYMS

aham--I, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva--only; asam--was; eva--certainly; agre--in the beginning, before the creation; na--not; anyat--other; kinca--anything; antaram--besides Me; bahih--external (since the cosmic manifestation is external to the spiritual world, the spiritual world existed when there was no material world); samjnana-matram--only the consciousness of the living entities; avyaktam--unmanifested; prasuptam--sleeping; iva--like; visvatah--all over.

TRANSLATION

Before the creation of this cosmic manifestation, I alone existed with My specific spiritual potencies. Consciousness was then unmanifested, just as one's consciousness is unmanifested during the time of sleep.

PURPORT

The word aham indicates a person. As explained in the Vedas, nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam: the Lord is the supreme eternal among innumerable eternals and the supreme living being among the innumerable living beings. The Lord is a person who also has impersonal features. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.11):

vadanti tat tattva-vidas

tattvam yaj jnanam advayam

brahmeti paramatmeti

bhagavan iti sabdyate

"Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this nondual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan." Consideration of the Paramatma and impersonal Brahman arose after the creation; before the creation, only the Supreme Personality of Godhead existed. As firmly declared in Bhagavad-gita (18.55), the Lord can be understood only by bhakti-yoga. The ultimate cause, the supreme cause of creation, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can be understood only by bhakti-yoga. He cannot be understood by speculative philosophical research or by meditation, since all such processes came into existence after the material creation. The impersonal and localized conceptions of the Supreme Lord are more or less materially contaminated. The real spiritual process, therefore, is bhakti-yoga. As the Lord says, bhaktya mam abhijanati: "Only by devotional service can I be understood." Before the creation, the Lord existed as a person, as indicated here by the word aham. When Prajapati Daksa saw Him as a person, who was beautifully dressed and ornamented, he actually experienced the meaning of this word aham through devotional service.

Each person is eternal. Because the Lord says that He existed as a person before the creation (agre) and will also exist after the annihilation, the Lord is a person eternally. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura therefore quotes these verses from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.13-14):

na cantar na bahir yasya

na purvam napi caparam

purvaparam bahis cantar

jagato yo jagac ca yah

tam matvatmajam avyaktam

martya-lingam adhoksajam

gopikolukhale damna

babandha prakrtam yatha

The Personality of Godhead appeared in Vrndavana as the son of mother Yasoda, who bound the Lord with rope just as an ordinary mother binds a material child. There are actually no divisions of external and internal for the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (sac-cid-ananda-vigraha), but when He appears in His own form the unintelligent think Him an ordinary person. Avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritam: although He comes in His own body, which never changes. mudhas, the unintelligent, think that the impersonal Brahman has assumed a material body to come in the form of a person. Ordinary living beings assume material bodies, but the Supreme Personality of Godhead does not. Since the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the supreme consciousness, it is stated herein that samjnana-matram, the original consciousness, Krsna consciousness, was unmanifested before the creation, although the consciousness of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the origin of everything. The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (2.12), "Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be." Thus the Lord's person is the Absolute Truth in the past, present and future.

In this regard, Madhvacarya quotes two verses from the Matsya Purana:

nana-varno haris tv eko

bahu-sirsa-bhujo rupat

asil laye tad-anyat tu

suksma-rupam sriyam vina

asuptah supta iva ca

militakso 'bhavad dharih

anyatranadarad visnau

sris ca lineva kathyate

suksmatvena harau sthanal

linam anyad apisyate

After the annihilation of everything, the Supreme Lord, because of His sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, remains in His original form, but since the other living entities have material bodies, the matter merges into matter, and the subtle form of the spirit soul remains within the body of the Lord. The Lord does not sleep, but the ordinary living entities remain asleep until the next creation. An unintelligent person thinks that the opulence of the Supreme Lord is nonexistent after the annihilation, but that is not a fact. The opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead remains as it is in the spiritual world; only in the material world is everything dissolved. Brahma-lina, merging into the Supreme Brahman, is not actual lina, or annihilation, for the subtle form remaining in the Brahman effulgence will return to the material world after the material creation and again assume a material form. This is described as bhutva bhutva praliyate. When the material body is annihilated, the spirit soul remains in a subtle form, which later assumes another material body. This is true for the conditioned souls, but the Supreme Personality of Godhead remains eternally in His original consciousness and spiritual body.

TEXT 48

TEXT

mayy ananta-gune 'nante

gunato guna-vigrahah

yadasit tata evadyah

svayambhuh samabhud ajah

SYNONYMS

mayi--in Me; ananta-gune--possessing unlimited potency; anante--unlimited; gunatah--from My potency known as maya; guna-vigrahah--the universe, which is a result of the modes of nature; yada--when; asit--it came into existence; tatah--therein; eva--indeed; adyah--the first living being; svayambhuh--Lord Brahma; samabhut--was born; ajah--although not from a material mother.

TRANSLATION

I am the reservoir of unlimited potency, and therefore I am known as unlimited or all-pervading. From My material energy the cosmic manifestation appeared within Me, and in this universal manifestation appeared the chief being, Lord Brahma, who is your source and is not born of a material mother.

PURPORT

This is a description of the history of the universal creation. The first cause is the Lord Himself, the Supreme Person. From Him, Brahma is created, and Brahma takes charge of the affairs of the universe. The universal affairs of the material creation depend upon the material energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is therefore the cause of the material creation. The entire cosmic manifestation is described herein as guna-vigrahah, the form of the Lord's qualities. From the cosmic universal form, the first creation is Lord Brahma, who is the cause of all living entities. In this regard, Srila Madhvacarya describes the unlimited attributes of the Lord:

praty-ekaso gunanam tu

nihsimatvam udiryate

tadanantyam tu gunatas

te cananta hi sankhyaya

ato 'nanta-guno visnur

gunato 'nanta eva ca

Parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate: the Lord has innumerable potencies, all of which are unlimited. Therefore the Lord Himself and all His qualities, forms, pastimes and paraphernalia are also unlimited. Because Lord Visnu has unlimited attributes, He is known as Ananta.

TEXTS 49-50

TEXT

sa vai yada mahadevo

mama viryopabrmhitah

mene khilam ivatmanam

udyatah svarga-karmani

atha me 'bhihito devas

tapo 'tapyata darunam

nava visva-srjo yusman

yenadav asrjad vibhuh

SYNONYMS

sah--that Lord Brahma; vai--indeed; yada--when; maha-devah--the chief of all the demigods; mama--My; virya-upabrmhitah--being increased by the potency; mene--thought; khilam--incapable; iva--as if; atmanam--himself; udyatah--attempting; svarga-karmani--in the creation of the universal affairs; atha--at that time; me--by Me; abhihitah--advised; devah--that Lord Brahma; tapah--austerity; atapyata--performed; darunam--extremely difficult; nava--nine; visva-srjah--important personalities to create the universe; yusman--all of you; yena--by whom; adau--in the beginning; asrjat--created; vibhuh--the great.

TRANSLATION

When the chief lord of the universe, Lord Brahma [Svayambhu], having been inspired by My energy, was attempting to create, he thought himself incapable. Therefore I gave him advice, and in accordance with My instructions he underwent extremely difficult austerities. Because of these austerities, the great Lord Brahma was able to create nine personalities, including you, to help him in the functions of creation.

PURPORT

Nothing is possible without tapasya. Lord Brahma, however, was empowered to create this entire universe because of his austerities. The more we engage in austerities, the more we become powerful by the grace of the Lord. Therefore Rsabhadeva advised His sons, tapo divyam putraka yena sattvam suddhyed: "One should engage in penance and austerity to attain the divine position of devotional service. By such activity, one's heart is purified." (Bhag. 5.5.1) In our material existence we are impure, and therefore we cannot do anything wonderful, but if we purify our existence by tapasya, we can do wonderful things by the grace of the Lord. Therefore tapasya is very important, as stressed in this verse.

TEXT 51

TEXT

esa pancajanasyanga

duhita vai prajapateh

asikni nama patnitve

prajesa pratigrhyatam

SYNONYMS

esa--this; pancajanasya--of Pancajana; anga--O My dear son; duhita--the daughter; vai--indeed; prajapateh--another prajapati; asikni nama--of the name Asikni; patnitve--as your wife; prajesa--O prajapati; pratigrhyatam--let her be accepted.

TRANSLATION

O My dear son Daksa, Prajapati Pancajana has a daughter named Asikni, whom I offer to you so that you may accept her as your wife.

TEXT 52

TEXT

mithuna-vyavaya-dharmas tvam

praja-sargam imam punah

mithuna-vyavaya-dharminyam

bhuriso bhavayisyasi

SYNONYMS

mithuna--of man and woman; vyavaya--sexual activities; dharmah--who accepts by religious performance; tvam--you; praja-sargam--creation of living entities; imam--this; punah--again; mithuna--of man and woman united; vyavaya-dharminyam--in her according to the religious performance of sexual intercourse; bhurisah--manifold; bhavayisyasi--you will cause to be.

TRANSLATION

Now unite in sexual life as man and woman, and in this way, by sexual intercourse, you will be able to beget hundreds of children in the womb of this girl to increase the population.

PURPORT

The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (7.11), dharmaviruddho bhutesu kamo 'smi: "I am sex that is not contrary to religious principles." Sexual intercourse ordained by the Supreme Personality of Godhead is dharma, a religious principle, but it is not intended for sense enjoyment. Indulgence in sense enjoyment through sexual intercourse is not allowed by the Vedic principles. One may follow the natural tendency for sex life only to beget children. Therefore the Lord told Daksa in this verse, "This girl is offered to you only for sex life to beget children, not for any other purpose. She is very fertile, and therefore you will be able to have as many children as you can beget."

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura remarks in this connection that Daksa was given the facility for unlimited sexual intercourse. In Daksa's previous life he was also known as Daksa, but in the course of performing sacrifices he offended Lord Siva, and thus his head was replaced with that of a goat. Then Daksa gave up his life because of his degraded condition, but because he maintained the same unlimited sexual desires, he underwent austerities by which he satisfied the Supreme Lord, who then gave him unlimited potency for sexual intercourse.

It should be noted that although such a facility for sexual intercourse is achieved by the grace of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this facility is not offered to advanced devotees, who are free from material desires (anyabhilasita-sunyam). In this connection it may be noted that if the American boys and girls engaged in the Krsna consciousness movement want to advance in Krsna consciousness to achieve the supreme benefit of loving service to the Lord, they should refrain from indulging in this facility for sex life. Therefore we advise that one should at least refrain from illicit sex. Even if there are opportunities for sex life, one should voluntarily accept the limitation of having sex only for progeny, not for any other purpose. Kardama Muni was also given the facility for sex life, but he had only a slight desire for it. Therefore after begetting children in the womb of Devahuti, Kardama Muni became completely renounced. The purport is that if one wants to return home, back to Godhead, one should voluntarily refrain from sex life. Sex should be accepted only as much as needed, not unlimitedly.

One should not think that Daksa received the favor of the Lord by receiving the facilities for unlimited sex. Later verses will reveal that Daksa again committed an offense, this time at the lotus feet of Narada. Therefore although sex life is the topmost enjoyment in the material world and although one may have an opportunity for sexual enjoyment by the grace of God, this entails a risk of committing offenses. Daksa was open to such offenses, and therefore, strictly speaking, he was not actually favored by the Supreme Lord. One should not seek the favor of the Lord for unlimited potency in sex life.

TEXT 53

TEXT

tvatto 'dhastat prajah sarva

mithuni-bhuya mayaya

madiyaya bhavisyanti

harisyanti ca me balim

SYNONYMS

tvattah--you; adhastat--after; prajah--the living entities; sarvah--all; mithuni-bhuya--having sex life; mayaya--because of the influence or facilities given by the illusory energy; madiyaya--My; bhavisyanti--they will become; harisyanti--they will offer; ca--also; me--unto Me; balim--presentations.

TRANSLATION

After you give birth to many hundreds and thousands of children, they will also be captivated by My illusory energy and will engage, like You, in sexual intercourse. But because of My mercy to you and them, they will also be able to give Me presentations in devotion.

TEXT 54

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

ity uktva misatas tasya

bhagavan visva-bhavanah

svapnopalabdhartha iva

tatraivantardadhe harih

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sukadeva Gosvami continued to speak; iti--thus; uktva--saying; misatah tasya--while he (Daksa) was personally looking on; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; visva-bhavanah--who creates the universal affairs; svapna-upalabdha-arthah--an object obtained in dreaming; iva--like; tatra--there; eva--certainly; antardadhe--disappeared; harih--the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: After the creator of the entire universe, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, had spoken in this way in the presence of Prajapati Daksa, He immediately disappeared as if He were an object experienced in a dream.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Fourth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Hamsa-guhya Prayers Offered to the Lord by Prajapati Daksa."

Chapter Five

Narada Muni Cursed by Prajapati Daksa

This chapter relates how all the sons of Daksa were delivered from the clutches of the material energy by following the advice of Narada, who was therefore cursed by Daksa.

Influenced by the external energy of Lord Visnu, Prajapati Daksa begot ten thousand sons in the womb of his wife, Pancajani. These sons, who were all of the same character and mentality, were known as the Haryasvas. Ordered by their father to create more and more population, the Haryasvas went west to the place where the River Sindhu (now the Indus) meets the Arabian Sea. In those days this was the site of a holy lake named Narayana-saras, where there were many saintly persons. The Haryasvas began practicing austerities, penances and meditation, which are the engagements of the highly exalted renounced order of life. However, when Srila Narada Muni saw these boys engaged in such commendable austerities simply for material creation, he thought it better to release them from this tendency. Narada Muni described to the boys their ultimate goal of life and advised them not to become ordinary karmis to beget children. Thus all the sons of Daksa became enlightened and left, never to return.

Prajapati Daksa, who was very sad at the loss of his sons, begot one thousand more sons in the womb of his wife, Pancajani, and ordered them to increase progeny. These sons, who were named the Savalasvas, also engaged in worshiping Lord Visnu to beget children, but Narada Muni convinced them to become mendicants and not beget children. Foiled twice in his attempts to increase population, Prajapati Daksa became most angry at Narada Muni and cursed him, saying that in the future he would not be able to stay anywhere. Since Narada Muni, being fully qualified, was fixed in tolerance, he accepted Daksa's curse.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

tasyam sa pancajanyam vai

visnu-mayopabrmhitah

haryasva-samjnan ayutam

putran ajanayad vibhuh

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; tasyam--in her; sah--Prajapati Daksa; pancajanyam--his wife named Pancajani; vai--indeed; visnu-maya-upabrmhitah--being made capable by the illusory energy of Lord Visnu; haryasva-samjnan--named the Haryasvas; ayutam--ten thousand; putran--sons; ajanayat--begot; vibhuh--being powerful.

TRANSLATION

Srila Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Impelled by the illusory energy of Lord Visnu, Prajapati Daksa begot ten thousand sons in the womb of Pancajani [Asikni]. My dear King, these sons were called the Haryasvas.

TEXT 2

TEXT

aprthag-dharma-silas te

sarve daksayana nrpa

pitra proktah praja-sarge

praticim prayayur disam

SYNONYMS

aprthak--alike in; dharma-silah--good character and behavior; te--they; sarve--all; daksayanah--the sons of Daksa; nrpa--O King; pitra--by their father; proktah--ordered; praja-sarge--to increase the population; praticim--we stern; prayayuh--they went to; disam--the direction.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, all the sons of Prajapati Daksa were alike in being very gentle and obedient to the orders of their father. When their father ordered them to beget children, they all went in the western direction.

TEXT 3

TEXT

tatra narayana-saras

tirtham sindhu-samudrayoh

sangamo yatra sumahan

muni-siddha-nisevitam

SYNONYMS

tatra--in that direction; narayana-sarah--the lake named Narayana-saras; tirtham--very holy place; sindhu-samudrayoh--of the River Sindhu and the sea; sangamah--confluence; yatra--where; su-mahat--very great; muni--by sages; siddha--and perfected human beings; nisevitam--frequented.

TRANSLATION

In the west, where the River Sindhu meets the sea, there is a great place of pilgrimage known as Narayana-saras. Many sages and others advanced in spiritual consciousness live there.

TEXTS 4-5

TEXT

tad-upasparsanad eva

vinirdhuta-malasayah

dharme paramahamsye ca

protpanna-matayo 'py uta

tepire tapa evogram

pitradesena yantritah

praja-vivrddhaye yattan

devarsis tan dadarsa ha

SYNONYMS

tat--of that holy place; upasparsanat--from bathing in that water or touching it; eva--only; vinirdhuta--completely washed away; mala-asayah--whose impure desires; dharme--to the practices; paramahamsye--executed by the topmost class of sannyasis; ca--also; protpanna--highly inclined; matayah--whose minds; api uta--although; tepire--they executed; tapah--penances; eva--certainly; ugram--severe; pitr-adesena--by the order of their father; yantritah--engaged; praja-vivrddhaye--for the purpose of increasing the population; yattan--ready; devarsih--the great sage Narada; tan--them; dadarsa--visited; ha--indeed.

TRANSLATION

In that holy place, the Haryasvas began regularly touching the lake's waters and bathing in them. Gradually becoming very much purified, they became inclined toward the activities of paramahamsas. Nevertheless, because their father had ordered them to increase the population, they performed severe austerities to fulfill his desires. One day, when the great sage Narada saw those boys performing such fine austerities to increase the population, Narada approached them.

TEXTS 6-8

TEXT

uvaca catha haryasvah

katham sraksyatha vai prajah

adrstvantam bhuvo yuyam

balisa bata palakah

tathaika-purusam rastram

bilam cadrsta-nirgamam

bahu-rupam striyam capi

pumamsam pumscali-patim

nadim ubhayato vaham

panca-pancadbhutam grham

kvacid dhamsam citra-katham

ksaura-pavyam svayam bhrami

SYNONYMS

uvaca--he said; ca--also; atha--thus; haryasvah--O Haryasvas, sons of Prajapati Daksa; katham--why; sraksyatha--you will beget; vai--indeed; prajah--progeny; adrstva--having not seen; antam--the end; bhuvah--of this earth; yuyam--all of you; balisah--inexperienced; bata--alas; palakah--although ruling princes; tatha--so also; eka--one; purusam--man; rastram--kingdom; bilam--the hole; ca--also; adrsta-nirgamam--from which there is no coming out; bahu-rupam--taking many forms; striyam--the woman; ca--and; api--even; pumamsam--the man; pumscali-patim--the husband of a prostitute; nadim--a river; ubhayatah--in both ways; vaham--which flows; panca-panca--of five multiplied by five (twenty-five); adbhutam--a wonder; grham--the house; kvacit--somewhere; hamsam--a swan; citra-katham--whose story is wonderful; ksaura-pavyam--made of sharp razors and thunderbolts; svayam--itself; bhrami--revolving.

TRANSLATION

The great sage Narada said: My dear Haryasvas, you have not seen the extremities of the earth. There is a kingdom where only one man lives and where there is a hole from which, having entered, no one emerges. A woman there who is extremely unchaste adorns herself with various attractive dresses, and the man who lives there is her husband. In that kingdom, there is a river flowing in both directions, a wonderful home made of twenty-five materials, a swan that vibrates various sounds, and an automatically revolving object made of sharp razors and thunderbolts. You have not seen all this, and therefore you are inexperienced boys without advanced knowledge. How, then, will you create progeny?

PURPORT

Narada Muni saw that the boys known as the Haryasvas were already purified because of living in that holy place and were practically ready for liberation. Why then should they be encouraged to become entangled in family life, which is so dark that once having entered it one cannot leave it? Through this analogy, Narada Muni asked them to consider why they should follow their father's order to be entangled in family life. Indirectly, he asked them to find within the cores of their hearts the situation of the Supersoul, Lord Visnu, for then they would truly be experienced. In other words, one who is too involved in his material environment and does not look within the core of his heart is increasingly entangled in the illusory energy. Narada Muni's purpose was to get the sons of Prajapati Daksa to divert their attention toward spiritual realization instead of involving themselves in the ordinary but complicated affairs of propagation. The same advice was given by Prahlada Maharaja to his father (Bhag. 7.5.5):

tat sadhu manye 'sura-varya dehinam

sada samudvigna-dhiyam asad-grahat

hitvatma-patam grham andha-kupam

vanam gato yad dharim asrayeta

In the dark well of family life, one is always full of anxiety because of having accepted a temporary body. If one wants to free himself from this anxiety, one should immediately leave family life and take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in Vrndavana. Narada Muni advised the Haryasvas not to enter household life. Since they were already advanced in spiritual knowledge, why should they be entangled in that way?

TEXT 9

TEXT

katham sva-pitur adesam

avidvamso vipascitah

anurupam avijnaya

aho sargam karisyatha

SYNONYMS

katham--how; sva-pituh--of your own father; adesam--the order; avidvamsah--ignorant; vipascitah--who knows everything; anurupam--suitable for you; avijnaya--without knowing; aho--alas; sargam--the creation; karisyatha--you will perform.

TRANSLATION

Alas, your father is omniscient, but you do not know his actual order. Without knowing the actual purpose of your father, how will you create progeny?

TEXT 10

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

tan nisamyatha haryasva

autpattika-manisaya

vacah kutam tu devarseh

svayam vimamrsur dhiya

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; tat--that; nisamya--hearing; atha--thereafter; haryasvah--all the sons of Prajapati Daksa; autpattika--naturally awakened; manisaya--by possessing the power to consider; vacah--of the speech; kutam--the enigma; tu--but; devarseh--of Narada Muni; svayam--themselves; vimamrsuh--reflected upon; dhiya--with full intelligence.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: Hearing these enigmatic words of Narada Muni, the Haryasvas considered them with their natural intelligence, without help from others.

TEXT 11

TEXT

bhuh ksetram jiva-samjnam yad

anadi nija-bandhanam

adrstva tasya nirvanam

kim asat-karmabhir bhavet

SYNONYMS

bhuh--the earth; ksetram--the field of activities; jiva-samjnam--the designation of the spiritual living being who is bound by different results of activity; yat--which; anadi--existing since time immemorial; nija-bandhanam--causing his own bondage; adrstva--without seeing; tasya--of this; nirvanam--the cessation; kim--what benefit; asat-karmabhih--with temporary fruitive activities; bhavet--there can be.

TRANSLATION

[The Haryasvas understood the meaning of Narada's words as follows.] The word "bhuh" ["the earth"] refers to the field of activities. The material body, which is a result of the living being's actions, is his field of activities, and it gives him false designations. Since time immemorial, he has received various types of material bodies, which are the roots of bondage to the material world. If one foolishly engages in temporary fruitive activities and does not look toward the cessation of this bondage, what will be the benefit of his actions?

PURPORT

Narada Muni spoke to the Haryasvas, the sons of Prajapati Daksa, about ten allegorical subjects--the king, the kingdom, the river, the house, the physical elements and so forth. After considering these by themselves, the Haryasvas could understand that the living entity encaged in his body seeks happiness, but takes no interest in how to become free from his encagement. This is a very important verse, since all the living entities in the material world are very active, having obtained their particular types of bodies. A man works all day and night for sense gratification, and animals like hogs and dogs also work for sense gratification all day and night. Birds, beasts and all other conditioned living entities engage in various activities without knowledge of the soul encaged within the body. Especially in the human form of body, one's duty is to act in such a way that he can release himself from his encagement, but without the instructions of Narada or his representative in the disciplic succession, people blindly engage in bodily activities to enjoy maya-sukha--flickering, temporary happiness. They do not know how to become free from their material encagement. Rsabhadeva therefore said that such activity is not at all good, since it encages the soul again and again in a body subjected to the threefold miseries of the material condition.

The Haryasvas, the sons of Prajapati Daksa, could immediately understand the purport of Narada's instructions. Our Krsna consciousness movement is especially meant for such enlightenment. We are trying to enlighten humanity so that people may come to the understanding that they should work hard in tapasya for self-realization and freedom from the continuous bondage of birth, death, old age and disease in one body after another. Maya, however, is very strong; she is expert in putting impediments in the way of this understanding. Therefore sometimes one comes to the Krsna consciousness movement but again falls into the clutches of maya, not understanding the importance of this movement.

TEXT 12

TEXT

eka evesvaras turyo

bhagavan svasrayah parah

tam adrstvabhavam pumsah

kim asat-karmabhir bhavet

SYNONYMS

ekah--one; eva--indeed; isvarah--supreme controller; turyah--the fourth transcendental category; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sva-asrayah--independent, being His own shelter; parah--beyond this material creation; tam--Him; adrstva--not seeing; abhavam--who is not born or created; pumsah--of a man; kim--what benefit; asat-karmabhih--with temporary fruitive activities; bhavet--there can be.

TRANSLATION

[Narada Muni had said that there is a kingdom where there is only one male. The Haryasvas realized the purport of this statement.] The only enjoyer is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who observes everything, everywhere. He is full of six opulences and fully independent of everyone else. He is never subject to the three modes of material nature, for He is always transcendental to this material creation. If the members of human society do not understand Him, the Supreme, through their advancement in knowledge and activities, but simply work very hard like cats and dogs all day and night for temporary happiness, what will be the benefit of their activities?

PURPORT

Narada Muni had mentioned a kingdom where there is only one king with no competitor. The complete spiritual world, and specifically the cosmic manifestation, has only one proprietor or enjoyer--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is beyond this material manifestation. The Lord has therefore been described as turya, existing on the fourth platform. He has also been described as abhava. The word bhava, which means "takes birth," comes from the word bhu, "to be." As stated in Bhagavad-gita (8.19), bhutva bhutva praliyate: the living entities in the material world must be repeatedly born and destroyed. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, however, is neither bhutva nor praliyate; He is eternal. In other words, He is not obliged to take birth like human beings or animals, which repeatedly take birth and die because of ignorance of the soul. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, is not subjected to such changes of body, and one who thinks otherwise is considered a fool (avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritam). Narada Muni advises that human beings not waste their time simply jumping like cats and monkeys, without real benefit. The duty of the human being is to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TEXT 13

TEXT

puman naivaiti yad gatva

bila-svargam gato yatha

pratyag-dhamavida iha

kim asat-karmabhir bhavet

SYNONYMS

puman--a human being; na--not; eva--indeed; eti--comes back; yat--to which; gatva--having gone; bila-svargam--to the region of the lower planetary system known as Patala; gatah--gone; yatha--like; pratyak-dhama--the effulgent spiritual world; avidah--of the unintelligent man; iha--in this material world; kim--what benefit; asat-karmabhih--with temporary fruitive activities; bhavet--there can be.

TRANSLATION

[Narada Muni had described that there is a bila, or hole, from which, having entered, one does not return. The Haryasvas understood the meaning of this allegory.] Hardly once has a person who has entered the lower planetary system called Patala been seen to return. Similarly, if one enters the Vaikuntha-dhama [pratyag-dhama], he does not return to this material world. If there is such a place, from which, having gone, one does not return to the miserable material condition of life, what is the use of jumping like monkeys in the temporary material world and not seeing or understanding that place? What will be the profit?

PURPORT

As stated in Bhagavad-gita (15.6), yad gatva na nivartante tad dhama paramam mama: there is a region from which, having gone, one does not return to the material world. This region has been repeatedly described. Elsewhere in Bhagavad-gita (4.9), Krsna says:

janma karma ca me divyam

evam yo vetti tattvatah

tyaktva deham punar janma

naiti mam eti so 'rjuna

"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna."

If one can properly understand Krsna, who has already been described as the Supreme King, he does not return here after giving up his material body. This fact has been described in this verse of Srimad-Bhagavatam. Puman naivaiti yad gatva: he does not return to this material world, but returns home, back to Godhead, to live an eternally blissful life of knowledge. Why do people not care about this? What will be the benefit of taking birth again in this material world, sometimes as a human being, sometimes a demigod and sometimes a cat or dog? What is the benefit of wasting time in this way? Krsna has very definitely asserted in Bhagavad-gita (8.15):

mam upetya punar janma

duhkhalayam asasvatam

napnuvanti mahatmanah

samsiddhim paramam gatah

"After attaining Me, the great souls, who are yogis in devotion, never return to this temporary world, which is full of miseries, because they have attained the highest perfection." One's real concern should be to free himself from the repetition of birth and death and attain the topmost perfection of life by living with the Supreme King in the spiritual world. In these verses the sons of Daksa repeatedly say, kim asat-karmabhir bhavet: "What is the use of impermanent fruitive activities?"

TEXT 14

TEXT

nana-rupatmano buddhih

svairiniva gunanvita

tan-nistham agatasyeha

kim asat-karmabhir bhavet

SYNONYMS

nana--various; rupa--who has forms or dresses; atmanah--of the living entity; buddhih--the intelligence; svairini--a prostitute who freely decorates herself with different types of cloths and ornaments; iva--like; guna-anvita--endowed with the mode of passion, and so on; tat-nistham--the cessation of that; agatasya--of one who has not obtained; iha--in this material world; kim asat-karmabhih bhavet--what is the use of performing temporary fruitive activities.

TRANSLATION

[Narada Muni had described a woman who is a professional prostitute. The Haryasvas understood the identity of this woman.] Mixed with the mode of passion, the unsteady intelligence of every living entity is like a prostitute who changes dresses just to attract one's attention. If one fully engages in temporary fruitive activities, not understanding how this is taking place, what does he actually gain?

PURPORT

A woman who has no husband declares herself independent, which means that she becomes a prostitute. A prostitute generally dresses herself in various fashions intended to attract a man's attention to the lower part of her body. Today it has become a much advertised fashion for a woman to go almost naked, covering the lower part of her body only slightly, in order to draw the attention of a man to her private parts for sexual enjoyment. The intelligence engaged to attract a man to the lower part of the body is the intelligence of a professional prostitute. Similarly, the intelligence of a living entity who does not turn his attention toward Krsna or the Krsna consciousness movement simply changes dresses like a prostitute. What is the benefit of such foolish intelligence? One should be intelligently conscious in such a way that he need no longer change from one body to another.

Karmis change their professions at any moment, but a Krsna conscious person does not change his profession, for his only profession is to attract the attention of Krsna by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra and living a very simple life, without following daily changes of fashion. In our Krsna consciousness movement, fashionable persons are taught to adopt one fashion--the dress of a Vaisnava with a shaved head and tilaka. They are taught to be always clean in mind, dress and eating in order to be fixed in Krsna consciousness. What is the use of changing one's dress, sometimes wearing long hair and a long beard and sometimes dressing otherwise? This is not good. One should not waste his time in such frivolous activities. One should always be fixed in Krsna consciousness and take the cure of devotional service with firm determination.

TEXT 15

TEXT

tat-sanga-bhramsitaisvaryam

samsarantam kubharyavat

tad-gatir abudhasyeha

kim asat-karmabhir bhavet

SYNONYMS

tat-sanga--by association with the prostitute of intelligence; bhramsita--taken away; aisvaryam--the opulence of independence; samsarantam--undergoing the material way of life; ku-bharya-vat--exactly like a person who has a polluted wife; tat-gatih--the movements of the polluted intelligence; abudhasya--of one who does not know; iha--in this world; kim asat-karmabhih bhavet--what can be the benefit of performing temporary fruitive activities.

TRANSLATION

[Narada Muni had also spoken of a man who is the husband of the prostitute. The Haryasvas understood this as follows.] If one becomes the husband of a prostitute, he loses all independence. Similarly, if a living entity has polluted intelligence, he prolongs his materialistic life. Frustrated by material nature, he must follow the movements of the intelligence, which brings various conditions of happiness and distress. If one performs fruitive activities under such conditions, what will be the benefit?

PURPORT

Polluted intelligence has been compared to a prostitute. One who has not purified his intelligence is said to be controlled by that prostitute. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (2.41), vyavasayatmika buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana: those who are actually serious are conducted by one kind of intelligence, namely, intelligence in Krsna consciousness. Bahu-sakha hy anantas ca buddhayo 'vyavasayinam: one who is not fixed in proper intelligence discovers many modes of life. Thus involved in material activities, he is exposed to the different modes of material nature and subjected to varieties of so-called happiness and distress. If a man becomes the husband of a prostitute, he cannot be happy, and similarly one who follows the dictations of material intelligence and material consciousness will never be happy.

One must judiciously understand the activities of material nature. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (3.27):

prakrteh kriyamanani

gunaih karmani sarvasah

ahankara-vimudhatma

kartaham iti manyate

"The bewildered spirit soul, under the influence of the three modes of material nature, thinks himself to be the doer of activities, which are in actuality carried out by nature." Although one follows the dictations of material nature, he happily thinks himself the master or husband of material nature. Scientists, for example, try to be the masters of material nature, life after life, not caring to understand the Supreme Person, under whose direction everything within this material world is moving. Trying to be the masters of material nature, they are imitation gods who declare to the public that scientific advancement will one day be able to avoid the so-called control of God. In fact, however, the living being, unable to control the rulings of God, is forced to associate with the prostitute of polluted intelligence and accept various material bodies. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (13.22):

purusah prakrti-stho hi

bhunkte prakrti-jan gunan

karanam guna-sango 'sya

sad-asad-yoni-janmasu

"The living entity in material nature thus follows the ways of life, enjoying the three modes of nature. This is due to his association with that material nature. Thus he meets with good and evil amongst various species." If one fully engages in temporary fruitive activities and does not solve this real problem, what profit will he gain?

TEXT 16

TEXT

srsty-apyaya-karim mayam

vela-kulanta-vegitam

mattasya tam avijnasya

kim asat-karmabhir bhavet

SYNONYMS

srsti--creation; apyaya--dissolution; karim--one who causes; mayam--the illusory energy; vela-kula-anta--near the banks; vegitam--being very rapid; mattasya--of one who is mad; tam--that material nature; avijnasya--who does not know; kim asat-karmabhih bhavet--what benefit can there be by performing temporary fruitive activities.

TRANSLATION

[Narada Muni had said that there is a river flowing in both directions. The Haryasvas understood the purport of this statement.] Material nature functions in two ways--by creation and dissolution. Thus the river of material nature flows both ways. A living entity who unknowingly falls in this river is submerged in its waves, and since the current is swifter near the banks of the river, he is unable to get out. What will be the benefit of performing fruitive activities in that river of maya?

PURPORT

One may be submerged in the waves of the river of maya, but one may also get free from the waves by coming to the banks of knowledge and austerity. Near these banks, however, the waves are very strong. If one does not understand how he is being tossed by the waves, but simply engages in temporary fruitive activities, what benefit will he derive?

In the Brahma-samhita (5.44) there is this statement:

srsti-sthiti-pralaya-sadhana-saktir eka

chayeva yasya bhuvanani bibharti durga

The maya-sakti, Durga, is in charge of srsti-sthiti-pralaya, creation and dissolution, and she acts under the direction of the Supreme Lord (mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sa-caracaram). When one falls in the river of nescience, he is always tossed here and there by the waves, but the same maya can also save him when be surrenders to Krsna, or becomes Krsna conscious. Krsna consciousness is knowledge and austerity. A Krsna conscious person takes knowledge from the Vedic literature, and at the same time he must practice austerities.

To attain freedom from material life, one must take to Krsna consciousness. Otherwise, if one very busily engages in the so-called advancement of science, what benefit will he derive? If one is carried away by the waves of nature, what is the meaning of being a great scientist or philosopher? Mundane science and philosophy are also material creations. One must understand how maya works and how one can be released from the tossing waves of the river of nescience. That is one's first duty.

TEXT 17

TEXT

panca-vimsati-tattvanam

puruso 'dbhuta-darpanah

adhyatmam abudhasyeha

kim asat-karmabhir bhavet

SYNONYMS

panca-vimsati--twenty-five; tattvanam--of the elements; purusah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adbhuta-darpanah--the wonderful manifester; adhyatmam--the overseer of all causes and effects; abudhasya--of one who does not know; iha--in this world; kim asat-karmabhih bhavet--what can be the benefit of engaging in temporary fruitive activities.

TRANSLATION

[Narada Muni had said that there is a house made of twenty-five elements. The Haryasvas understood this analogy.] The Supreme Lord is the reservoir of the twenty-five elements, and as the Supreme Being, the conductor of cause and effect, He causes their manifestation. If one engages in temporary fruitive activities, not knowing that Supreme Person, what benefit will he derive?

PURPORT

Philosophers and scientists conduct scholarly research to find the original cause, but they should do so scientifically, not whimsically or through fantastic theories. The science of the original cause is explained in various Vedic literatures. Athato brahma jijnasa.janmady asya yatah. The Vedanta-sutra explains that one should inquire about the Supreme Soul. Such inquiry about the Supreme is called brahma jijnasa. The Absolute Truth, tattva, is explained in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.11):

vadanti tat tattva-vidas

tattvam yaj jnanam advayam

brahmeti paramatmeti

bhagavan iti sabdyate

"Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this nondual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan." The Absolute Truth appears to neophytes as impersonal Brahman and to advanced mystic yogis as Paramatma, the Supersoul, but devotees, who are further advanced, understand the Absolute Truth as the Supreme Lord, Visnu.

This material cosmic manifestation is an expansion of the energy of Lord Krsna, or Lord Visnu.

eka-desa-sthitasyagner

jyotsna vistarini yatha

parasya brahmanah saktis

tathedam akhilam jagat

"Whatever we see in this world is but an expansion of various energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is like a fire that spreads illumination for a long distance although it is situated in one place." (Visnu Purana) The entire cosmic manifestation is an expansion of the Supreme Lord. Therefore if one does not conduct research to find the supreme cause, but instead falsely engages in frivolous, temporary activities, what is the use of demanding recognition as an important scientist or philosopher? If one does not know the ultimate cause, what is the use of his scientific and philosophical research?

The purusa, the original person--Bhagavan, Visnu--can be understood only by devotional service. Bhaktya mam abhijanati yavan yas casmi tattvatah: only by devotional service can one understand the Supreme Person, who is behind everything. One must try to understand that the material elements are the separated, inferior energy of the Lord and that the living entity is the Lord's spiritual energy. Whatever we experience, including matter and the spirit soul, the living force, is but a combination of two energies of Lord Visnu--the inferior energy and the superior energy. One should seriously study the facts concerning creation, maintenance and devastation, as well as the permanent place from which one never need return (yad gatva na nivartante). Human society should study this, but instead of culturing such knowledge, people are attracted to temporary happiness and sense gratification, culminating in bottomless, topless passion. There is no profit in such activities; one must engage himself in the Krsna consciousness movement.

TEXT 18

TEXT

aisvaram sastram utsrjya

bandha-moksanudarsanam

vivikta-padam ajnaya

kim asat-karmabhir bhavet

SYNONYMS

aisvaram--bringing understanding of God, or Krsna consciousness; sastram--the Vedic literature; utsrjya--giving up; bandha--of bondage; moksa--and of liberation; anudarsanam--informing about the ways; vivikta-padam--distinguishing spirit from matter; ajnaya--not knowing; kim asat-karmabhih bhavet--what can be the use of temporary fruitive activities.

TRANSLATION

[Narada Muni had spoken of a swan. That swan is explained in this verse.] The Vedic literatures [sastras] vividly describe how to understand the Supreme Lord, the source of all material and spiritual energy. Indeed, they elaborately explain these two energies. The swan [hamsa] is one who discriminates between matter and spirit, who accepts the essence of everything, and who explains the means of bondage and the means of liberation. The words of scriptures consist of variegated vibrations. If a foolish rascal leaves aside the study of these sastras to engage in temporary activities, what will be the result?

PURPORT

The Krsna consciousness movement is very eager to present Vedic literature in modern languages, especially Western languages such as English, French and German. The leaders of the Western world, the Americans and Europeans, have become the idols of modern civilization because the Western people are very sophisticated in temporary activities for the advancement of material civilization. A sane man, however, can see that all such grand activities, although perhaps very important for temporary life, have nothing to do with eternal life. The entire world is imitating the materialistic civilization of the West, and therefore the Krsna consciousness movement is very much interested in giving the Western people knowledge by translating the original Sanskrit Vedic literatures into Western languages.

The word vivikta-padam refers to the path of logical discourses concerning the aim of life. If one does not discuss that which is important in life, one is put into darkness and must struggle for existence. What, then, is the benefit of his advancement in knowledge? The people of the West are seeing their students becoming hippies, despite gorgeous arrangements for university education. The Krsna consciousness movement, however, is trying to convert misguided, drug-addicted students to the service of Krsna and engage them in the best welfare activities for human society.

TEXT 19

TEXT

kala-cakram bhrami tiksnam

sarvam niskarsayaj jagat

svatantram abudhasyeha

kim asat-karmabhir bhavet

SYNONYMS

kala-cakram--the wheel of eternal time; bhrami--revolving automatically; tiksnam--very sharp; sarvam--all; niskarsayat--driving; jagat--the world; sva-tantram--independent, not caring for the so-called scientists and philosophers; abudhasya--of one who does not know (this principle of time); iha--in this material world; kim asat-karmabhih bhavet--what is the use of engaging in temporary fruitive activities.

TRANSLATION

[Narada Muni had spoken of a physical object made of sharp blades and thunderbolts. The Haryasvas understood this allegory as follows.] Eternal time moves very sharply, as if made of razors and thunderbolts. Uninterrupted and fully independent, it drives the activities of the entire world. If one does not try to study the eternal element of time, what benefit can he derive from performing temporary material activities?

PURPORT

This verse explains the words ksaura-pavyam svayam bhrami, which especially refer to the orbit of eternal time. It is said that time and tide wait for no man. According to the moral instructions of the great politician Canakya Pandita:

ayusah ksana eko 'pi

na labhyah svarna-kotibhih

na cen nirarthakam nitih

ka ca hanis tato 'dhika

Even a moment of one's lifetime could not be returned in exchange for millions of dollars. Therefore one should consider how much loss one suffers if he wastes even a moment of his life for nothing. Living like an animal, not understanding the goal of life, one foolishly thinks that there is no eternity and that his life span of fifty, sixty, or, at the most, one hundred years, is everything. This is the greatest foolishness. Time is eternal, and in the material world one passes through different phases of his eternal life. Time is compared herein to a sharp razor. A razor is meant to shave the hair from one's face, but if not carefully handled, the razor will cause disaster. One is advised not to create a disaster by misusing his lifetime. One should be extremely careful to utilize the span of his life for spiritual realization, or Krsna consciousness.

TEXT 20

TEXT

sastrasya pitur adesam

yo na veda nivartakam

katham tad-anurupaya

guna-visrambhy upakramet

SYNONYMS

sastrasya--of the scriptures; pituh--of the father; adesam--the instruction; yah--one who; na--not; veda--understands; nivartakam--which brings about the cessation of the material way of life; katham--how; tat-anurupaya--to follow the instruction of the sastras; guna-visrambhi--a person entangled in the three modes of material nature; upakramet--can engage in the creation of progeny.

TRANSLATION

[Narada Muni had asked how one could ignorantly defy one's own father. The Haryasvas understood the meaning of this question.] One must accept the original instructions of the sastra. According to Vedic civilization, one is offered a sacred thread as a sign of second birth. One takes his second birth by dint of having received instructions in the sastra from a bona fide spiritual master. Therefore, sastra, scripture, is the real father. All the sastras instruct that one should end his material way of life. If one does not know the purpose of the father's orders, the sastras, he is ignorant. The words of a material father who endeavors to engage his son in material activities are not the real instructions of the father.

PURPORT

Bhagavad-gita (16.7) says, pravrttim ca nivrttim ca jana na vidur asurah: demons, who are less than human beings but are not called animals, do not know the meaning of pravrtti and nivrtti, work to be done and work not to be done. In the material world, every living entity has a desire to lord it over the material world as much as possible. This is called pravrtti-marga. All the sastras, however, advise nivrtti-marga, or release from the materialistic way of life. Apart from the sastras of the Vedic civilization, which is the oldest of the world, other sastras agree on this point. For example, in the Buddhist sastras Lord Buddha advises that one achieve nirvana by giving up the materialistic way of life. In the Bible, which is also sastra, one will find the same advice: one should cease materialistic life and return to the kingdom of God. In any sastra one may examine, especially the Vedic sastra, the same advice is given: one should give up his materialistic life and return to his original, spiritual life. Sankaracarya also propounds the same conclusion. Brahma satyam jagan mithya: this material world or materialistic life is simply illusion, and therefore one should stop his illusory activities and come to the platform of Brahman.

The word sastra refers to the scriptures, particularly the Vedic books of knowledge. The Vedas--Sama, Yajur, Rg and Atharva--and any other books deriving knowledge from these Vedas are considered Vedic literatures. Bhagavad-gita is the essence of all Vedic knowledge, and therefore it is the scripture whose instructions should be especially accepted. In this essence of all sastras, Krsna personally advises that one give up all other duties and surrender unto Him (sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja).

One should be initiated into following the principles of sastra. In offering initiation, our Krsna consciousness movement asks one to come to the conclusion of sastra by taking the advice of the supreme speaker of the sastra, Krsna, forgetting the principles of the materialistic way of life. Therefore the principles we advise are no illicit sex, no intoxication, no gambling and no meat-eating. These four types of engagement will enable an intelligent person to get free from the materialistic life and return home, back to Godhead.

In regard to the instructions of the father and mother, it may be said that every living entity, including even the insignificant cats, dogs and serpents, takes birth of a father and mother. Therefore, getting a material father and mother is not a problem. In every form of life, birth after birth, the living entity gets a father and mother. In human society, however, if one is satisfied with his material father and mother and their instructions and does not make further progress by accepting a spiritual master and being educated in the sastras, he certainly remains in darkness. The material father and mother are important only if they are interested in educating their son to become free from the clutches of death. As instructed by Rsabhadeva (Bhag. 5.5.18): pita na sa syaj janani na sa syat. na mocayed yah samupeta-mrtyum. One should not strive to become a mother or father if one cannot save one's dependent son from the impending danger of death. A parent who does not know how to save his son has no value because such fathers and mothers may be had in any form of life, even among the cats, dogs and so on. Only a father and mother who can elevate their son to the spiritual platform are bona fide parents. Therefore according to the Vedic system it is said, janmana jayate sudrah: one is born of a material father and mother as a sudra. The purpose of life, however, is to become a brahmana, a first-class man.

A first-class intelligent man is called a brahmana because he knows the Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Truth. According to the Vedic instructions, tad-vijnanartham sa gurum evabhigacchet: to know this science, one must approach a bona fide guru, a spiritual master who will initiate the disciple with the sacred thread so that he may understand the Vedic knowledge. Janmana jayate sudrah samskarad dhi bhaved dvijah. Becoming a brahmana through the endeavor of a bona fide spiritual master is called samskara. After initiation, one is engaged in study of the sastra, which teaches the student how to gain release from materialistic life and return home, back to Godhead.

The Krsna consciousness movement is teaching this higher knowledge of retiring from materialistic life to return to Godhead, but unfortunately many parents are not very satisfied with this movement. Aside from the parents of our students, many businessmen are also dissatisfied because we teach our students to abandon intoxication, meat-eating, illicit sex and gambling. If the Krsna consciousness movement spreads, the so-called businessmen will have to close their slaughterhouses, breweries and cigarette factories. Therefore they are also very much afraid. However, we have no alternative than to teach our disciples to free themselves from materialistic life. We must instruct them in the opposite of material life to save them from the repetition of birth and death.

Narada Muni, therefore, advised the Haryasvas, the sons of Prajapati Daksa, that instead of begetting progeny, it would be better to leave and achieve the perfection of spiritual understanding according to the instructions of the sastras. The importance of the sastras is mentioned in Bhagavad-gita (16.23):

yah sastra-vidhim utsrjya

vartate kama-karatah

na sa siddhim avapnoti

na sukham na param gatim

"One who disregards the injunctions of the sastras and acts whimsically, as he likes, never achieves the perfection of life, not to speak of happiness. Nor does he return home to the spiritual world."

TEXT 21

TEXT

iti vyavasita rajan

haryasva eka-cetasah

prayayus tam parikramya

panthanam anivartanam

SYNONYMS

iti--thus; vyavasitah--being fully convinced by the instructions of Narada Muni; rajan--O King; haryasvah--the sons of Prajapati Daksa; eka-cetasah--all being of the same opinion; prayayuh--left; tam--Narada Muni; parikramya--circumambulating; panthanam--on the path; anivartanam--which does not bring one back again to this material world.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, after hearing the instructions of Narada, the Haryasvas, the sons of Prajapati Daksa, were firmly convinced. They all believed in his instructions and reached the same conclusion. Having accepted him as their spiritual master, they circumambulated that great sage and followed the path by which one never returns to this world.

PURPORT

From this verse we can understand the meaning of initiation and the duties of a disciple and spiritual master. The spiritual master never instructs his disciple, "Take a mantra from me, pay me some money, and by practicing this yoga system you will become very expert in materialistic life." This is not the duty of a spiritual master. Rather, the spiritual master teaches the disciple how to give up materialistic life, and the disciple's duty is to assimilate his instructions and ultimately follow the path back home, back to Godhead, from whence no one returns to this material world.

After hearing the instructions of Narada Muni, the Haryasvas, the sons of Prajapati Daksa, decided not to be entangled in materialistic life by begetting hundreds of children and having to take care of them. This would have been unnecessarily entangling. The Haryasvas did not consider pious and impious activities. Their materialistic father had instructed them to increase the population, but because of the words of Narada Muni, they could not heed that instruction. Narada Muni, as their spiritual master, gave them the sastric instructions that they should give up this material world, and as bona fide disciples they followed his instructions. One should not endeavor to wander to different planetary systems within this universe, for even if one goes to the topmost planetary system, Brahmaloka, one must return again (ksine punye martya-lokam visanti). The endeavors of karmis are a useless waste of time. One should endeavor to return home, back to Godhead. This is the perfection of life. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (8.16):

abrahma-bhuvanal lokah

punar avartino 'rjuna

mam upetya tu kaunteya

punar janma na vidyate

"From the highest planet in the material world down to the lowest, all are places of misery wherein repeated birth and death take place. But one who attains to My abode, O son of Kunti, never takes birth again."

TEXT 22

TEXT

svara-brahmani nirbhata-

hrsikesa-padambuje

akhandam cittam avesya

lokan anucaran munih

SYNONYMS

svara-brahmani--in spiritual sound; nirbhata--placing clearly before the mind; hrsikesa--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, the master of the senses; padambuje--the lotus feet; akhandam--unbroken; cittam--consciousness; avesya--engaging; lokan--all the planetary systems; anucarat--traveled around; munih--the great sage Narada Muni.

TRANSLATION

The seven musical notes--sa, r, ga, ma, pa, dha and ni--are used in musical instruments, but originally they come from the Sama Veda. The great sage Narada vibrates sounds describing the pastimes of the Supreme Lord. By such transcendental vibrations, such as Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare, he fixes his mind at the lotus feet of the Lord. Thus he directly perceives Hrsikesa, the master of the senses. After delivering the Haryasvas, Narada Muni continued traveling throughout the planetary systems, his mind always fixed at the lotus feet of the Lord.

PURPORT

The goodness of the great sage Narada Muni is described herewith. He always chants about the pastimes of the Lord and delivers the fallen souls back to Godhead. In this regard, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura has sung:

narada-muni, bajaya vina,

'radhika-ramana'-name

nama amani, udita haya,

bhakata-gita-same

amiya-dhara, varise ghana,

sravana-yugale giya

bhakata-jana, saghane nace,

bhariya apana hiya

madhuri-pura, asaba pasi',

mataya jagata-jane

keha va kande, keha va nace,

keha mate mane mane

panca-vadana, narade dhari',

premera saghana rola

kamalasana, naciya bale,

'bola bola hari bola'

sahasranana, parama-sukhe,

'hari hari' bali' gaya

nama-prabhave, matila visva,

nama-rasa sabe paya

sri-krsna-nama, rasane sphuri',

pura'la amara asa

sri-rupa-pade, yacaye iha,

bhakativinoda dasa

The purport of this song is that Narada Muni, the great soul, plays a stringed instrument called a vina, vibrating the sound radhika-ramana, which is another name for Krsna. As soon as he strokes the strings, all the devotees begin responding, making a very beautiful vibration. Accompanied by the stringed instrument, the singing seems like a shower of nectar, and all the devotees dance in ecstasy to the fullest extent of their satisfaction. While dancing, they appear madly intoxicated with ecstasy, as if drinking the beverage called madhuri-pura. Some of them cry, some of them dance, and some of them, although unable to dance publicly, dance within their hearts. Lord Siva embraces Narada Muni and begins talking in an ecstatic voice, and seeing Lord Siva dancing with Narada, Lord Brahma also joins, saying, "All of you kindly chant 'Hari bol! Hari bol!' " The King of heaven, Indra, also gradually joins with great satisfaction and begins dancing and chanting "Hari bol! Hari bol!" In this way, by the influence of the transcendental vibration of the holy name of God, the whole universe becomes ecstatic. Bhaktivinoda Thakura says, "When the universe becomes ecstatic, my desire is satisfied. I therefore pray unto the lotus feet of Rupa Gosvami that this chanting of harer nama may go on nicely like this."

Lord Brahma is the guru of Narada Muni, who is the guru of Vyasadeva, and Vyasadeva is the guru of Madhvacarya. Thus the Gaudiya-Madhva-sampradaya is in the disciplic succession from Narada Muni. The members of this disciplic succession--in other words, the members of the Krsna consciousness movement--should follow in the footsteps of Narada Muni by chanting the transcendental vibration Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. They should go everywhere to deliver the fallen souls by vibrating the Hare Krsna mantra and the instructions of Bhagavad-gita, Srimad-Bhagavatam and Caitanya-caritamrta. That will please the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One can spiritually advance if one actually follows the instructions of Narada Muni. If one pleases Narada Muni, then the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hrsikesa, is also pleased (yasya prasadad bhagavat-prasadah). The immediate spiritual master is the representative of Narada Muni; there is no difference between the instructions of Narada Muni and those of the present spiritual master. Both Narada Muni and the present spiritual master speak the same teachings of Krsna, who says in Bhagavad-gita (18.65-66):

man-mana bhava mad-bhakto

mad-yaji mam namaskuru

mam evaisyasi satyam te

pratijane priyo 'si me

sarva-dharman parityajya

mam ekam saranam vraja

aham tvam sarva-papebhyo

moksayisyami ma sucah

"Always think of Me and become My devotee. Worship Me and offer your homage unto Me. Thus you will come to Me without fail. I promise you this because you are My very dear friend. Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear."

TEXT 23

TEXT

nasam nisamya putranam

naradac chila-salinam

anvatapyata kah socan

suprajastvam sucam padam

SYNONYMS

nasam--the loss; nisamya--hearing of; putranam--of his sons; naradat--from Narada; sila-salinam--who were the best of well-behaved persons; anvatapyata--suffered; kah--Prajapati Daksa; socan--lamenting; su-prajastvam--having ten thousand well-behaved sons; sucam--of lamentation; padam--position.

TRANSLATION

The Haryasvas, the sons of Prajapati Daksa, were very well behaved, cultured sons, but unfortunately, because of the instructions of Narada Muni, they deviated from the order of their father. When Daksa heard this news, which was brought to him by Narada Muni, he began to lament. Although he was the father of such good sons, he had lost them all. Certainly this was lamentable.

PURPORT

The Haryasvas, the sons of Prajapati Daksa, were certainly Hell behaved, learned and advanced, and in accordance with the order of their father they went to perform austerities to beget good sons for their family. But Narada Muni took advantage of their good behavior and culture to properly direct them not to be involved with this material world, but to use their culture and knowledge to end their material affairs. The Haryasvas abided by the order of Narada Muni, but when news of this was brought to Prajapati Daksa, the prajapati, instead of being happy with the actions of Narada Muni, was extremely sorrowful. Similarly, we are trying to bring as many young men as possible to the Krsna consciousness movement for their ultimate benefit, but the parents of the young men joining this movement, being very sorry, are lamenting and making counterpropaganda. Of course, Prajapati Daksa did not make propaganda against Narada Muni, but later, as we shall see, Daksa cursed Narada Muni for his benevolent activities. This is the way of materialistic life. A materialistic father and mother want to engage their sons in begetting children, striving for improved economic conditions and rotting in materialistic life. They are not unhappy when their children become spoiled, useless citizens, but they lament when they join the Krsna consciousness movement to achieve the ultimate goal of life. This animosity between parents and the Krsna consciousness movement has existed since time immemorial. Even Narada Muni was condemned, not to speak of others. Nevertheless, Narada Muni never gives up his mission. To deliver as many fallen souls as possible, he continues playing his musical instrument and vibrating the transcendental sound Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare.

TEXT 24

TEXT

sa bhuyah pancajanyayam

ajena parisantvitah

putran ajanayad daksah

savalasvan sahasrinah

SYNONYMS

sah--Prajapati Daksa; bhuyah--again; pancajanyayam--in the womb of his wife Asikni, or Pancajani; ajena--by Lord Brahma; parisantvitah--being pacified; putran--sons; ajanayat--begot; daksah--Prajapati Daksa; savalasvan--named the Savalasvas; sahasrinah--numbering one thousand.

TRANSLATION

When Prajapati Daksa was lamenting for his lost children, Lord Brahma pacified him with instructions, and thereafter Daksa begot one thousand more children in the womb of his wife, Pancajani. This time his sons were known as the Savalasvas.

PURPORT

Prajapati Daksa was so named because he was very expert in begetting children. (The word daksa means "expert.") First he begot ten thousand children in the womb of his wife, and when the children were lost--when they returned home, back to Godhead--he begot another set of children, known as the Savalasvas. Prajapati Daksa is very expert in begetting children, and Narada Muni is very expert in delivering all the conditioned souls back home, back to Godhead. Therefore the materialistic experts do not agree with the spiritual expert Narada Muni. but this does not mean that Narada Muni will give up his engagement of chanting the Hare Krsna mantra.

TEXT 25

TEXT

te ca pitra samadistah

praja-sarge dhrta-vratah

narayana-saro jagmur

yatra siddhah sva-purvajah

SYNONYMS

te--these sons (the Savalasvas); ca--and; pitra--by their father; samadistah--being ordered; praja-sarge--in increasing progeny or population; dhrta-vratah--accepted vows; narayana-sarah--the holy lake named Narayana-saras; jagmuh--went to; yatra--where; siddhah--perfected; sva-purva-jah--their older brothers, who had previously gone there.

TRANSLATION

In accordance with their father's order to beget children, the second group of sons also went to Narayana-saras, the same place where their brothers had previously attained perfection by following the instructions of Narada. Undertaking great vows of austerity, the Savalasvas remained at that holy place.

PURPORT

Prajapati Daksa sent his second group of sons to the same place where his previous sons had attained perfection. He did not hesitate to send his second group of sons to the same place, although they too might become victims of Narada's instructions. According to the Vedic culture, one should be trained in spiritual understanding as a brahmacari before entering household life to beget children. This is the Vedic system. Thus Prajapati Daksa sent his second group of sons for cultural improvement, despite the risk that because of the instructions of Narada they might become as intelligent as their older brothers. As a dutiful father, he did not hesitate to allow his sons to receive cultural instructions concerning the perfection of life; he depended upon them to choose whether to return home, back to Godhead, or to rot in this material world in various species of life. In all circumstances, the duty of the father is to give cultural education to his sons, who must later decide which way to go. Responsible fathers should not hinder their sons who are making cultural advancement in association with the Krsna consciousness movement. This is not a father's duty. The duty of a father is to give his son complete freedom to make his choice after becoming spiritually advanced by following the instructions of the spiritual master.

TEXT 26

TEXT

tad-upasparsanad eva

vinirdhuta-malasayah

japanto brahma paramam

tepus tatra mahat tapah

SYNONYMS

tat--of that holy place; upasparsanat--by bathing regularly in the water; eva--indeed; vinirdhuta--completely purified; mala-asayah--of all the dirt within the heart; japantah--chanting or murmuring; brahma--mantras beginning with om (such as om tad visnoh paramam padam sada pasyanti surayah); paramam--the ultimate goal; tepuh--performed; tatra--there; mahat--great; tapah--penances.

TRANSLATION

At Narayana-saras, the second group of sons performed penances in the same way as the first. They bathed in the holy water, and by its touch all the dirty material desires in their hearts were cleansed away. They murmured mantras beginning with omkara and underwent a severe course of austerities.

PURPORT

Every Vedic mantra is called brahma because each mantra is preceded by the brahmaksara (aum or omkara). For example, om namo bhagavate vasudevaya. Lord Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (7. 8), pranavah sarva-vedesu: "In all the Vedic mantras, I am represented by pranava, or omkara." Thus chanting of the Vedic mantras beginning with omkara is directly chanting of Krsna's name. There is no difference. Whether one chants omkara or addresses the Lord as "Krsna," the meaning is the same, but Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has recommended that in this age one chant the Hare Krsna mantra (harer nama eva kevalam). Although there is no difference between Hare Krsna and the Vedic mantras beginning with omkara, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the leader of the spiritual movement for this age, has recommended that one chant Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare.

TEXTS 27-28

TEXT

ab-bhaksah katicin masan

katicid vayu-bhojanah

aradhayan mantram imam

abhyasyanta idaspatim

om namo narayanaya

purusaya mahatmane

visuddha-sattva-dhisnyaya

maha-hamsaya dhimahi

SYNONYMS

ap-bhaksah--drinking only water; katicit masan--for some months; katicit--for some; vayu-bhojanah--merely breathing, or eating air; aradhayan--worshiped; mantram imam--this mantra, which is nondifferent from Narayana; abhyasyantah--practicing; idah-patim--the master of all mantras, Lord Visnu; om--O Lord; namah--respectful obeisances; narayanaya--unto Lord Narayana; purusaya--the Supreme Person; maha-atmane--the exalted Supersoul; visuddha-sattva-dhisnyaya--who is always situated in the transcendental abode; maha-hamsaya--the great swanlike Personality of Godhead; dhimahi--we always offer.

TRANSLATION

For a few months the sons of Prajapati Daksa drank only water and ate only air. Thus undergoing great austerities, they recited this mantra: "Let us offer our respectful obeisances unto Narayana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is always situated in His transcendental abode. Since He is the Supreme Person [paramahamsa], let us offer our respectful obeisances unto Him."

PURPORT

From these verses it is apparent that the chanting of the maha-mantra or the Vedic mantras must be accompanied by severe austerities. In Kali-yuga, people cannot undergo severe austerities like those mentioned herein--drinking only water and eating only air for many months. One cannot imitate such a process. But at least one must undergo some austerity by giving up four unwanted principles, namely illicit sex, meat-eating, intoxication and gambling. Anyone can easily practice this tapasya, and then the chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra will be effective without delay. One should not give up the process of austerity. If possible, one should bathe in the waters of the Ganges or Yamuna, or in the absence of the Ganges and Yamuna one may bathe in the water of the sea. This is an item of austerity. Our Krsna consciousness movement has therefore established two very large centers, one in Vrndavana and another in Mayapur, Navadvipa. There one may bathe in the Ganges or Yamuna, chant the Hare Krsna mantra and thus become perfect and return home, back to Godhead.

TEXT 29

TEXT

iti tan api rajendra

praja-sarga-dhiyo munih

upetya naradah praha

vacah kutani purvavat

SYNONYMS

iti--thus; tan--them (the sons of Prajapati Daksa known as the Savalasvas); api--also; rajendra--O King Pariksit; praja-sarga-dhiyah--who were under the impression that begetting children was the most important duty; munih--the great sage; upetya--approaching; naradah--Narada; praha--said; vacah--words; kutani--enigmatic; purva-vat--as he had done previously.

TRANSLATION

O King Pariksit, Narada Muni approached these sons of Prajapati Daksa, who were engaged in tapasya to beget children, and spoke enigmatic words to them just as he had spoken to their elder brothers.

TEXT 30

TEXT

daksayanah samsrnuta

gadato nigamam mama

anvicchatanupadavim

bhratrnam bhratr-vatsalah

SYNONYMS

daksayanah--O sons of Prajapati Daksa; samsrnuta--please hear with attention; gadatah--who am speaking; nigamam--instruction; mama--my; anvicchata--follow; anupadavim--the path; bhratrnam--of your brothers; bhratr-vatsalah--O you who are very much affectionate to your brothers.

TRANSLATION

O sons of Daksa, please hear my words of instruction attentively. You are all very affectionate to your elder brothers, the Haryasvas. Therefore you should follow their path.

PURPORT

Narada Muni encouraged Prajapati Daksa's second group of sons by awakening their natural affinity for their brothers. He urged them to follow their older brothers if they were at all affectionate toward them. Family affection is very strong, and therefore Narada Muni followed this tactic of reminding them of their family relationship with the Haryasvas. Generally the word nigama refers to the Vedas, but here nigama refers to the instructions contained in the Vedas. Srimad-Bhagavatam says, nigama-kalpa-taror galitam phalam: the Vedic instructions are like a tree, of which Srimad-Bhagavatam is the ripened fruit. Narada Muni is engaged in distributing this fruit, and therefore he instructed Vyasadeva to write this Maha-purana, Srimad-Bhagavatam, for the benefit of ignorant human society.

anarthopasamam saksad

bhakti-yogam adhoksaje

lokasyajanato vidvams

cakre satvata-samhitam

"The material miseries of the living entity, which are superfluous to him, can be directly mitigated by the linking process of devotional service. But the mass of people do not know this, and therefore the learned Vyasadeva compiled this Vedic literature, which is in relation to the Supreme Truth." (Bhag. 1.7.6) People are suffering because of ignorance and are following a wrong path for happiness. This is called anartha. These material activities will never make them happy, and therefore Narada instructed Vyasadeva to record the instructions of Srimad-Bhagavatam. Vyasadeva actually followed Narada and did this. Srimad-Bhagavatam is the supreme instruction of the Vedas. Galitam phalam: the ripened fruit of the Vedas is Srimad-Bhagavatam.

TEXT 31

TEXT

bhratrnam prayanam bhrata

yo 'nutisthati dharmavit

sa punya-bandhuh puruso

marudbhih saha modate

SYNONYMS

bhratrnam--of elder brothers; prayanam--the path; bhrata--a faithful brother; yah--one who; anutisthati--follows; dharma-vit--knowing the religious principles; sah--that; punya-bandhuh--highly pious; purusah--person; marudbhih--the demigods of the winds; saha--with; modate--enjoys life.

TRANSLATION

A brother aware of the principles of religion follows in the footsteps of his elder brothers. Because of being highly elevated, such a pious brother gets the opportunity to associate and enjoy with demigods like the Maruts, who are all affectionate to their brothers.

PURPORT

According to their belief in various material relationships, people are promoted to various planets. Here it is said that one who is very faithful to his brothers should follow a path similar to theirs and get the opportunity for promotion to Marudloka. Narada Muni advised Prajapati Daksa's second group of sons to follow their elder brothers and be promoted to the spiritual world.

TEXT 32

TEXT

etavad uktva prayayau

narado 'mogha-darsanah

te 'pi canvagaman margam

bhratrnam eva marisa

SYNONYMS

etavat--this much; uktva--speaking; prayayau--departed from that place; naradah--the great sage Narada; amogha-darsanah--whose glance is all-auspicious; te--they; api--also; ca--and; anvagaman--followed; margam--the path; bhratrnam--of their previous brothers; eva--indeed; marisa--O great Aryan king.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: O best of the advanced Aryans, after saying this much to the sons of Prajapati Daksa, Narada Muni, whose merciful glance never goes in vain, left as he had planned. The sons of Daksa followed their elder brothers. Not attempting to produce children, they engaged themselves in Krsna consciousness.

TEXT 33

TEXT

sadhricinam praticinam

parasyanupatham gatah

nadyapi te nivartante

pascima yaminir iva

SYNONYMS

sadhricinam--completely correct; praticinam--obtainable by adopting a mode of life aimed at the highest goal, devotional service; parasya--of the Supreme Lord; anupatham--the pathway; gatah--taking to; na--not; adya api--even until today; te--they (the sons of Prajapati Daksa); nivartante--have come back; pascimah--western (those that have past); yaminih--nights; iva--like.

TRANSLATION

The Savalasvas took to the correct path, which is obtainable by a mode of life meant to achieve devotional service, or the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Like nights that have gone to the west, they have not returned even until now.

TEXT 34

TEXT

etasmin kala utpatan

bahun pasyan prajapatih

purvavan narada-krtam

putra-nasam upasrnot

SYNONYMS

etasmin--at this; kale--time; utpatan--disturbances; bahun--many; pasyan--seeing; prajapatih--Prajapati Daksa; purva-vat--like before; narada--by the great sage Narada Muni; krtam--done; putra-nasam--the loss of his children; upasrnot--he heard of.

TRANSLATION

At this time, Prajapati Daksa observed many inauspicious signs, and he heard from various sources that his second group of sons, the Savalasvas, had followed the path of their elder brothers in accordance with the instructions of Narada.

TEXT 35

TEXT

cukrodha naradayasau

putra-soka-vimurcchitah

devarsim upalabhyaha

rosad visphuritadharah

SYNONYMS

cukrodha--became very angry; naradaya--at the great sage Narada Muni; asau--that one (Daksa); putra-soka--due to lamentation for the loss of his children; vimurcchitah--almost fainting; devarsim--the great sage Devarsi Narada; upalabhya--seeing; aha--he said; rosat--out of great anger; visphurita--trembling; adharah--whose lips.

TRANSLATION

When he heard that the Savalasvas had also left this world to engage in devotional service, Daksa was angry at Narada, and he almost fainted due to lamentation. When Daksa met Narada, Daksa's lips began trembling in anger, and he spoke as follows.

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura comments that Narada Muni had delivered the entire family of Svayambhuva Manu, beginning with Priyavrata and Uttanapada. He had delivered Uttanapada's son Dhruva and had even delivered Pracinabarhi, who was engaged in fruitive activities. Nevertheless, he could not deliver Prajapati Daksa. Prajapati Daksa saw Narada before him because Narada had personally come to deliver him. Narada Muni took the opportunity to approach Prajapati Daksa in his bereavement because the time of bereavement is a suitable time for appreciating bhakti-yoga. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (7.16), four kinds of men--arta (one who is distressed), artharthi (one in need of money), jijnasu (one who is inquisitive) and jnani (a person in knowledge)--try to understand devotional service. Prajapati Daksa was in great distress because of the loss of his sons, and therefore Narada took the opportunity to instruct him regarding liberation from material bondage.

TEXT 36

TEXT

sri-daksa uvaca

aho asadho sadhunam

sadhu-lingena nas tvaya

asadhv akary arbhakanam

bhiksor margah pradarsitah

SYNONYMS

sri-daksah uvaca--Prajapati Daksa said; aho asadho--O greatly dishonest nondevotee; sadhunam--of the society of devotees and great sages; sadhu-lingena--wearing the dress of a saintly person; nah--unto us; tvaya--by you; asadhu--a dishonesty; akari--has been done; arbhakanam--of poor boys who were very inexperienced; bhiksoh margah--the path of a beggar or mendicant sannyasi; pradarsitah--shown.

TRANSLATION

Prajapati Daksa said: Alas, Narada Muni, you wear the dress of a saintly person, but you are not actually a saint. Indeed, although I am now in grhastha life, I am a saintly person. By showing my sons the path of renunciation, you have done me an abominable injustice.

PURPORT

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, sannyasira alpa chidra sarva-loke gaya (Cc. Madhya 12. 51). In society one will find many sannyasis, vanaprasthas, grhasthas and brahmacaris, but if all of them properly live in accordance with their duties, they are understood to be sadhus. Prajapati Daksa was certainly a sadhu because he had executed such great austerities that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Visnu, had appeared before him. Nevertheless, he had a fault-finding mentality. He improperly thought Narada Muni to be asadhu, or nonsaintly, because Narada had foiled his intentions. Desiring to train his sons to become grhasthas fully equipped with knowledge, Daksa had sent them to execute austerities by Narayana-saras. Narada Muni, however, taking advantage of their highly elevated position in austerity, instructed them to become Vaisnavas in the renounced order. This is the duty of Narada Muni and his followers. They must show everyone the path of renouncing this material world and returning home, back to Godhead. Prajapati Daksa, however, could not see the exaltedness of the duties Narada Muni performed in relation to his sons. Unable to appreciate Narada Muni's behavior, Daksa accused Narada of being asadhu.

The words bhiksor marga, "the path of the renounced order," are very significant in this regard. A sannyasi is called tridandi-bhiksu because his duty is to beg alms from the homes of grhasthas and to give the grhasthas spiritual instructions. A sannyasi is allowed to beg from door to door, but a grhastha cannot do so. Grhasthas may earn their living according to the four divisions of spiritual life. A brahmana grhastha may earn his livelihood by becoming a learned scholar and teaching people in general how to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He may also assume the duty of worship himself. Therefore it is said that only brahmanas may engage in Deity worship, and they may accept as prasada whatever people offer the Deity. Although a brahmana may sometimes accept charity, it is not for his personal maintenance but for the worship of the Deity. Thus a brahmana does not stock anything for his future use. Similarly, ksatriyas may collect taxes from the citizens, and they must also protect the citizens, enforce rules and regulations, and maintain law and order. Vaisyas should earn their livelihood through agriculture and cow protection, and sudras should maintain their livelihood by serving the three higher classes. Unless one becomes a brahmana, one cannot take sannyasa. Sannyasis and brahmacaris may beg alms door to door, but a grhastha cannot.

Prajapati Daksa condemned Narada Muni because Narada, a brahmacari who could beg from door to door, had made sannyasis of Daksa's sons, who were being trained to be grhasthas. Daksa was extremely angry at Narada because he thought that Narada had done him a great injustice. According to Daksa's opinion, Narada Muni had misled Daksa's inexperienced sons (asadhv akary arbhakanam). Daksa regarded his sons as innocent boys who had been misled when Narada showed them the renounced order of life. Because of all these considerations, Prajapati Daksa charged that Narada Muni was asadhu and should not have adopted the dress of a sadhu.

Sometimes a saintly person is misunderstood by grhasthas, especially when he instructs their young sons to accept Krsna consciousness. Generally a grhastha thinks that unless one enters grhastha life he cannot properly enter the renounced order. If a young man immediately adopts the path of the renounced order in accordance with the instructions of Narada or a member of his disciplic succession, his parents become very angry. This same phenomenon is occurring in our Krsna consciousness movement because we are instructing all the young boys in the Western countries to follow the path of renunciation. We allow grhastha life, but a grhastha also follows the path of renunciation. Even a grhastha has to give up so many bad habits that his parents think his life has been practically destroyed. We allow no meat-eating, no illicit sex, no gambling and no intoxication, and consequently the parents wonder how, if there are so many no's, one's life can be positive. In the Western countries especially, these four prohibited activities practically constitute the life and soul of the modern population. Therefore parents sometimes dislike our movement, just as Prajapati Daksa disliked the activities of Narada and accused Narada of dishonesty. Nevertheless, although parents may be angry at us, we must perform our duty without hesitation because we are in the disciplic succession from Narada Muni.

People addicted to householder life wonder how one can give up the enjoyment of grhastha life, which is a concession for sex enjoyment, simply to become a mendicant in Krsna consciousness. They do not know that the householder's concession for sex life cannot be regulated unless one accepts the life of a mendicant. The Vedic civilization therefore enjoins that at the end of one's fiftieth year one must give up household life. This is compulsory. However, because modern civilization is misled, householders want to remain in family life until death, and therefore they are suffering. In such cases, the disciples of Narada Muni advise all the members of the younger generation to join the Krsna consciousness movement immediately. There is nothing wrong in this.

TEXT 37

TEXT

rnais tribhir amuktanam

amimamsita-karmanam

vighatah sreyasah papa

lokayor ubhayoh krtah

SYNONYMS

rnaih--from the debts; tribhih--three; amuktanam--of persons not freed; amimamsita--not considering; karmanam--the path of duty; vighatah--ruin; sreyasah--of the path of good fortune; papa--O most sinful (Narada Muni); lokayoh--of the worlds; ubhayoh--both; krtah--done.

TRANSLATION

Prajapati Daksa said: My sons were not at all freed from their three debts. Indeed, they did not properly consider their obligations. O Narada Muni, O personality of sinful action, you have obstructed their progress toward good fortune in this world and the next because they are still indebted to the saintly persons, the demigods and their father.

PURPORT

As soon as a brahmana takes birth, he assumes three kinds of debts--debts to great saints, debts to the demigods and debts to his father. The son of a brahmana must undergo celibacy (brahmacarya) to clear his debts to the saintly persons, he must perform ritualistic ceremonies to clear his debts to the demigods, and he must beget children to become free from his debts to his father. Prajapati Daksa argued that although the renounced order is recommended for liberation, one cannot attain liberation unless one fulfills his obligations to the demigods, the saints and his father. Since Daksa's sons had not liberated themselves from these three debts, how could Narada Muni have led them to the renounced order of life? Apparently, Prajapati Daksa did not know the final decision of the sastras. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.41):

devarsi-bhutapta-nrnam pitrnam

na kinkaro nayam rni ca rajan

sarvatmana yah saranam saranyam

gato mukundam parihrtya kartam

Everyone is indebted to the demigods, to living entities in general, to his family, to the pitas and so on, but if one fully surrenders to Krsna, Mukunda, who can give one liberation, even if one performs no yajnas, one is freed from all debts. Even if one does not repay his debts, he is freed from all debts if he renounces the material world for the sake of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose lotus feet are the shelter of everyone. This is the verdict of the sastra. Therefore Narada Muni was completely right in instructing the sons of Prajapati Daksa to renounce this material world immediately and take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Unfortunately, Prajapati Daksa, the father of the Haryasvas and Savalasvas, did not understand the great service rendered by Narada Muni. Daksa therefore addressed him as papa (the personality of sinful activities) and asadhu (a nonsaintly person). Since Narada Muni was a great saint and Vaisnava, he tolerated all such accusations from Prajapati Daksa. He merely performed his duty as a Vaisnava by delivering all the sons of Prajapati Daksa, enabling them to return home, back to Godhead.

TEXT 38

TEXT

evam tvam niranukroso

balanam mati-bhid dhareh

parsada-madhye carasi

yaso-ha nirapatrapah

SYNONYMS

evam--thus; tvam--you (Narada); niranukrosah--without compassion; balanam--of innocent, inexperienced boys; mati-bhit--contaminating the consciousness; hareh--of the Supreme personality of Godhead; parsada-madhye--among the personal associates; carasi--travel; yasah-ha--defaming the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nirapatrapah--(although you do not know what you are doing, you are executing sinful activities) without shame.

TRANSLATION

Prajapati Daksa continued: Thus committing violence against other living entities and yet claiming to be an associate of Lord Visnu, you are defaming the Supreme Personality of Godhead. You needlessly created a mentality of renunciation in innocent boys, and therefore you are shameless and devoid of compassion. How could you travel with the personal associates of the Supreme Lord ?

PURPORT

This mentality of Prajapati Daksa still continues even today. When young boys join the Krsna consciousness movement, their fathers and so-called guardians are very angry at the propounder of the Krsna consciousness movement because they think that their sons have been unnecessarily induced to deprive themselves of the material enjoyments of eating, drinking and merrymaking. Karmis, fruitive workers, think that one should fully enjoy his present life in this material world and also perform some pious activities to be promoted to higher planetary systems for further enjoyment in the next life. A yogi, however, especially a bhakti-yogi, is callous to the opinions of this material world. He is not interested in traveling to the higher planetary systems of the demigods to enjoy a long life in an advanced materialistic civilization. As stated by Prabodhananda Sarasvati, kaivalyam narakayate tridasa-pur akasa-puspayate: for a devotee, merging into the Brahman existence is hellish, and life in the higher planetary systems of the demigods is a will-o'-the-wisp, a phantasmagoria with no real existence at all. A pure devotee is not interested in yogic perfection, travel to higher planetary systems, or oneness with Brahman. He is interested only in rendering service to the Personality of Godhead. Since Prajapati Daksa was a karmi, he could not appreciate the great service Narada Muni had rendered his eleven thousand sons. Instead, he accused Narada Muni of being sinful and charged that because Narada Muni was associated with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Lord would also be defamed. Thus Daksa criticized that Narada Muni was an offender to the Lord although he was known as an associate of the Lord.

TEXT 39

TEXT

nanu bhagavata nityam

bhutanugraha-katarah

rte tvam sauhrda-ghnam vai

vairan-karam avairinam

SYNONYMS

nanu--now; bhagavatah--devotees of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nityam--eternally; bhuta-anugraha-katarah--very much anxious to bestow benedictions upon the fallen conditioned souls; rte--except; tvam--yourself; sauhrda-ghnam--a breaker of friendship (therefore not countable among the bhagavatas, or devotees of the Lord); vai--indeed; vairam-karam--you create enmity; avairinam--toward persons who are not enemies.

TRANSLATION

All the devotees of the Lord but you are very kind to the conditioned souls and are eager to benefit others. Although you wear the dress of a devotee, you create enmity with people who are not your enemies, or you break friendship and create enmity between friends. Are you not ashamed of posing as a devotee while performing these abominable actions?

PURPORT

Such are the criticisms that must be borne by the servants of Narada Muni in the disciplic succession. Through the Krsna consciousness movement, we are trying to train young people to become devotees and return home, back to Godhead, by following rigid regulative principles, but our service is appreciated neither in India nor abroad in the Western countries where we are endeavoring to spread this Krsna consciousness movement. In India the caste brahmanas have become enemies of the Krsna consciousness movement because we elevate foreigners, who are supposed to be mlecchas and yavanas, to the position of brahmanas. We train them in austerities and penances and recognize them as brahmanas by awarding them sacred threads. Thus the caste brahmanas of India are very displeased by our activities in the Western world. In the West also, the parents of the young people who join this movement have also become enemies. We have no business creating enemies, but the process is such that nondevotees will always be inimical toward us. Nevertheless, as stated in the sastras, a devotee should be both tolerant and merciful. Devotees engaged in preaching should be prepared to be accused by ignorant persons, and yet they must be very merciful to the fallen conditioned souls. If one can execute his duty in the disciplic succession of Narada Muni, his service will surely be recognized. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (18.68-69):

ya idam paramam guhyam

mad-bhaktesv abhidhasyati

bhaktim mayi param krtva

mam evaisyaty asamsayah

na ca tasman manusyesu

kascin me priya-krttamah

bhavita na ca me tasmad

anyah priyataro bhuvi

"For one who explains the supreme secret to the devotees, devotional service is guaranteed, and at the end he will come back to Me. There is no servant in this world more dear to Me than he, nor will there ever be one more dear." Let us continue preaching the message of Lord Krsna and not be afraid of enemies. Our only duty is to satisfy the Lord by this preaching, which will be accepted as service by Lord Caitanya and Lord Krsna. We must sincerely serve the Lord and not be deterred by so-called enemies.

In this verse the word sauhrda-ghnam ("a breaker of friendship") is used. Because Narada Muni and the members of his disciplic succession disrupt friendships and family life, they are sometimes accused of being sauhrda-ghnam, creators of enmity between relatives. Actually such devotees are friends of every living entity (suhrdam sarva-bhutanam), but they are misunderstood to be enemies. Preaching can be a difficult, thankless task, but a preacher must follow the orders of the Supreme Lord and be unafraid of materialistic persons.

TEXT 40

TEXT

nettham pumsam viragah syat

tvaya kevalina mrsa

manyase yady upasamam

sneha-pasa-nikrntanam

SYNONYMS

na--not; ittham--in this way; pumsam--of persons; viragah--renunciation; syat--is possible; tvaya--by you; kevalina mrsa--possessing knowledge falsely; manyase--you think; yadi--if; upasamam--renunciation of material enjoyment; sneha-pasa--the bonds of affection; nikrntanam--cutting.

TRANSLATION

Prajapati Daksa continued: If you think that simply awakening the sense of renunciation will detach one from the material world, I must say that unless full knowledge is awakened, simply changing dresses as you have done cannot possibly bring detachment.

PURPORT

Prajapati Daksa was correct in stating that changing one's dress cannot detach one from this material world. The sannyasis of Kali-yuga who change their robes from white to saffron and then think they can do whatever they like are more abominable than materialistic grhasthas. This is not recommended anywhere. Prajapati Daksa was right in pointing out this defect, but he did not know that Narada Muni had aroused the spirit of renunciation in the Haryasvas and Savalasvas through full knowledge. Such enlightened renunciation is desirable. One should enter the renounced order with full knowledge (jnana-vairagya), for the perfection of life is possible for one who renounces this material world in that way. This elevated stage can be reached very easily, as supported by the statements of Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.7):

vasudeve bhagavati

bhakti-yogah prayojitah

janayaty asu vairagyam

jnanam ca yad ahaitukam

"By rendering devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna, one immediately acquires causeless knowledge and detachment from the world." If one seriously engages in devotional service to Lord Vasudeva, jnana and vairagya are automatically manifest in one's person. There is no doubt of this. Prajapati Daksa's accusation that Narada had not actually elevated his sons to the platform of knowledge was not factual. All the sons of Prajapati Daksa had first been raised to the platform of jnana and had then automatically renounced this world. In summary, unless one's knowledge is awakened, renunciation cannot take place, for without elevated knowledge one cannot give up attachment for material enjoyment.

TEXT 41

TEXT

nanubhuya na janati

puman visaya-tiksnatam

nirvidyate svayam tasman

na tatha bhinna-dhih paraih

SYNONYMS

na--not; anubhuya--experiencing; na--not; janati--knows; puman--a person; visaya-tiksnatam--the sharpness of material enjoyment; nirvidyate--becomes aloof; svayam--himself; tasmat--from that; na tatha--not like that; bhinna-dhih--whose intelligence is changed; paraih--by others.

TRANSLATION

Material enjoyment is indeed the cause of all unhappiness, but one cannot give it up unless one has personally experienced how much suffering it is. Therefore one should be allowed to remain in so-called material enjoyment while simultaneously advancing in knowledge to experience the misery of this false material happiness. Then, without help from others, one will find material enjoyment detestful. Those whose minds are changed by others do not become as renounced as those who have personal experience.

PURPORT

It is said that unless a woman becomes pregnant, she cannot understand the trouble of giving birth to a child. Bandhya ki bujhibe prasava-vedana. The word bandhya means a sterile woman. Such a woman cannot give birth to a child. How, then, can she perceive the pain of delivery? According to the philosophy of Prajapati Daksa, a woman should first become pregnant and then experience the pain of childbirth. Then, if she is intelligent, she will not want to be pregnant again. Actually. however. this is not a fact. Sex enjoyment is so strong that a woman becomes pregnant and suffers at the time of childbirth. but she becomes pregnant again, despite her experience. According to Daksa's philosophy. one should become implicated in material enjoyment so that after experiencing the distress of such enjoyment. one will automatically renounce. Material nature, however. is so strong that although a man suffers at every step, he will not cease his attempts to enjoy (trpyanti neha krpana-bahu-duhkha-bhajah). Under the circumstances, unless one gets the association of a devotee like Narada Muni or his servant in the disciplic succession, one's dormant spirit of renunciation cannot be awakened. It is not a fact that because material enjoyment involves so many painful conditions one will automatically become detached. One needs the blessings of a devotee like Narada Muni. Then one can renounce his attachment for the material world. The young boys and girls of the Krsna consciousness movement have given up the spirit of material enjoyment not because of practice but by the mercy of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and His servants.

TEXT 42

TEXT

yan nas tvam karma-sandhanam

sadhunam grhamedhinam

krtavan asi durmarsam

vipriyam tava marsitam

SYNONYMS

yat--which; nah--unto us; tvam--you; karma-sandhanam--who strictly follow the fruitive ritualistic ceremonies according to Vedic injunctions; sadhunam--who are honest (because we honestly seek elevated social standards and bodily comfort); grha-medhinam--although situated with a wife and children; krtavan asi--have created; durmarsam--unbearable; vipriyam--wrong; tava--your; marsitam--forgiven.

TRANSLATION

Although I live in household life with my wife and children, I honestly follow the Vedic injunctions by engaging in fruitive activities to enjoy life without sinful reactions. I have performed all kinds of yajnas, including the deva-yajna, rsi-yajna, pitr-yajna and nr-yajna. Because these yajnas are called vratas [vows], I am known as a grhavrata. Unfortunately, you have given me great displeasure by misguiding my sons, for no reason, to the path of renunciation. This can be tolerated once.

PURPORT

Prajapati Daksa wanted to prove that he had been most tolerant in not having said anything when Narada Muni, for no reason, induced his ten thousand innocent sons to adopt the path of renunciation. Sometimes householders are accused of being grhamedhis, for grhamedhis are satisfied with family life without spiritual advancement. Grhasthas, however, are different because although grhasthas live in householder life with their wives and children, they are eager for spiritual advancement. Wanting to prove that he had been magnanimous to Narada Muni, Prajapati Daksa stressed that when Narada had misled his first sons, Daksa had taken no action; he had been kind and tolerant. He was aggrieved, however, because Narada Muni had misled his sons for a second time. Therefore he wanted to prove that Narada Muni, although dressed like a sadhu, was not actually a sadhu; he himself, although a householder, was a greater sadhu than Narada Muni.

TEXT 43

TEXT

tantu-krntana yan nas tvam

abhadram acarah punah

tasmal lokesu te mudha

na bhaved bhramatah padam

SYNONYMS

tantu-krntana--O mischief-monger who have mercilessly separated my sons from me; yat--which; nah--unto us; tvam--you; abhadram--an inauspicious thing; acarah--have done; punah--again; tasmat--therefore; lokesu--in all the planetary systems within the universe; te--of you; mudha--O rascal not knowing how to act; na--not; bhavet--there may be; bhramatah--who are wandering; padam--an abode.

TRANSLATION

You have made me lose my sons once, and now you have again done the same inauspicious thing. Therefore you are a rascal who does not know how to behave toward others. You may travel all over the universe, but I curse you to have no residence anywhere.

PURPORT

Because Prajapati Daksa was a grhamedhi who wanted to remain in household life, he thought that if Narada Muni could not remain in one place, but had to travel all over the world, that would be a great punishment for him. Actually, however, such a punishment is a boon for a preacher. A preacher is known as parivrajakacarya--an acarya, or teacher, who always travels for the benefit of human society. Prajapati Daksa cursed Narada Muni by saying that although he had the facility to travel all over the universe, he would never be able to stay in one place. In the parampara system from Narada Muni, I have also been cursed. Although I have many centers that would be suitable places of residence, I cannot stay anywhere, for I have been cursed by the parents of my young disciples. Since the Krsna consciousness movement was started, I have traveled all over the world two or three times a year, and although I am provided comfortable places to stay wherever I go, I cannot stay anywhere for more than three days or a week. I do not mind this curse by the parents of my disciples, but now it is necessary that I stay in one place to finish another task--this translation of Srimad-Bhagavatam. If my young disciples, especially those who have taken sannyasa, take charge of traveling all over the world, it may be possible for me to transfer the curse of the parents to these young preachers. Then I may sit down conveniently in one place for the work of translation.

TEXT 44

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

pratijagraha tad badham

naradah sadhu-sammatah

etavan sadhu-vado hi

titiksetesvarah svayam

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; pratijagraha--accepted; tat--that; badham--so be it; naradah--Narada Muni; sadhu-sammatah--who is an approved sadhu; etavan--this much; sadhu-vadah--appropriate for a saintly person; hi--indeed; titikseta--he may tolerate; isvarah--although able to curse Prajapati Daksa; svayam--himself.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: My dear King, since Narada Muni is an approved saintly person, when cursed by Prajapati Daksa he replied, "tad badham: Yes, what you have said is good. I accept this curse." He could have cursed Prajapati Daksa in return, but because he is a tolerant and merciful sadhu, he took no action.

PURPORT

As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.25.21):

titiksavah karunikah

suhrdah sarva-dehinam

ajata-satravah santah

sadhavah sadhu-bhusanah

"The symptoms of a sadhu are that he is tolerant, merciful and friendly to all living entities. He has no enemies, he is peaceful, he abides by the scriptures, and all his characteristics are sublime." Because Narada Muni is the most elevated of sadhus, devotees, to deliver Prajapati Daksa he silently tolerated the curse. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has taught this principle to all His devotees:

trnad api sunicena

taror api sahisnuna

amanina manadena

kirtaniyah sada harih

"One should chant the holy name of the Lord in a humble state of mind, thinking oneself lower than the straw in the street; one should be more tolerant than a tree, devoid of all sense of false prestige and should be ready to offer all respects to others. In such a state of mind one can chant the holy name of the Lord constantly." Following the orders of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, one who preaches the glories of the Lord all over the world or all over the universe should be humbler than grass and more tolerant than a tree because a preacher cannot live an easygoing life. Indeed, a preacher must face many impediments. Not only is he sometimes cursed, but sometimes he must also suffer personal injury. For example, when Nityananda Prabhu went to preach Krsna consciousness to the two roguish brothers Jagai and Madhai, they injured Him and made His head bleed, but nevertheless, He tolerantly delivered the two rogues, who became perfect Vaisnavas. This is the duty of a preacher. Lord Jesus Christ even tolerated crucifixion. Therefore the curse against Narada was not very astonishing, and he tolerated it.

Now, it may be asked why Narada Muni stayed in the presence of Prajapati Daksa and tolerated all his accusations and curses. Was that for Daksa's deliverance? The answer is yes. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says that after being insulted by Prajapati Daksa, Narada Muni should have left immediately, but he purposely stayed to hear all Daksa's strong words so that Daksa might be relieved of his anger. Prajapati Daksa was not an ordinary man; he had accumulated the results of many pious activities. Therefore Narada Muni expected that after delivering his curse, Daksa, satisfied and freed from anger, would repent his misbehavior and thus get a chance to become a Vaisnava and be delivered. When Jagai and Madhai offended Lord Nityananda, Lord Nityananda stood tolerantly, and therefore both brothers fell at His lotus feet and repented. Consequently they later became perfect Vaisnavas.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Fifth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam. entitled "Narada Muni Cursed by Prajapati Daksa."

Chapter Six

The Progeny of the Daughters of Daksa

As described in this chapter, Prajapati Daksa begot sixty daughters in the womb of his wife Asikni. These daughters were given in charity to various persons to increase the population. Since these offspring of Daksa were women, Narada Muni did not try to lead them toward the renounced order of life. Thus the daughters were saved from Narada Muni. Ten of the daughters were given in marriage to Dharmaraja, thirteen to Kasyapa Muni, and twenty-seven to the moon-god, Candra. In this way fifty daughters were distributed, and of the other ten daughters, four were given to Kasyapa and two each to Bhuta, Angira and Krsasva. One should know that it is because of the union of these sixty daughters with various exalted personalities that the entire universe was filled with various kinds of living entities, such as human beings, demigods, demons, beasts, birds and serpents.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

tatah pracetaso 'siknyam

anunitah svayambhuva

sastim sanjanayam asa

duhitrh pitr-vatsalah

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; tatah--after that incident; pracetasah--Daksa; asiknyam--in his wife named Asikni; anunitah--pacified; svayambhuva--by Lord Brahma; sastim--sixty; sanjanayam asa--begot; duhitrh--daughters; pitr-vatsalah--all very affectionate to their father.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: My dear King, thereafter, at the request of Lord Brahma, Prajapati Daksa, who is known as Pracetasa, begot sixty daughters in the womb of his wife Asikni. All the daughters were very affectionate toward their father.

PURPORT

After the incidents concerning the loss of his many sons, Daksa repented his misunderstanding with Narada Muni. Lord Brahma then saw Daksa and instructed him to beget children again. This time Daksa was very cautious to beget female children instead of male children so that Narada Muni would not disturb them by urging them to accept the renounced order. Females are not meant for the renounced order of life; they should be faithful to their good husbands, for if a husband is competent for liberation, his wife will also achieve liberation with him. As stated in the sastra, the results of a husband's pious activities are shared by his wife. Therefore a woman's duty is to be very chaste and faithful to her husband. Then without separate endeavor she will share in all the profit the husband earns.

TEXT 2

TEXT

dasa dharmaya kayadad

dvi-sat tri-nava cendave

bhutangirah-krsasvebhyo

dve dve tarksyaya caparah

SYNONYMS

dasa--ten; dharmaya--unto King Dharma, Yamaraja; kaya--unto Kasyapa; adat--gave; dvi-sat--twice six and one (thirteen); tri-nava--thrice nine (twenty-seven); ca--also; indave--unto the moon-god; bhuta-angirah-krsasvebhyah--unto Bhuta, Angira and Krsasva; dve dve--two each; tarksyaya--again unto Kasyapa; ca--and; aparah--the balance.

TRANSLATION

He gave ten daughters in charity to Dharmaraja [Yamaraja], thirteen to Kasyapa [first twelve and then one more], twenty-seven to the moon-god, and two each to Angira, Krsasva and Bhuta. The other four daughters were given to Kasyapa. [Thus Kasyapa received seventeen daughters in all.]

TEXT 3

TEXT

namadheyany amusam tvam

sapatyanam ca me srnu

yasam prasuti-prasavair

loka apuritas trayah

SYNONYMS

namadheyani--the different names; amusam--of them; tvam--you; sa-apatyanam--with their offspring; ca--and; me--from me; srnu--please hear; yasam--of all of whom; prasuti-prasavaih--by so many children and descendants; lokah--the worlds; apuritah--populated; trayah--three (the upper, middle and lower worlds).

TRANSLATION

Now please hear from me the names of all these daughters and their descendants, who filled all the three worlds.

TEXT 4

TEXT

bhanur lamba kakud yamir

visva sadhya marutvati

vasur muhurta sankalpa

dharma-patnyah sutan srnu

SYNONYMS

bhanuh--Bhanu; lamba--Lamba; kakut--Kakud; yamih--Yami; visva--Visva; sadhya--Sadhya; marutvati--Marutvati; vasuh--Vasu; muhurta--Muhurta; sankalpa--Sankalpa; dharma-patnyah--the wives of Yamaraja; sutan--their sons; srnu--now hear of.

TRANSLATION

The ten daughters given to Yamaraja were named Bhanu, Lamba, Kakud, Yami, Visva, Sadhya, Marutvati, Vasu, Muhurta and Sankalpa. Now hear the names of their sons.

TEXT 5

TEXT

bhanos tu deva-rsabha

indrasenas tato nrpa

vidyota asil lambayas

tatas ca stanayitnavah

SYNONYMS

bhanoh--from the womb of Bhanu; tu--of course; deva-rsabhah--Deva-rsabha; indrasenah--Indrasena; tatah--from him (Deva-rsabha); nrpa--O King; vidyotah--Vidyota; asit--appeared; lambayah--from the womb of Lamba; tatah--from him; ca--and; stanayitnavah--all the clouds.

TRANSLATION

O King, a son named Deva-rsabha was born from the womb of Bhanu, and from him came a son named Indrasena. From the womb of Lamba came a son named Vidyota, who generated all the clouds.

TEXT 6

TEXT

kakudah sankatas tasya

kikatas tanayo yatah

bhuvo durgani yameyah

svargo nandis tato 'bhavat

SYNONYMS

kakudah--from the womb of Kakud; sankatah--Sankata; tasya--from him; kikatah--Kikata; tanayah--son; yatah--from whom; bhuvah--of the earth; durgani--many demigods, protectors of this universe (which is called Durga); yameyah--of Yami; svargah--Svarga; nandih--Nandi; tatah--from him (Svarga); abhavat--was born.

TRANSLATION

From the womb of Kakud came the son named Sankata, whose son was named Kikata. From Kikata came the demigods named Durga. From Yami came the son named Svarga, whose son was named Nandi.

TEXT 7

TEXT

visve-devas tu visvaya

aprajams tan pracaksate

sadhyo-ganas ca sadhyaya

arthasiddhis tu tat-sutah

SYNONYMS

visve-devah--the demigods named the Visvadevas; tu--but; visvayah--from Visva; aprajan--without sons; tan--them; pracaksate--it is said; sadhyah-ganah--the demigods named the Sadhyas; ca--and; sadhyayah--from the womb of Sadhya-; arthasiddhih--Arthasiddhi; tu--but; tat-sutah--the son of the Sadhyas.

TRANSLATION

The sons of Visva were the Visvadevas, who had no progeny. From the womb of Sadhya came the Sadhyas, who had a son named Arthasiddhi.

TEXT 8

TEXT

marutvams ca jayantas ca

marutvatya babhuvatuh

jayanto vasudevamsa

upendra iti yam viduh

SYNONYMS

marutvan--Marutvan; ca--also; jayantah--Jayanta; ca--and; marutvatyah--from Marutvati; babhuvatuh--took birth; jayantah--Jayanta; vasudeva-amsah--an expansion of Vasudeva; upendrah--Upendra; iti--thus; yam--whom; viduh--they know.

TRANSLATION

The two sons who took birth from the womb of Marutvati were Marutvan and Jayanta. Jayanta, who is an expansion of Lord Vasudeva, is known as Upendra.

TEXT 9

TEXT

mauhurtika deva-gana

muhurtayas ca jajnire

ye vai phalam prayacchanti

bhutanam sva-sva-kalajam

SYNONYMS

mauhurtikah--Mauhurtikas; deva-ganah--the demigods; muhurtayah--from the womb of Muhurta; ca--and; jajnire--took birth; ye--all of whom; vai--indeed; phalam--result; prayacchanti--deliver; bhutanam--of the living entities; sva-sva--their own; kala-jam--born of time.

TRANSLATION

The demigods named the Mauhurtikas took birth from the womb of Muhurta. These demigods deliver the results of actions to the living entities of their respective times.

TEXTS 10-11

TEXT

sankalpayas tu sankalpah

kamah sankalpajah smrtah

vasavo 'stau vasoh putras

tesam namani me srnu

dronah prano dhruvo 'rko 'gnir

doso vastur vibhavasuh

dronasyabhimateh patnya

harsa-soka-bhayadayah

SYNONYMS

sankalpayah--from the womb of Sankalpa; tu--but; sankalpah--Sankalpa; kamah--Kama; sankalpa-jah--the son of Sankalpa; smrtah--known; vasavah astau--the eight Vasus; vasoh--of Vasu; putrah--the sons; tesam--of them; namani--the names; me--from me; srnu--just hear; dronah--Drona; pranah--Prana; dhruvah--Dhruva; arkah--Arka; agnih--Agni; dosah--Dosa; vastuh--Vastu; vibhavasuh--Vibhavasu; dronasya--of Drona; abhimateh--from Abhimati; patnyah--the wife; harsa-soka-bhaya-adayah--the sons named Harsa, Soka, Bhaya and so on.

TRANSLATION

The son of Sankalpa was known as Sankalpa, and from him lust was born. The sons of Vasu were known as the eight Vasus. Just hear their names from me: Drona, Prana, Dhruva, Arka, Agni, Dosa, Vastu and Vibhavasu. From Abhimati, the wife of the Vasu named Drona, were generated the sons named Harsa, Soka, Bhaya and so on.

TEXT 12

TEXT

pranasyorjasvati bharya

saha ayuh purojavah

dhruvasya bharya dharanir

asuta vividhah purah

SYNONYMS

pranasya--of Prana; urjasvati--Urjasvati; bharya--the wife; sahah--Saha; ayuh--Ayus; purojavah--Purojava; dhruvasya--of Dhruva; bharya--the wife; dharanih--Dharani; asuta--gave birth to; vividhah--the various; purah--cities and towns.

TRANSLATION

Urjasvati, the wife of Prana, gave birth to three sons, named Saha, Ayus and Purojava. The wife of Dhruva was known as Dharani, and from her womb various cities took birth.

TEXT 13

TEXT

arkasya vasana bharya

putras tarsadayah smrtah

agner bharya vasor dhara

putra dravinakadayah

SYNONYMS

arkasya--of Arka; vasana--Vasana; bharya--the wife; putrah--the sons; tarsa-adayah--named Tarsa and so on; smrtah--celebrated; agneh--of Agni; bharya--wife; vasoh--the Vasu; dhara--Dhara; putrah--the sons; dravinaka-adayah--known as Dravinaka and so on.

TRANSLATION

From the womb of Vasana, the wife of Arka, came many sons, headed by Tarsa. Dhara, the wife of the Vasu named Agni, gave birth to many sons, headed by Dravinaka.

TEXT 14

TEXT

skandas ca krttika-putro

ye visakhadayas tatah

dosasya sarvari-putrah

sisumaro hareh kala

SYNONYMS

skandah--Skanda; ca--also; krttika-putrah--the son of Krttika; ye--all of whom; visakha-adayah--headed by Visakha; tatah--from him (Skanda); dosasya--of Dosa; sarvari-putrah--the son of his wife Sarvari; sisumarah--Sisumara; hareh kala--an expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

From Krttika, another wife of Agni, came the son named Skanda, Karttikeya, whose sons were headed by Visakha. From the womb of Sarvari, the wife of the Vasu named Dosa, came the son named Sisumara, who was an expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TEXT 15

TEXT

vastor angirasi-putro

visvakarmakrti-patih

tato manus caksuso 'bhud

visve sadhya manoh sutah

SYNONYMS

vastoh--of Vastu; angirasi--of his wife named Angirasi; putrah--the son; visvakarma--Visvakarma; akrti-patih--the husband of Akrti; tatah--from them; manuh caksusah--the Manu named Caksusa; abhut--was born; visve--the Visvadevas; sadhyah--the Sadhyas; manoh--of Manu; sutah--the sons.

TRANSLATION

From Angirasi, the wife of the Vasu named Vastu, was born the great architect Visvakarma. Visvakarma became the husband of Akrti, from whom the Manu named Caksusa was born. The sons of Manu were known as the Visvadevas and Sadhyas.

TEXT 16

TEXT

vibhavasor asutosa

vyustam rocisam atapam

pancayamo 'tha bhutani

yena jagrati karmasu

SYNONYMS

vibhavasoh--of Vibhavasu; asuta--gave birth to; usa--named Usa; vyustam--Vyusta; rocisam--Rocisa; atapam--Atapa; pancayamah--Pancayama; atha--thereafter; bhutani--the living entities; yena--by whom; jagrati--are awakened; karmasu--in material activities.

TRANSLATION

Usa, the wife of Vibhavasu, gave birth to three sons--Vyusta, Rocisa and Atapa. From Atapa came Pancayama, the span of day, who awakens all living entities to material activities.

TEXTS 17-18

TEXT

sarupasuta bhutasya

bharya rudrams ca kotisah

raivato 'jo bhavo bhimo

vama ugro vrsakapih

ajaikapad ahirbradhno

bahurupo mahan iti

rudrasya parsadas canye

ghorah preta-vinayakah

SYNONYMS

sarupa--Sarupa; asuta--gave birth; bhutasya--of Bhuta; bharya--the wife; rudran--Rudras; ca--and; kotisah--ten million; raivatah--Raivata; ajah--Aja; bhavah--Bhava; bhimah--Bhima; vamah--Vama; ugrah--Ugra; vrsakapih--Vrsakapi; ajaikapat--Ajaikapat; ahirbradhnah--Ahirbradhna; bahurupah--Bahurupa; mahan--Mahan; iti--thus; rudrasya--of these Rudras; parsadah--their associates; ca--and; anye--other; ghorah--very fearful; preta--ghosts; vinayakah--and hobgoblins.

TRANSLATION

Sarupa, the wife of Bhuta, gave birth to the ten million Rudras, of whom the eleven principle Rudras were Raivata, Aja, Bhava, Bhima, Vama, Ugra, Vrsakapi, Ajaikapat, Ahirbradhna, Bahurupa and Mahan. Their associates, the ghosts and goblins, who are very fearful, were born of the other wife of Bhuta.

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura comments that Bhuta had two wives. One of them, Sarupa, gave birth to the eleven Rudras, and the other wife gave birth to the associates of the Rudras known as the ghosts and hobgoblins.

TEXT 19

TEXT

prajapater angirasah

svadha patni pitrn atha

atharvangirasam vedam

putratve cakarot sati

SYNONYMS

prajapateh angirasah--of another prajapati, known as Angira; svadha--Svadha; patni--his wife; pitrn--the Pitas; atha--thereafter; atharva-angirasam--Atharvangirasa; vedam--the personified Veda; putratve--as the son; ca--and; akarot--accepted; sati--Sati.

TRANSLATION

The prajapati Angira had two wives, named Svadha and Sati. The wife named Svadha accepted all the Pitas as her sons, and Sati accepted the Atharvangirasa Veda as her son.

TEXT 20

TEXT

krsasvo 'rcisi bharyayam

dhumaketum ajijanat

dhisanayam vedasiro

devalam vayunam manum

SYNONYMS

krsasvah--Krsasva; arcisi--Arcis; bharyayam--in his wife; dhumaketum--to Dhumaketu; ajijanat--gave birth; dhisanayam--in the wife known as Dhisana; vedasirah--Vedasira; devalam--Devala; vayunam--Vayuna; manum--Manu.

TRANSLATION

Krsasva had two wives, named Arcis and Dhisana. In the wife named Arcis he begot Dhumaketu and in Dhisana he begot four sons, named Vedasira, Devala, Vayuna and Manu.

TEXTS 21-22

TEXT

tarksyasya vinata kadruh

patangi yaminiti ca

patangy asuta patagan

yamini salabhan atha

suparnasuta garudam

saksad yajnesa-vahanam

surya-sutam anurum ca

kadrur nagan anekasah

SYNONYMS

tarksyasya--of Kasyapa, whose other name is Tarksya; vinata--Vinata; kadruh--Kadru; patangi--Patangi; yamini--Yamini; iti--thus; ca--and; patangi--Patangi; asuta--gave birth; patagan--to birds of different varieties; yamini--Yamini; salabhan--(gave birth to) locusts; atha--thereafter; suparna--the wife named Vinata; asuta--gave birth; garudam--to the celebrated bird known as Garuda; saksat--directly; yajnesa-vahanam--the carrier of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu; surya-sutam--the chariot driver of the sun-god; anurum--Anuru; ca--and; kadruh--Kadru; nagan--serpents; anekasah--in varieties.

TRANSLATION

Kasyapa, who is also named Tarksya, had four wives--Vinata [Suparna], Kadru, Patangi and Yamini. Patangi gave birth to many kinds of birds, and Yamini gave birth to locusts. Vinata [Suparna] gave birth to Garuda, the carrier of Lord Visnu, and to Anuru, or Aruna, the chariot driver of the sun-god. Kadru gave birth to different varieties of serpents.

TEXT 23

TEXT

krttikadini naksatran-

indoh patnyas tu bharata

daksa-sapat so 'napatyas

tasu yaksma-graharditah

SYNONYMS

krttika-adini--headed by Krttika; naksatrani--the constellations; indoh--of the moon-god; patnyah--the wives; tu--but; bharata--O Maharaja Pariksit, descendant of the dynasty of Bharata; daksa-sapat--because of being cursed by Daksa; sah--the moon-god; anapatyah--without children; tasu--in so many wives; yaksma-graha-arditah--being oppressed by a disease that brings about gradual destruction.

TRANSLATION

O Maharaja Pariksit, best of the Bharatas, the constellations named Krttika were all wives of the moon-god. However, because Prajapati Daksa had cursed him to suffer from a disease causing gradual destruction, the moon-god could not beget children in any of his wives.

TEXTS 24-26

TEXT

punah prasadya tam somah

kala lebhe ksaye ditah

srnu namani lokanam

matrnam sankarani ca

atha kasyapa-patninam

yat-prasutam idam jagat

aditir ditir danuh kastha

arista surasa ila

munih krodhavasa tamra

surabhih sarama timih

timer yado-gana asan

svapadah sarama-sutah

SYNONYMS

punah--again; prasadya--pacifying; tam--him (Prajapati Daksa); somah--the moon-god; kalah--portions of light; lebhe--achieved; ksaye--in gradual destruction (the dark fortnight); ditah--removed; srnu--please hear; namani--all the names; lokanam--of the planets; matrnam--of the mothers; sankarani--pleasing; ca--also; atha--now; kasyapa-patninam--of the wives of Kasyapa; yat-prasutam--from whom was born; idam--this; jagat--whole universe; aditih--Aditi; ditih--Diti; danuh--Danu; kastha--Kastha; arista--Arista; surasa--Surasa; ila--Ila; munih--Muni; krodhavasa--Krodhavasa; tamra--Tamra; surabhih--Surabhi; sarama--Sarama; timih--Timi; timeh--from Timi; yadah-ganah--the aquatics; asan--appeared; svapadah--the ferocious animals like the lions and tigers; sarama-sutah--the children of Sarama.

TRANSLATION

Thereafter the King of the moon pacified Prajapati Daksa with courteous words and thus regained the portions of light he had lost during his disease. Nevertheless he could not beget children. The moon loses his shining power during the dark fortnight, and in the bright fortnight it is manifest again. O King Pariksit, now please hear from me the names of Kasyapa's wives, from whose wombs the population of the entire universe has come. They are the mothers of almost all the population of the entire universe, and their names are very auspicious to hear. They are Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kastha, Arista, Surasa, Ila, Muni, Krodhavasa, Tamra, Surabhi, Sarama and Timi. From the womb of Timi all the aquatics took birth, and from the womb of Sarama the ferocious animals like the tigers and lions took birth.

TEXT 27

TEXT

surabher mahisa gavo

ye canye dvisapha nrpa

tamrayah syena-grdhradya

muner apsarasam ganah

SYNONYMS

surabheh--from the womb of Surabhi; mahisah--buffalo; gavah--cows; ye--who; ca--also; anye--others; dvi-saphah--having cloven hooves; nrpa--O King; tamrayah--from Tamra; syena--eagles; grdhra-adyah--vultures and so on; muneh--from Muni; apsarasam--of angels; ganah--the groups.

TRANSLATION

My dear King Pariksit, from the womb of Surabhi the buffalo, cow and other animals with cloven hooves took birth, from the womb of Tamra the eagles, vultures and other large birds of prey took birth, and from the womb of Muni the angels took birth.

TEXT 28

TEXT

dandasukadayah sarpa

rajan krodhavasatmajah

ilaya bhuruhah sarve

yatudhanas ca saurasah

SYNONYMS

dandasuka-adayah--headed by the dandasuka snakes; sarpah--reptiles; rajan--O King; krodhavasa-atma-jah--born from Krodhavasa; ilayah--from the womb of Ila; bhuruhah--the creepers and trees; sarve--all; yatudhanah--the cannibals (Raksasas); ca--also; saurasah--from the womb of Surasa.

TRANSLATION

The sons born of Krodhavasa were the serpents known as dandasuka, as well as other serpents and the mosquitoes. All the various creepers and trees were born from the womb of Ila. The Raksasas, bad spirits, were born from the womb of Surasa.

TEXTS 29-31

TEXT

aristayas tu gandharvah

kasthaya dvisaphetarah

suta danor eka-sastis

tesam pradhanikan srnu

dvimurdha sambaro 'risto

hayagrivo vibhavasuh

ayomukhah sankusirah

svarbhanuh kapilo 'runah

puloma vrsaparva ca

ekacakro 'nutapanah

dhumrakeso virupakso

vipracittis ca durjayah

SYNONYMS

aristayah--from the womb of Arista; tu--but; gandharvah--the Gandharvas; kasthayah--from the womb of Kastha; dvi-sapha-itarah--animals such as horses, which do not have cloven hooves; sutah--sons; danoh--from the womb of Danu; eka-sastih--sixty-one; tesam--of them; pradhanikan--the important ones; srnu--hear; dvimurdha--Dvimurdha; sambarah--Sambara; aristah--Arista; hayagrivah--Hayagriva; vibhavasuh--Vibhavasu; ayomukhah--Ayomukha; sankusirah--Sankusira; svarbhanuh--Svarbhanu; kapilah--Kapila; arunah--Aruna; puloma--Puloma; vrsaparva--Vrsaparva; ca--also; ekacakrah--Ekacakra; anutapanah--Anutapana; dhumrakesah--Dhumrakesa; virupaksah--Virupaksa; vipracittih--Vipracitti; ca--and; durjayah--Durjaya.

TRANSLATION

The Gandharvas were born from the womb of Arista, and animals whose hooves are not split, such as the horse, were born from the womb of Kastha. O King, from the womb of Danu came sixty-one sons, of whom these eighteen were very important: Dvimurdha, Sambara, Arista, Hayagriva, Vibhavasu, Ayomukha, Sankusira, Svarbhanu, Kapila, Aruna, Puloma, Vrsaparva, Ekacakra, Anutapana, Dhumrakesa, Virupaksa, Vipracitti and Durjaya.

TEXT 32

TEXT

svarbhanoh suprabham kanyam

uvaha namucih kila

vrsaparvanas tu sarmistham

yayatir nahuso bali

SYNONYMS

svarbhanoh--of Svarbhanu; suprabham--Suprabha; kanyam--the daughter; uvaha--married; namucih--Namuci; kila--indeed; vrsaparvanah--of Vrsaparva; tu--but; sarmistham--Sarmistha; yayatih--King Yayati; nahusah--the son of Nahusa; bali--very powerful.

TRANSLATION

The daughter of Svarbhanu named Suprabha was married by Namuci. The daughter of Vrsaparva named Sarmistha was given to the powerful King Yayati, the son of Nahusa.

TEXTS 33-36

TEXT

vaisvanara-suta yas ca

catasras caru-darsanah

upadanavi hayasira

puloma kalaka tatha

upadanavim hiranyaksah

kratur hayasiram nrpa

pulomam kalakam ca dve

vaisvanara-sute tu kah

upayeme 'tha bhagavan

kasyapo brahma-coditah

paulomah kalakeyas ca

danava yuddha-salinah

tayoh sasti-sahasrani

yajna-ghnams te pituh pita

jaghana svar-gato rajann

eka indra-priyankarah

SYNONYMS

vaisvanara-sutah--the daughters of Vaisvanara; yah--who; ca--and; catasrah--four; caru-darsanah--very, very beautiful; upadanavi--Upadanavi; hayasira--Hayasira; puloma--Puloma; kalaka--Kalaka; tatha--as well; upadanavim--Upadanavi; hiranyaksah--the demon Hiranyaksa; kratuh--Kratu; hayasiram--Hayasira; nrpa--O King; pulomam kalakam ca--Puloma and Kalaka; dve--the two; vaisvanara-sute--daughters of Vaisvanara; tu--but; kah--the prajapati; upayeme--married; atha--then; bhagavan--the most powerful; kasyapah--Kasyapa Muni; brahma-coditah--requested by Lord Brahma; paulomah kalakeyah ca--the Paulomas and Kalakeyas; danavah--demons; yuddha-salinah--very fond of fighting; tayoh--of them; sasti-sahasrani--sixty thousand; yajna-ghnan--who were disturbing sacrifices; te--your; pituh--of the father; pita--the father; jaghana--killed; svah-gatah--in the heavenly planets; rajan--O King; ekah--alone; indra-priyam-karah--to please King Indra.

TRANSLATION

Vaisvanara, the son of Danu, had four beautiful daughters, named Upadanavi, Hayasira, Puloma and Kalaka. Hiranyaksa married Upadanavi, and Kratu married Hayasira. Thereafter, at the request of Lord Brahma, Prajapati Kasyapa married Puloma and Kalaka, the other two daughters of Vaisvanara. From the wombs of these two wives of Kasyapa came sixty thousand sons, headed by Nivatakavaca, who are known as the Paulomas and the Kalakeyas. They were physically very strong and expert in fighting, and their aim was to disturb the sacrifices performed by the great sages. My dear King, when your grandfather Arjuna went to the heavenly planets, he alone killed all these demons, and thus King Indra became extremely affectionate toward him.

TEXT 37

TEXT

vipracittih simhikayam

satam caikam ajijanat

rahu-jyestham ketu-satam

grahatvam ya upagatah

SYNONYMS

vipracittih--Vipracitti; simhikayam--in the womb of his wife Simhika; satam--to one hundred; ca--and; ekam--one; ajijanat--gave birth; rahu-jyestham--among whom Rahu is the oldest; ketu-satam--one hundred Ketus; grahatvam--planethood; ye--all of whom; upagatah--obtained.

TRANSLATION

In his wife Simhika, Vipracitti begot one hundred and one sons, of whom the eldest is Rahu and the others are the one hundred Ketus. All of them attained positions in the influential planets.

TEXTS 38-39

TEXT

athatah sruyatam vamso

yo 'diter anupurvasah

yatra narayano devah

svamsenavatarad vibhuh

vivasvan aryama pusa

tvastatha savita bhagah

dhata vidhata varuno

mitrah satru urukramah

SYNONYMS

atha--thereafter; atah--now; sruyatam--let it be heard; vamsah--the dynasty; yah--which; aditeh--from Aditi; anupurvasah--in chronological order; yatra--wherein; narayanah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; devah--the Lord; sva-amsena--by His own plenary expansion; avatarat--descended; vibhuh--the Supreme; vivasvan--Vivasvan; aryama--Aryama; pusa--Pusa; tvasta--Tvasta; atha--thereafter; savita--Savita; bhagah--Bhaga; dhata--Dhata; vidhata--Vidhata; varunah--Varuna; mitrah--Mitra; satruh--Satru; urukramah--Urukrama.

TRANSLATION

Now please hear me as I describe the descendants of Aditi in chronological order. In this dynasty the Supreme Personality of Godhead Narayana descended by His plenary expansion. The names of the sons of Aditi are as follows: Vivasvan, Aryama, Pusa, Tvasta, Savita, Bhaga, Dhata, Vidhata, Varuna, Mitra, Satru and Urukrama.

TEXT 40

TEXT

vivasvatah sraddhadevam

samjnasuyata vai manum

mithunam ca maha-bhaga

yamam devam yamim tatha

saiva bhutvatha vadava

nasatyau susuve bhuvi

SYNONYMS

vivasvatah--of the sun-god; sraddhadevam--named Sraddhadeva; samjna--Samjna; asuyata--gave birth; vai--indeed; manum--to Manu; mithunam--twins; ca--and; maha-bhaga--the fortunate Samjna; yamam--to Yamaraja; devam--the demigod; yamim--to his sister named Yami; tatha--as well as; sa--she; eva--also; bhutva--becoming; atha--then; vadava--a mare; nasatyau--to the Asvini-kumaras; susuve--gave birth; bhuvi--on this earth.

TRANSLATION

Samjna, the wife of Vivasvan, the sun-god, gave birth to the Manu named Sraddhadeva, and the same fortunate wife also gave birth to the twins Yamaraja and the River Yamuna. Then Yami, while wandering on the earth in the form of a mare, gave birth to the Asvini-kumaras.

TEXT 41

TEXT

chaya sanaiscaram lebhe

savarnim ca manum tatah

kanyam ca tapatim ya vai

vavre samvaranam patim

SYNONYMS

chaya--Chaya, another wife of the sun-god; sanaiscaram--Saturn; lebhe--begot; savarnim--Savarni; ca--and; manum--the Manu; tatah--from him (Vivasvan); kanyam--one daughter; ca--as well as; tapatim--named Tapati; ya--who; vai--indeed; vavre--married; samvaranam--Samvarana; patim--husband.

TRANSLATION

Chaya, another wife of the sun-god, begot two sons named Sanaiscara and Savarni Manu, and one daughter, Tapati, who married Samvarana.

TEXT 42

TEXT

aryamno matrka patni

tayos carsanayah sutah

yatra vai manusi jatir

brahmana copakalpita

SYNONYMS

aryamnah--of Aryama; matrka--Matrka; patni--the wife; tayoh--by their union; carsanayah sutah--many sons who were learned scholars; yatra--wherein; vai--indeed; manusi--human; jatih--species; brahmana--by Lord Brahma; ca--and; upakalpita--was created.

TRANSLATION

From the womb of Matrka, the wife of Aryama, were born many learned scholars. Among them Lord Brahma created the human species, which are endowed with an aptitude for self-examination.

TEXT 43

TEXT

pusanapatyah pistado

bhagna-danto 'bhavat pura

yo 'sau daksaya kupitam

jahasa vivrta-dvijah

SYNONYMS

pusa--Pusa; anapatyah--without children; pista-adah--who lives by eating flour; bhagna-dantah--with broken teeth; abhavat--became; pura--formerly; yah--who; asau--that; daksaya--at Daksa; kupitam--very angry; jahasa--laughed; vivrta-dvijah--uncovering his teeth.

TRANSLATION

Pusa had no sons. When Lord Siva was angry at Daksa, Pusa had laughed at Lord Siva and shown his teeth. Therefore he lost his teeth and had to live by eating only ground flour.

TEXT 44

TEXT

tvastur daityatmaja bharya

racana nama kanyaka

sannivesas tayor jajne

visvarupas ca viryavan

SYNONYMS

tvastuh--of Tvasta; daitya-atma-ja--the daughter of a demon; bharya--wife; racana--Racana; nama--named; kanyaka--a maiden; sannivesah--Sannivesa; tayoh--of those two; jajne--was born; visvarupah--Visvarupa; ca--and; viryavan--very powerful in bodily strength.

TRANSLATION

Racana, the daughter of the Daityas, became the wife of Prajapati Tvasta. By his semina he begot in her womb two very powerful sons named Sannivesa and Visvarupa.

TEXT 45

TEXT

tam vavrire sura-gana

svasriyam dvisatam api

vimatena parityakta

gurunangirasena yat

SYNONYMS

tam--him (Visvarupa); vavrire--accepted as a priest; sura-ganah--the demigods; svasriyam--the son of a daughter; dvisatam--of the inimical demons; api--although; vimatena--being disrespected; parityaktah--who were given up; guruna--by their spiritual master; angirasena--Brhaspati; yat--since.

TRANSLATION

Although Visvarupa was the son of the daughter of their eternal enemies the demons, the demigods accepted him as their priest in accordance with the order of Brahma when they were abandoned by their spiritual master, Brhaspati, whom they had disrespected.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to the Sixth Canto, Sixth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Progeny of the Daughters of Daksa."

Chapter Seven

Indra Offends His Spiritual Master, Brhaspati.

As related in this chapter, Indra, the King of heaven, committed an offense at the feet of his spiritual master, Brhaspati. Brhaspati therefore left the demigods, who then had no priest. However, at the request of the demigods, Visvarupa, the son of the brahmana Tvasta, became their priest.

Once upon a time, Indra, the King of the demigods, was sitting with his wife Sacidevi and being praised by various demigods like the Siddhas, Caranas and Gandharvas when Brhaspati, the spiritual master of the demigods, entered the assembly. Indra, being too absorbed in material opulence, forgot himself and did not respect Brhaspati, who thus became aware of Indra's pride in his material opulence and immediately disappeared from the assembly to teach him a lesson. Indra became most repentant, understanding that because of his opulence he had forgotten to respect his spiritual master. He left the palace to beg pardon from his spiritual master, but could not find Brhaspati anywhere.

Because of his disrespectful behavior toward his spiritual master. Indra lost all his opulence and was conquered by the demons, who defeated the demigods in a great fight and occupied Indra's throne. King Indra, along with the other demigods, later took shelter of Lord Brahma. Understanding the situation, Lord Brahma chastised the demigods for their offense to their spiritual master. Following Lord Brahma's orders, the demigods accepted Visvarupa, who was a brahmana and the son of Tvasta, as their priest. Then they performed yajnas under the priesthood of Visvarupa and were able to conquer the demons.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-rajovaca

kasya hetoh parityakta

acaryenatmanah surah

etad acaksva bhagavan

chisyanam akramam gurau

SYNONYMS

sri-raja uvaca--the King inquired; kasya hetoh--for what reason; parityaktah--rejected; acaryena--by the spiritual master, Brhaspati; atmanah--of himself; surah--all the demigods; etat--this; acaksva--kindly describe; bhagavan--O great sage (Sukadeva Gosvami); sisyanam--of the disciples; akramam--the offense; gurau--unto the spiritual master.

TRANSLATION

Maharaja Pariksit inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami: O great sage, why did the spiritual master of the demigods, Brhaspati, reject the demigods, who were his own disciples? What offense did the demigods commit against their spiritual master? Please describe to me this incident.

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura comments:

saptame guruna tyaktair

devair daitya-parajitaih

visvarupo gurutvena

vrto brahmopadesatah

"This Seventh Chapter describes how Brhaspati was offended by the demigods, how he left them and the demigods were defeated, and how the demigods, following the instructions of Lord Brahma, accepted Visvarupa as the priest to perform their sacrifice."

TEXTS 2-8

TEXT

sri-badarayanir uvaca

indras tribhuvanaisvarya-

madollanghita-satpathah

marudbhir vasubhi rudrair

adityair rbhubhir nrpa

visvedevais ca sadhyais ca

nasatyabhyam parisritah

siddha-carana-gandharvair

munibhir brahmavadibhih

vidyadharapsarobhis ca

kinnaraih patagoragaih

nisevyamano maghavan

stuyamanas ca bharata

upagiyamano lalitam

asthanadhyasanasritah

pandurenatapatrena

candra-mandala-caruna

yuktas canyaih paramesthyais

camara-vyajanadibhih

virajamanah paulamya

sahardhasanaya bhrsam

sa yada paramacaryam

devanam atmanas ca ha

nabhyanandata sampraptam

pratyutthanasanadibhih

vacaspatim muni-varam

surasura-namaskrtam

noccacalasanad indrah

pasyann api sabhagatam

SYNONYMS

sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami replied; indrah--King Indra; tri-bhuvana-aisvarya--because of possessing all the material opulences of the three worlds; mada--due to pride; ullanghita--who has transgressed; sat-pathah--the path of Vedic civilization; marudbhih--by the wind demigods, known as the Maruts; vasubhih--by the eight Vasus; rudraih--by the eleven Rudras; adityaih--by the Adityas; rbhubhih--by the Rbhus; nrpa--O King; visvedevaih ca--and by the Visvadevas; sadhyaih--by the Sadhyas; ca--also; nasatyabhyam--by the two Asvini-kumaras; parisritah--surrounded; siddha--by the inhabitants of Siddhaloka; carana--the Caranas; gandharvaih--and the Gandharvas; munibhih--by the great sages; brahmavadibhih--by greatly learned impersonalist scholars; vidyadhara-apsarobhih ca--and by the Vidyadharas and Apsaras; kinnaraih--by the Kinnaras; pataga-uragaih--by the Patagas (birds) and Uragas (snakes); nisevyamanah--being served; maghavan--King Indra; stuyamanah ca--and being offered prayers; bharata--O Maharaja Pariksit; upagiyamanah--being sung before; lalitam--very sweetly; asthana--in his assembly; adhyasana-asritah--situated on the throne; pandurena--white; atapatrena--with an umbrella over the head; candra-mandala-caruna--as beautiful as the circle of the moon; yuktah--endowed; ca anyaih--and by other; paramesthyaih--symptoms of an exalted king; camara--by yak-tail; vyajana-adibhih--fans and other paraphernalia; virajamanah--shining; paulamya--his wife, Saci; saha--with; ardha-asanaya--who occupied half the throne; bhrsam--greatly; sah--he (Indra); yada--when; parama-acaryam--the most exalted acarya, spiritual master; devanam--of all the demigods; atmanah--of himself; ca--and; ha--indeed; na--not; abhyanandata--welcomed; sampraptam--having appeared in the assembly; pratyutthana--by getting up from the throne; asana-adibhih--and by a seat and other greetings; vacaspatim--the priest of the demigods, Brhaspati; muni-varam--the best of all the sages; sura-asura-namaskrtam--who is respected by both the demigods and the asuras; na--not; uccacala--did get up; asanat--from the throne; indrah--Indra; pasyan api--although seeing; sabha-agatam--entering the assembly.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King, once upon a time, the King of heaven, Indra, being extremely proud because of his great opulence of the three worlds, transgressed the law of Vedic etiquette. Seated on his throne, he was surrounded by the Maruts, Vasus, Rudras, Adityas, Rbhus, Visvadevas, Sadhyas, Asvini-kumaras, Siddhas, Caranas and Gandharvas and by great saintly persons. Also surrounding him were the Vidyadharas, Apsaras, Kinnaras, Patagas [birds] and Uragas [snakes]. All of them were offering Indra their respects and services, and the Apsaras and Gandharvas were dancing and singing with very sweet musical instruments. Over Indra's head was a white umbrella as effulgent as the full moon. Fanned by yak-tail whisks and served with all the paraphernalia of a great king, Indra was sitting with his wife, Sacidevi, who occupied half the throne, when the great sage Brhaspati appeared in that assembly. Brhaspati, the best of the sages, was the spiritual master of Indra and the demigods and was respected by the demigods and demons alike. Nevertheless, although Indra saw his spiritual master before him, he did not rise from his own seat or offer a seat to his spiritual master, nor did Indra offer him a respectful welcome. Indra did nothing to show him respect.

TEXT 9

TEXT

tato nirgatya sahasa

kavir angirasah prabhuh

ayayau sva-grham tusnim

vidvan sri-mada-vikriyam

SYNONYMS

tatah--thereafter; nirgatya--going out; sahasa--suddenly; kavih--the great learned sage; angirasah--Brhaspati; prabhuh--the master of the demigods; ayayau--returned; sva-grham--to his home; tusnim--being silent; vidvan--having known; sri-mada-vikriyam--deterioration because of madness due to opulence.

TRANSLATION

Brhaspati knew everything that would happen in the future. Seeing Indra's transgression of etiquette, he completely understood that Indra was puffed up by his material opulence. Although able to curse Indra, he did not do so. Instead, he left the assembly and in silence returned to his home.

TEXT 10

TEXT

tarhy eva pratibudhyendro

guru-helanam atmanah

garhayam asa sadasi

svayam atmanam atmana

SYNONYMS

tarhi--then, immediately; eva--indeed; pratibudhya--realizing; indrah--King Indra; guru-helanam--disrespect to the spiritual master; atmanah--his own; garhayam asa--reproached; sadasi--in that assembly; svayam--personally; atmanam--himself; atmana--by himself.

TRANSLATION

Indra, the King of heaven, could immediately understand his mistake. Realizing he had disrespected his spiritual master, he condemned himself in the presence of all the members of the assembly.

TEXT 11

TEXT

aho bata mayasadhu

krtam vai dabhra-buddhina

yan mayaisvarya-mattena

guruh sadasi katkrtah

SYNONYMS

aho--alas; bata--indeed; maya--by me; asadhu--disrespectful; krtam--the action done; vai--certainly; dabhra-buddhina--being of less intelligence; yat--because; maya--by me; aisvarya-mattena--being very proud of material opulence; guruh--the spiritual master; sadasi--in this assembly; kat-krtah--mistreated.

TRANSLATION

Alas, what a regrettable deed I have committed because of my lack of intelligence and my pride in my material opulences. I failed to show respect to my spiritual master when he entered this assembly, and thus I have insulted him.

TEXT 12

TEXT

ko grdhyet pandito laksmim

tripistapa-pater api

yayaham asuram bhavam

nito 'dya vibudhesvarah

SYNONYMS

kah--who; grdhyet--would accept; panditah--a learned man; laksmim--opulences; tri-pista-pa-pateh api--although I am the King of the demigods; yaya--by which; aham--I; asuram--demoniac; bhavam--mentality; nitah--carried to; adya--now; vibudha--of the demigods, who are in the mode of goodness; isvarah--the King.

TRANSLATION

Although I am King of the demigods, who are situated in the mode of goodness, I was proud of a little opulence and polluted by false ego. Under the circumstances, who in this world would accept such riches at the risk of falling down ? Alas! I condemn my wealth and opulence.

PURPORT

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu prayed to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, na dhanam na janam na sundarim kavitam va jagad-isa kamaye: "O my Lord, I do not aspire for material opulence or wealth, nor do I want a great number of followers to accept me as their leader, nor do I want a very beautiful wife to please me." Mama janmani janmanisvare bhavatad bhaktir ahaituki tvayi: "I do not even want liberation. All I want, life after life, is to be a faithful servant of Your Lordship." According to the laws of nature, when one is extremely opulent one becomes degraded, and this is true both individually and collectively. The demigods are situated in the mode of goodness, but sometimes even one who is situated in such an exalted position as King Indra, the king of all the demigods, falls down because of material opulence. We are now actually seeing this in America. The entire American nation has tried to advance in material opulence without striving to produce ideal human beings. The result is that Americans are now regretting the wholesale criminality of American society and are wondering how America has become so lawless and unmanageable. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.5.31), na te viduh svartha-gatim hi visnum: persons who are unenlightened do not know the aim of life, which is to return home, back to Godhead. Therefore, both individually and collectively, they try to enjoy so-called material comforts, and they become addicted to wine and women. The men produced in such a society are less than fourth class. They are the unwanted population known as varna-sankara, and as stated in Bhagavad-gita, an increase of varna-sankara population creates a hellish society. This is the society in which Americans now find themselves.

Fortunately, however, the Hare Krsna movement has come to America, and many fortunate young men are giving serious attention to this movement, which is creating ideal men of first-class character, men who completely refrain from meat-eating, illicit sex, intoxication and gambling. If the American people are serious about curbing the degraded criminal life of their nation, they must take to the Krsna consciousness movement and try to create the kind of human society advised in Bhagavad-gita (catur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah). They must divide their society into first-class men, second-class men, third-class men and fourth-class men. Since they are now creating only men who are less than fourth class, how can they avoid the dangers of a criminal society? Long, long ago, Lord Indra regretted his disrespect to his spiritual master, Brhaspati. Similarly, it is advised that the American people regret their mistaken advancement in civilization. They should take advice from the spiritual master, the representative of Krsna. If they do so, they will be happy, and theirs will be an ideal nation to lead the entire world.

TEXT 13

TEXT

yah paramesthyam dhisanam

adhitisthan na kancana

pratyuttisthed iti bruyur

dharmam te na param viduh

SYNONYMS

yah--anyone who; paramesthyam--royal; dhisanam--throne; adhitisthan--sitting on; na--not; kancana--anyone; pratyuttisthet--should rise before; iti--thus; bruyuh--those who say; dharmam--the codes of religion; te--they; na--not; param--higher; viduh--know.

TRANSLATION

If a person says, "One who is situated on the exalted throne of a king should not stand up to show respect to another king or a brahmana," it is to be understood that he does not know the superior religious principles.

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says in this regard that when a president or king is sitting on his throne, he does not need to show respect to everyone who comes within his assembly, but he must show respect to superiors like his spiritual master, brahmanas and Vaisnavas. There are many examples of how he should act. When Lord Krsna was sitting on His throne and Narada fortunately entered His assembly, even Lord Krsna immediately stood up with His officers and ministers to offer respectful obeisances to Narada. Narada knew that Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Krsna knew that Narada was His devotee, but although Krsna is the Supreme Lord and Narada is the Lord's devotee, the Lord observed the religious etiquette. Since Narada was a brahmacari, a brahmana and an exalted devotee, even Krsna, while acting as a king, offered His respectful obeisances unto Narada. Such is the conduct visible in the Vedic civilization. A civilization in which the people do not know how the representative of Narada and Krsna should be respected, how society should be formed and how one should advance in Krsna consciousness--a society concerned only with manufacturing new cars and new skyscrapers every year and then breaking them to pieces and making new ones--may be technologically advanced, but it is not a human civilization. A human civilization is advanced when its people follow the catur-varnya system, the system of four orders of life. There must be ideal, first-class men to act as advisors, second-class men to act as administrators, third-class men to produce food and protect cows, and fourth-class men who obey the three higher classes of society. One who does not follow the standard system of society should be considered a fifth-class man. A society without Vedic laws and regulations will not be very helpful to humanity. As stated in this verse, dharmam te na param viduh: such a society does not know the aim of life and the highest principle of religion.

TEXT 14

TEXT

tesam kupatha-destrnam

patatam tamasi hy adhah

ye sraddadhyur vacas te vai

majjanty asma-plava iva

SYNONYMS

tesam--of them (the misleaders); ku-patha-destrnam--who show the path of danger; patatam--themselves falling; tamasi--in darkness; hi--indeed; adhah--down; ye--anyone who; sraddadhyuh--place faith in; vacah--the words; te--they; vai--indeed; majjanti--sink; asma-plavah--boats made of stone; iva--like.

TRANSLATION

Leaders who have fallen into ignorance and who mislead people by directing them to the path of destruction [as described in the previous verse] are, in effect, boarding a stone boat, and so too are those who blindly follow them. A stone boat would be unable to float and would sink in the water with its passengers. Similarly, those who mislead people go to hell, and their followers go with them.

PURPORT

As stated in the Vedic literature (Bhag. 11.20.17):

nr-deham adyam sulabham sudurlabham

plavam sukalpam guru-karna-dharam

We, the conditioned souls, have fallen in the ocean of nescience, but the human body fortunately provides us a good opportunity to cross the ocean because the human body is like a very good boat. When directed by a spiritual master acting as the captain, the boat can very easily cross the ocean. Furthermore, the boat is helped across by favorable winds, which are the instructions of Vedic knowledge. If one does not take advantage of all these facilities to cross the ocean of nescience, he is certainly committing suicide.

One who boards a boat made of stone is doomed. To be elevated to the stage of perfection, humanity must first give up false leaders who present boats of stone. All of human society is in such a dangerous position that to be rescued it must abide by the standard instructions of the Vedas. The cream of these instructions appears in the form of Bhagavad-gita. One should not take shelter of any other instructions, for Bhagavad-gita gives direct instructions on how to fulfill the aim of human life. Lord Sri Krsna therefore says, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja: "Give up all other processes of religion and simply surrender to Me." Even if one does not accept Lord Krsna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, His instructions are so exalted and beneficial for humanity that if one follows His instructions one will be saved. Otherwise one will be cheated by unauthorized meditation and gymnastic methods of yoga. Thus one will board a boat of stone. which will sink and drown all its passengers. Unfortunately. although the American people are extremely eager to get out of materialistic chaos, they are sometimes found to patronize the makers of stone boats. That will not help them. They must take the proper boat offered by Krsna in the form of the Krsna consciousness movement. Then they will be easily saved. In this regard Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura comments: asmamayah plavo yesam te yatha majjantam plavam anumajjanti tatheti raja-nity-upadestrsu sva-sabhyesu kopo vyanjitah. If society is guided by political diplomacy, with one nation maneuvering against another, it will certainly sink like a stone boat. political maneuvering and diplomacy will not save human society. People must take to Krsna consciousness to understand the aim of life, to understand God. and to fulfill the human mission.

TEXT 15

TEXT

athaham amaracaryam

agadha-dhisanam dvijam

prasadayisye nisathah

sirsna tac-caranam sprsan

SYNONYMS

atha--therefore; aham--I; amara-acaryam--the spiritual master of the demigods; agadha-dhisanam--whose spiritual knowledge is deep; dvijam--the perfect brahmana; prasadayisye--I shall please; nisathah--without duplicity; sirsna--with my head; tat-caranam--his lotus feet; sprsan--touching.

TRANSLATION

King Indra said: Therefore with great frankness and without duplicity I shall now bow my head at the lotus feet of Brhaspati, the spiritual master of the demigods. Because he is in the mode of goodness, he is fully aware of all knowledge and is the best of the brahmanas. Now I shall touch his lotus feet and offer my obeisances unto him to try to satisfy him.

PURPORT

Coming to his senses, King Indra realized that he was not a very sincere disciple of his spiritual master, Brhaspati. Therefore he decided that henceforward he would be nisatha, nonduplicitous. Nisathah sirsna-tac-caranam sprsan: he decided to touch his head to the feet of his spiritual master. From this example, we should learn this principle enunciated by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura:

yasya prasadad bhagavat-prasado

yasyaprasadan na gatih kuto 'pi

"By the mercy of the spiritual master one is benedicted by the mercy of Krsna. Without the grace of the spiritual master, one cannot make any advancement." A disciple should never be a hypocrite or be unfaithful to his spiritual master. In Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.17.27), the spiritual master is also called acarya. Acaryam mam vijaniyan: the Supreme Personality of Godhead says that one should respect the spiritual master, accepting him as the Lord Himself. Navamanyeta karhicit: one should not disrespect the acarya at any time. Na martya-buddhyasuyeta: one should never think the acarya an ordinary person. Familiarity sometimes breeds contempt, but one should be very careful in one's dealings with the acarya. Agadha-dhisanam dvijam: the acarya is a perfect brahmana and has unlimited intelligence in guiding the activities of his disciple. Therefore Krsna advises in Bhagavad-gita (4.34):

tad viddhi pranipatena

pariprasnena sevaya

upadeksyanti te jnanam

jnaninas tattva-darsinah

"Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized soul can impart knowledge unto you because he has seen the truth." One should fully surrender unto the spiritual master. and with service (sevaya) one should approach him for further spiritual enlightenment.

TEXT 16

TEXT

evam cintayatas tasya

maghono bhagavan grhat

brhaspatir gato 'drstam

gatim adhyatma-mayaya

SYNONYMS

evam--thus; cintayatah--while thinking very seriously; tasya--he; maghonah--Indra; bhagavan--the most powerful; grhat--from his home; brhaspatih--Brhaspati; gatah--went; adrstam--invisible; gatim--to a state; adhyatma--due to being highly elevated in spiritual consciousness; mayaya--by his potency.

TRANSLATION

While Indra, the King of the demigods, thought in this way and repented in his own assembly, Brhaspati, the most powerful spiritual master, understood his mind. Thus he became invisible to Indra and left home, for Brhaspati was spiritually more powerful than King Indra.

TEXT 17

TEXT

guror nadhigatah samjnam

pariksan bhagavan svarat

dhyayan dhiya surair yuktah

sarma nalabhatatmanah

SYNONYMS

guroh--of his spiritual master; na--not; adhigatah--finding; samjnam--trace; pariksan--searching vigorously all around; bhagavan--the most powerful Indra; svarat--independent; dhyayan--meditating; dhiya--by wisdom; suraih--by the demigods; yuktah--surrounded; sarma--peace; na--not; alabhata--obtained; atmanah--of the mind.

TRANSLATION

Although Indra searched vigorously with the assistance of the other demigods, he could not find Brhaspati. Then Indra thought, "Alas, my spiritual master has become dissatisfied with me, and now I have no means of achieving good fortune." Although Indra was surrounded by demigods, he could not find peace of mind.

TEXT 18

TEXT

tac chrutvaivasurah sarva

asrityausanasam matam

devan pratyudyamam cakrur

durmada atatayinah

SYNONYMS

tat srutva--hearing that news; eva--indeed; asurah--the demons; sarve--all; asritya--taking shelter of; ausanasam--of Sukracarya; matam--the instruction; devan--the demigods; pratyudyamam--action against; cakruh--performed; durmadah--not very intelligent; atatayinah--equipped with arms for fighting.

TRANSLATION

Hearing of the pitiable condition of King Indra, the demons, following the instructions of their guru, Sukracarya, equipped themselves with weapons and declared war against the demigods.

TEXT 19

TEXT

tair visrstesubhis tiksnair

nirbhinnangoru-bahavah

brahmanam saranam jagmuh

sahendra nata-kandharah

SYNONYMS

taih--by them (the demons); visrsta--thrown; isubhih--by the arrows; tiksnaih--very sharp; nirbhinna--pierced all over; anga--bodies; uru--thighs; bahavah--and arms; brahmanam--of Lord Brahma; saranam--the shelter; jagmuh--approached; saha-indrah--with King Indra; nata-kandharah--their heads bent downward.

TRANSLATION

The demigods' heads, thighs and arms and the other parts of their bodies were injured by the sharp arrows of the demons. The demigods, headed by Indra, saw no other course than to immediately approach Lord Brahma with bowed heads for shelter and proper instruction.

TEXT 20

TEXT

tams tathabhyarditan viksya

bhagavan atmabhur ajah

krpaya paraya deva

uvaca parisantvayan

SYNONYMS

tan--them (the demigods); tatha--in that way; abhyarditan--afflicted by the weapons of the demons; viksya--seeing; bhagavan--the most powerful; atma-bhuh--Lord Brahma; ajah--who was not born like an ordinary human being; krpaya--out of causeless mercy; paraya--great; devah--Lord Brahma; uvaca--said; parisantvayan--pacifying them.

TRANSLATION

When the most powerful Lord Brahma saw the demigods coming toward him, their bodies gravely injured by the arrows of the demons, he pacified them by his great causeless mercy and spoke as follows.

TEXT 21

TEXT

sri-brahmovaca

aho bata sura-srestha

hy abhadram vah krtam mahat

brahmistham brahmanam dantam

aisvaryan nabhyanandata

SYNONYMS

sri-brahma uvaca--Lord Brahma said; aho--alas; bata--it is very astonishing; sura-sresthah--O best of the demigods; hi--indeed; abhadram--injustice; vah--by you; krtam--done; mahat--great; brahmistham--a person fully obedient to the Supreme Brahman; brahmanam--a brahmana; dantam--who has fully controlled the mind and senses; aisvaryat--because of your material opulence; na--not; abhyanandata--welcomed properly.

TRANSLATION

Lord Brahma said: O best of the demigods, unfortunately, because of madness resulting from your material opulence, you failed to receive Brhaspati properly when he came to your assembly. Because he is aware of the Supreme Brahman and fully in control of his senses, he is the best of the brahmanas. Therefore it is very astonishing that you have acted impudently toward him.

PURPORT

Lord Brahma recognized the brahminical qualifications of Brhaspati, who was the spiritual master of the demigods because of his awareness of the Supreme Brahman. Brhaspati was very much in control of his senses and mind, and therefore he was a most qualified brahmana. Lord Brahma chastised the demigods for not properly respecting this brahmana, who was their guru. Lord Brahma wanted to impress upon the demigods that one's guru should not be disrespected under any circumstances. When Brhaspati entered the assembly of the demigods, they and their king, Indra, took him for granted. Since he came every day, they thought, they did not need to show him special respect. As it is said, familiarity breeds contempt. Being very much displeased, Brhaspati immediately left Indra's palace. Thus all the demigods, headed by Indra, became offenders at the lotus feet of Brhaspati, and Lord Brahma, being aware of this, condemned their neglect. In a song we sing every day, Narottama dasa Thakura says, caksu-dana dila yei, janme janme prabhu sei: the guru gives spiritual insight to the disciple, and therefore the guru should be considered his master, life after life. Under no circumstances should the guru be disrespected, but the demigods, being puffed up by their material possessions, were disrespectful to their guru. Therefore Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.17.27) advises, acaryam mam vijaniyan navamanyeta karhicit. na martya-buddhyasuyeta: the acarya should always be offered respectful obeisances; one should never envy the acarya, considering him an ordinary human being.

TEXT 22

TEXT

tasyayam anayasyasit

parebhyo vah parabhavah

praksinebhyah sva-vairibhyah

samrddhanam ca yat surah

SYNONYMS

tasya--that; ayam--this; anayasya--of your ungrateful activity; asit--was; parebhyah--by others; vah--of all of you; parabhavah--the defeat; praksinebhyah--although they were weak; sva-vairibhyah--by your own enemies, who were previously defeated by you; samrddhanam--being yourselves very opulent; ca--and; yat--which; surah--O demigods.

TRANSLATION

Because of your misbehavior toward Brhaspati, you have been defeated by the demons. My dear demigods, since the demons were weak, having been defeated by you several times, how else could you, who were so advanced in opulence, be defeated by them?

PURPORT

The devas are celebrated for fighting with the asuras perpetually. In such fights the asuras were always defeated, but this time the demigods were defeated. Why? The reason, as stated here, was that they had offended their spiritual master. Their impudent disrespect of their spiritual master was the cause of their defeat by the demons. As stated in the sastras, when one disrespects a respectable superior, one loses his longevity and the results of his pious activities, and in this way one is degraded.

TEXT 23

TEXT

maghavan dvisatah pasya

praksinan gurv-atikramat

sampraty upacitan bhuyah

kavyam aradhya bhaktitah

adadiran nilayanam

mamapi bhrgu-devatah

SYNONYMS

maghavan--O Indra; dvisatah--your enemies; pasya--just see; praksinan--being very weak (formerly); guru-atikramat--because of disrespecting their guru, Sukracarya; samprati--at the present moment; upacitan--powerful; bhuyah--again; kavyam--their spiritual master, Sukracarya; aradhya--worshiping; bhaktitah--with great devotion; adadiran--may take away; nilayanam--the abode, Satyaloka; mama--my; api--even; bhrgu-devatah--who are now strong devotees of Sukracarya, the disciple of Bhrgu.

TRANSLATION

O Indra, your enemies, the demons, were extremely weak because of their disrespect toward Sukracarya, but since they have now worshiped Sukracarya with great devotion, they have again become powerful. By their devotion to Sukracarya, they have increased their strength so much that now they are even able to easily seize my abode from me.

PURPORT

Lord Brahma wanted to point out to the demigods that by the strength of the guru one can become most powerful within this world, and by the displeasure of the guru one can lose everything. This is confirmed by the song of Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura:

yasya prasadad bhagavat-prasado

yasyaprasadan na gatih kuto 'pi

"By the mercy of the spiritual master one is benedicted by the mercy of Krsna. Without the grace of the spiritual master, one cannot make any advancement." Although the demons are insignificant in comparison to Lord Brahma, because of the strength of their guru they were so powerful that they could even seize Brahmaloka from Lord Brahma. We therefore pray to the spiritual master:

mukam karoti vacalam

pangum langhayate girim

yat-krpa tam aham vande

sri-gurum dina-taranam

By the mercy of the guru, even a dumb man can become the greatest orator, and even a lame man can cross mountains. As advised by Lord Brahma, one should remember this sastric injunction if one desires success in his life.

TEXT 24

TEXT

tripistapam kim ganayanty abhedya-

mantra bhrgunam anusiksitarthah

na vipra-govinda-gav-isvaranam

bhavanty abhadrani naresvaranam

SYNONYMS

tri-pista-pam--all the demigods, including Lord Brahma; kim--what; ganayanti--they care for; abhedya-mantrah--whose determination to carry out the orders of the spiritual master is unbreakable; bhrgunam--of the disciples of Bhrgu Muni like Sukracarya; anusiksita-arthah--deciding to follow the instructions; na--not; vipra--the brahmanas; govinda--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna; go--the cows; isvaranam--of persons favoring or considering worshipable; bhavanti--are; abhadrani--any misfortunes; nara-isvaranam--or of kings who follow this principle.

TRANSLATION

Because of their firm determination to follow the instructions of Sukracarya, his disciples, the demons, are now unconcerned about the demigods. In fact, kings or others who have determined faith in the mercy of brahmanas, cows and the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, and who always worship these three are always strong in their position.

PURPORT

From the instructions of Lord Brahma it is understood that everyone should very faithfully worship the brahmanas, the Supreme personality of Godhead and the cows. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is go-brahmana-hitaya ca: He is always very kind to cows and brahmanas. Therefore one who worships Govinda must satisfy Him by worshiping the brahmanas and cows. If a government worships the brahmanas, the cows and Krsna, Govinda, it is never defeated anywhere; otherwise it must always be defeated and condemned everywhere. At the present moment, all over the world, governments have no respect for brahmanas, cows and Govinda, and consequently there are chaotic conditions all over the world. In summary, although the demigods were very powerful in material opulence, the demons defeated them in battle because the demigods had behaved disrespectfully toward a brahmana, Brhaspati, who was their spiritual master.

TEXT 25

TEXT

tad visvarupam bhajatasu vipram

tapasvinam tvastram athatmavantam

sabhajito 'rthan sa vidhasyate vo

yadi ksamisyadhvam utasya karma

SYNONYMS

tat--therefore; visvarupam--Visvarupa; bhajata--just worship as guru; asu--immediately; vipram--who is a perfect brahmana; tapasvinam--undergoing great austerities and penances; tvastram--the son of Tvasta; atha--as well as; atma-vantam--very independent; sabhajitah--being worshiped; arthan--the interests; sah--he; vidhasyate--will execute; vah--of all of you; yadi--if; ksamisyadhvam--you tolerate; uta--indeed; asya--his; karma--activities (to support the Daityas).

TRANSLATION

O demigods, I instruct you to approach Visvarupa, the son of Tvasta, and accept him as your guru. He is a pure and very powerful brahmana undergoing austerity and penances. Pleased by your worship, he will fulfill your desires, provided that you tolerate his being inclined to side with the demons.

PURPORT

Lord Brahma advised the demigods to accept the son of Tvasta as their spiritual master although he was always inclined toward the benefit of the asuras.

TEXT 26

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

ta evam udita rajan

brahmana vigata-jvarah

rsim tvastram upavrajya

parisvajyedam abruvan

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sukadeva Gosvami said; te--all the demigods; evam--thus; uditah--being advised; rajan--O King Pariksit; brahmana--by Lord Brahma; vigata-jvarah--being relieved from the aggrievement caused by the demons; rsim--the great sage; tvastram--to the son of Tvasta; upavrajya--going; parisvajya--embracing; idam--this; abruvan--spoke.

TRANSLATION

Srila Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Thus advised by Lord Brahma and relieved of their anxiety, all the demigods went to the sage Visvarupa, the son of Tvasta. My dear King, they embraced him and spoke as follows.

TEXT 27

TEXT

sri-deva ucuh

vayam te 'tithayah prapta

asramam bhadram astu te

kamah sampadyatam tata

pitrnam samayocitah

SYNONYMS

sri-devah ucuh--the demigods said; vayam--we; te--your; atithayah--guests; praptah--arrived at; asramam--your abode; bhadram--good fortune; astu--let there be; te--unto you; kamah--the desire; sampadyatam--let it be executed; tata--O darling; pitrnam--of us, who are just like your fathers; samayocitah--suitable to the present time.

TRANSLATION

The demigods said: Beloved Visvarupa, may there be all good fortune for you. We, the demigods, have come to your asrama as your guests. Please try to fulfill our desires according to the time, since we are on the level of your parents.

TEXT 28

TEXT

putranam hi paro dharmah

pitr-susrusanam satam

api putravatam brahman

kim uta brahmacarinam

SYNONYMS

putranam--of sons; hi--indeed; parah--superior; dharmah--religious principle; pitr-susrusanam--the service of the parents; satam--good; api--even; putra-vatam--of those who have sons; brahman--O dear brahmana; kim uta--what to speak; brahmacarinam--of brahmacaris.

TRANSLATION

O brahmana, the highest duty of a son, even though he has sons of his own, is to serve his parents, and what to speak of a son who is a brahmacari?

TEXTS 29-30

TEXT

acaryo brahmano murtih

pita murtih prajapateh

bhrata marutpater murtir

mata saksat ksites tanuh

dayaya bhagini murtir

dharmasyatmatithih svayam

agner abhyagato murtih

sarva-bhutani catmanah

SYNONYMS

acaryah--the teacher or spiritual master who instructs Vedic knowledge by his personal behavior; brahmanah--of all the Vedas; murtih--the personification; pita--the father; murtih--the personification; prajapateh--of Lord Brahma; bhrata--the brother; marut-pateh murtih--the personification of Indra; mata--the mother; saksat--directly; ksiteh--of the earth; tanuh--the body; dayayah--of mercy; bhagini--the sister; murtih--the personification; dharmasya--of religious principles; atma--the self; atithih--the guest; svayam--personally; agneh--of the fire-god; abhyagatah--the invited guest; murtih--the personification; sarva-bhutani--all living entities; ca--and; atmanah--of the Supreme Lord Visnu.

TRANSLATION

The acarya, the spiritual master who teaches all the Vedic knowledge and gives initiation by offering the sacred thread, is the personification of all the Vedas. Similarly, a father personifies Lord Brahma; a brother, King Indra; a mother, the planet earth; and a sister, mercy. A guest personifies religious principles, an invited guest personifies the demigod Agni, and all living entities personify Lord Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

PURPORT

According to the moral instructions of Canakya Pandita, atmavat sarva-bhutesu: one should observe all living entities to be on the same level as oneself. This means that no one should be neglected as inferior; because Paramatma is seated in everyone's body, everyone should be respected as a temple of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This verse describes the different ways in which one should respect a guru, a father, a brother, a sister, a guest and so on.

TEXT 31

TEXT

tasmat pitrnam artanam

artim para-parabhavam

tapasapanayams tata

sandesam kartum arhasi

SYNONYMS

tasmat--therefore; pitrnam--of the parents; artanam--who are in distress; artim--the grief; para-parabhavam--being defeated by the enemies; tapasa--by the strength of your austerities; apanayan--taking away; tata--O dear son; sandesam--our desire; kartum arhasi--you deserve to execute.

TRANSLATION

Dear son, we have been defeated by our enemies, and therefore we are very much aggrieved. Please mercifully fulfill our desires by relieving our distress through the strength of your austerities. Please fulfill our prayers.

TEXT 32

TEXT

vrnimahe tvopadhyayam

brahmistham brahmanam gurum

yathanjasa vijesyamah

sapatnams tava tejasa

SYNONYMS

vrnimahe--we choose; tva--you; upadhyayam--as teacher and spiritual master; brahmistham--being perfectly aware of the Supreme Brahman; brahmanam--a qualified brahmana; gurum--the perfect spiritual master; yatha--so that; anjasa--very easily; vijesyamah--we shall defeat; sapatnan--our rivals; tava--your; tejasa--by the power of austerity.

TRANSLATION

Since you are completely aware of the Supreme Brahman, you are a perfect brahmana, and therefore you are the spiritual master of all orders of life. We accept you as our spiritual master and director so that by the power of your austerity we may easily defeat the enemies who have conquered us.

PURPORT

One must approach a particular type of guru to execute a particular type of duty. Therefore although Visvarupa was inferior to the demigods, the demigods accepted him as their guru to conquer the demons.

TEXT 33

TEXT

na garhayanti hy arthesu

yavisthanghry-abhivadanam

chandobhyo 'nyatra na brahman

vayo jyaisthyasya karanam

SYNONYMS

na--not; garhayanti--forbid; hi--indeed; arthesu--in acquiring interests; yavistha-anghri--at the lotus feet of a junior; abhivadanam--offering obeisances; chandobhyah--the Vedic mantras; anyatra--apart from; na--not; brahman--O brahmana; vayah--age; jyaisthyasya--of seniority; karanam--the cause.

TRANSLATION

The demigods continued: Do not fear criticism for being younger than us. Such etiquette does not apply in regard to Vedic mantras. Except in relationship to Vedic mantras, seniority is determined by age, but one may offer respectful obeisances even to a younger person who is advanced in chanting Vedic mantras. Therefore although you are junior in relationship to us, you may become our priest without hesitation.

PURPORT

It is said, vrddhatvam vayasa vina: one may be senior without being advanced in age. Even if one is not old, one gains seniority if he is senior in knowledge. Visvarupa was junior in relationship to the demigods because he was their nephew, but the demigods wanted to accept him as their priest, and therefore he would have to accept obeisances from them. The demigods explained that this should not be a cause for hesitation; he could become their priest because he was advanced in Vedic knowledge. Similarly. Canakya Pandita advises, nicad apy uttamam jnanam: one may accept education from a member of a lower social order. The brahmanas, the members of the most elevated varna, are teachers, but a person in a lower family, such as a family of ksatriyas, vaisyas or even sudras, may be accepted as a teacher if he has knowledge. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu approved of this when He expressed this opinion before Ramananda Raya (Cc. Madhya 8.128):

kiba vipra, kiba nyasi, sudra kene naya

yei krsna-tattva-vetta, sei 'guru' haya

It does not matter whether one is a brahmana, sudra, grhastha or sannyasi. These are all material designations. A spiritually advanced person has nothing to do with such designations. Therefore, if one is advanced in the science of Krsna consciousness, regardless of his position in human society, he may become a spiritual master.

TEXT 34

TEXT

sri-rsir uvaca

abhyarthitah sura-ganaih

paurahitye maha-tapah

sa visvarupas tan aha

prasannah slaksnaya gira

SYNONYMS

sri-rsih uvaca--Sukadeva Gosvami continued to speak; abhyarthitah--being requested; sura-ganaih--by the demigods; paurahitye--in accepting the priesthood; maha-tapah--highly advanced in austerity and penances; sah--he; visvarupah--Visvarupa; tan--to the demigods; aha--spoke; prasannah--being satisfied; slaksnaya--sweet; gira--with words.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: When all the demigods requested the great Visvarupa to be their priest, Visvarupa, who was advanced in austerities, was very pleased. He replied to them as follows.

TEXT 35

TEXT

sri-visvarupa uvaca

vigarhitam dharma-silair

brahmavarca-upavyayam

katham nu mad-vidho natha

lokesair abhiyacitam

pratyakhyasyati tac-chisyah

sa eva svartha ucyate

SYNONYMS

sri-visvarupah uvaca--Sri Visvarupa said; vigarhitam--condemned; dharma-silaih--by persons respectful to the religious principles; brahma-varcah--of brahminical strength or power; upavyayam--causes loss; katham--how; nu--indeed; mat-vidhah--a person like me; nathah--O lords; loka-isaih--by the ruling powers of different planets; abhiyacitam--request; pratyakhyasyati--will refuse; tat-sisyah--who is on the level of their disciple; sah--that; eva--indeed; sva-arthah--real interest; ucyate--is described as.

TRANSLATION

Sri Visvarupa said: O demigods, although the acceptance of priesthood is decried as causing the loss of previously acquired brahminical power, how can someone like me refuse to accept your personal request? You are all exalted commanders of the entire universe. I am your disciple and must take many lessons from you. Therefore I cannot refuse you. I must agree for my own benefit.

PURPORT

The professions of a qualified brahmana are pathana, pathana, yajana, yajana, dana and pratigraha. The words yajana and yajana mean that a brahmana becomes the priest of the populace for the sake of their elevation. One who accepts the post of spiritual master neutralizes the sinful reactions of the yajamana, the one on whose behalf he performs yajna. Thus the results of the pious acts previously performed by the priest or spiritual master are diminished. Therefore priesthood is not accepted by learned brahmanas. Nevertheless, the greatly learned brahmana Visvarupa became the priest of the demigods because of his profound respect for them.

TEXT 36

TEXT

akincananam hi dhanam silonchanam

teneha nirvartita-sadhu-satkriyah

katham vigarhyam nu karomy adhisvarah

paurodhasam hrsyati yena durmatih

SYNONYMS

akincananam--of persons who have taken to austerities and penances to become detached from worldly possessions; hi--certainly; dhanam--the wealth; sila--the collecting of grains left in the field; unchanam--and the collecting of grains left in the wholesale marketplace; tena--by that means; iha--here; nirvartita--accomplishing; sadhu--of the exalted devotees; sat-kriyah--all the pious activities; katham--how; vigarhyam--reproachable; nu--indeed; karomi--I shall execute; adhisvarah--O great governors of the planetary systems; paurodhasam--the duty of priesthood; hrsyati--is pleased; yena--by which; durmatih--one who is less intelligent.

TRANSLATION

O exalted governors of various planets, the true brahmana, who has no material possessions, maintains himself by the profession of accepting silonchana. In other words, he picks up grains left in the field and on the ground in the wholesale marketplace. By this means, householder brahmanas who actually abide by the principles of austerity and penance maintain themselves and their families and perform all necessary pious activities. A brahmana who desires to achieve happiness by gaining wealth through professional priesthood must certainly have a very low mind. How shall I accept such priesthood?

PURPORT

A first-class brahmana does not accept any rewards from his disciples or yajamanas. Practicing austerities and penances, he instead goes to the agricultural field and collects food grains left by the agriculturalists to be collected by brahmanas. Similarly, such brahmanas go to marketplaces where grains are purchased and sold wholesale, and there they collect grains left by the merchants. In this way, such exalted brahmanas maintain their bodies and families. Such priests never demand anything from their disciples to live in opulence, imitating ksatriyas or vaisyas. In other words, a pure brahmana voluntarily accepts a life of poverty and lives in complete dependence on the mercy of the Lord. Not very many years ago, a brahmana in Krsnanagara, near Navadvipa, was offered some help from the local Zamindar, Vraja Krsnacandra. The brahmana refused to accept the help. He said that since he was very happy in his householder life, taking rice given by his disciples and cooking vegetables of tamarind leaves, there was no question of taking help from the Zamindar. The conclusion is that although a brahmana may receive much opulence from his disciples, he should not utilize the rewards of his priesthood for his personal benefit; he must use them for the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TEXT 37

TEXT

tathapi na pratibruyam

gurubhih prarthitam kiyat

bhavatam prarthitam sarvam

pranair arthais ca sadhaye

SYNONYMS

tatha api--still; na--not; pratibruyam--I may refuse; gurubhih--by persons on the level of my spiritual master; prarthitam--request; kiyat--of small value; bhavatam--of all of you; prarthitam--the desire; sarvam--whole; pranaih--by my life; arthaih--by my possessions; ca--also; sadhaye--I shall execute.

TRANSLATION

All of you are my superiors. Therefore although accepting priesthood is sometimes reproachable, I cannot refuse even a small request from you. I agree to be your priest. I shall fulfill your request by dedicating my life and possessions.

TEXT 38

TEXT

sri-badarayanir uvaca

tebhya evam pratisrutya

visvarupo maha-tapah

paurahityam vrtas cakre

paramena samadhina

SYNONYMS

sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; tebhyah--unto them (the demigods); evam--thus; pratisrutya--promising; visvarupah--Visvarupa; maha-tapah--the most exalted personality; paurahityam--the priesthood; vrtah--surrounded by them; cakre--executed; paramena--supreme; samadhina--with attention.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: O King, after making this promise to the demigods, the exalted Visvarupa, surrounded by the demigods, performed the necessary priestly activities with great enthusiasm and attention.

PURPORT

The word samadhina is very important. Samadhi means complete absorption with an undiverted mind. Visvarupa, who was a most learned brahmana, not only accepted the request of the demigods, but took their request seriously and performed the activities of priesthood with an undiverted mind. In other words, he accepted the priesthood not for material gain, but to profit the demigods. Such is the duty of a priest. The word purah means "family," and hita means "benefit." Thus the word purohita indicates that the priest is the well-wisher of the family. Another meaning of the word purah is "first." A priest's first duty is to see that his disciples benefit spiritually and materially by all means. Then he is satisfied. A priest should never be interested in performing Vedic rituals for his personal benefit.

TEXT 39

TEXT

sura-dvisam sriyam guptam

ausanasyapi vidyaya

acchidyadan mahendraya

vaisnavya vidyaya vibhuh

SYNONYMS

sura-dvisam--of the enemies of the demigods; sriyam--the opulence; guptam--protected; ausanasya--of Sukracarya; api--although; vidyaya--by the talents; acchidya--collecting; adat--delivered; maha-indraya--unto King Indra; vaisnavya--of Lord Visnu; vidyaya--by a prayer; vibhuh--the most powerful Visvarupa.

TRANSLATION

The opulence of the demons, who are generally known as the enemies of the demigods, was protected by the talents and tactics of Sukracarya, but Visvarupa, who was most powerful, composed a protective prayer known as the Narayana-kavaca. By this intelligent mantra, he took away the opulence of the demons and gave it to Mahendra, the King of heaven.

PURPORT

The distinction between the demigods (devas) and demons (asuras) is that the demigods are all devotees of Lord Visnu whereas the demons are devotees of demigods like Lord Siva, Goddess Kali and Goddess Durga. Sometimes the demons are also devotees of Lord Brahma. For example, Hiranyakasipu was a devotee of Lord Brahma, Ravana was a devotee of Lord Siva, and Mahisasura was a devotee of Goddess Durga. The demigods are devotees of Lord Visnu (visnu-bhaktah smrto daiva), whereas the demons (asuras tad-viparyayah) are always against the visnu-bhaktas, or Vaisnavas. To oppose the Vaisnavas, the demons become devotees of Lord Siva, Lord Brahma, Kali, Durga, and so on. In the days of yore, many long years ago, there was animosity between the devas and the asuras, and the same spirit still continues, for the devotees of Lord Siva and Goddess Durga are always envious of Vaisnavas, who are devotees of Lord Visnu. This strain between the devotees of Lord Siva and Lord Visnu has always existed. In the higher planetary systems, fights between the demons and the demigods continue for a long, long time.

Herein we see that Visvarupa made for the demigods a protective covering, saturated with a Visnu mantra. Sometimes the Visnu mantra is called Visnu-jvara, and the Siva mantra is called Siva-jvara. We find in the sastras that sometimes the Siva-jvara and Visnu-jvara are employed in the fights between the demons and the demigods.

The word sura-dvisam, which in this verse means "of the enemies of the demigods," also refers to the atheists. Srimad-Bhagavatam elsewhere says that Lord Buddha appeared for the purpose of bewildering the demons or atheists. The Supreme Personality of Godhead always awards His benediction to devotees. The Lord Himself confirms this in Bhagavad-gita (9.31):

kaunteya pratijanihi

na me bhaktah pranasyati

"O son of Kunti, declare it boldly that My devotee never perishes."

TEXT 40

TEXT

yaya guptah sahasrakso

jigye 'sura-camur vibhuh

tam praha sa mahendraya

visvarupa udara-dhih

SYNONYMS

yaya--by which; guptah--protected; sahasra-aksah--the thousand-eyed demigod, Indra; jigye--conquered; asura--of the demons; camuh--military power; vibhuh--becoming very powerful; tam--that; praha--spoke; sah--he; mahendraya--unto the King of heaven, Mahendra; visvarupah--Visvarupa; udara-dhih--very broad-minded.

TRANSLATION

Visvarupa, who was most liberal, spoke to King Indra [Sahasraksa] the secret hymn that protected Indra and conquered the military power of the demons.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to the Sixth Canto, Seventh Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "Indra Offends His Spiritual Master, Brhaspati."

Chapter Eight

The Narayana-kavaca Shield

This chapter describes how Indra, the King of heaven, was victorious over the soldiers of the demons, and it also describes the shield of the Visnu mantra.

To take protection from this shield, one must first touch kusa grass and wash one's mouth with acamana-mantras. One should observe silence and then place the eight-syllable Visnu mantra on the parts of his body and place the twelve-syllable mantra on his hands. The eight-syllable mantra is om namo narayanaya. This mantra should be distributed all over the front and back of the body. The twelve-syllable mantra, which begins with the pranava, omkara, is om namo bhagavate vasudevaya. One syllable should be placed on each of the fingers and should be preceded by the pranava, omkara. Thereafter, one must chant om visnave namah, which is a six-syllable mantra. One must progressively place the syllables of the mantra on the heart, the head, between the two eyebrows, on the sikha and between the eyes, and then one should chant mah astraya phat and with this mantra protect himself from all directions. Nadevo devam arcayet: one who has not risen to the level of a deva cannot chant this mantra. According to this direction of the sastra, one must think himself qualitatively nondifferent from the Supreme.

After finishing this dedication, one must offer a prayer to the eight-armed Lord Visnu, who sits on the shoulders of Garudadeva. One also has to think of the fish incarnation, Vamana, Kurma, Nrsimha, Varaha. Parasurama, Ramacandra (the elder brother of Laksmana). Nara-Narayana, Dattatreya (an empowered incarnation), Kapila, Sanat-kumara, Hayagriva, Naradadeva (the incarnation of a devotee). Dhanvantari, Rsabhadeva, Yajna, Balarama, Vyasadeva, Buddhadeva and Kesava. One should also think of Govinda, the master of Vrndavana. and one should think of Narayana, the master of the spiritual sky. One should think of Madhusudana, Tridhama, Madhava, Hrsikesa, Padmanabha, Janardana, Damodara and Visvesvara, as well as the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna Himself. After offering prayers to the Lord's personal expansions known as the svamsa and saktyavesa-avataras, one should pray to the weapons of Lord Narayana, such as the Sudarsana, gada, sankha, khadga and bow.

After explaining this process, Sukadeva Gosvami told Maharaja Pariksit how Visvarupa, the brother of Vrtrasura, described the glories of the Narayana-kavaca to Indra.

TEXTS 1-2

TEXT

sri-rajovaca

yaya guptah sahasraksah

savahan ripu-sainikan

kridann iva vinirjitya

tri-lokya bubhuje sriyam

bhagavams tan mamakhyahi

varma narayanatmakam

yathatatayinah satrun

yena gupto 'jayan mrdhe

SYNONYMS

sri-raja uvaca--King Pariksit said; yaya--by which (the spiritual armor); guptah--protected; sahasra-aksah--the thousand-eyed King Indra; sa-vahan--with their carriers; ripu-sainikan--the soldiers and commanders of the enemies; kridan iva--just like playing; vinirjitya--conquering; tri-lokyah--of the three worlds (the higher, middle and lower planetary systems); bubhuje--enjoyed; sriyam--the opulence; bhagavan--O great sage; tat--that; mama--unto me; akhyahi--please explain; varma--defensive armor made of a mantra; narayana-atmakam--consisting of the mercy of Narayana; yatha--in which way; atatayinah--who were endeavoring to kill him; satrun--enemies; yena--by which; guptah--being protected; ajayat--conquered; mrdhe--in the fight.

TRANSLATION

King Pariksit inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami: My lord, kindly explain the Visnu mantra armor that protected King Indra and enabled him to conquer his enemies, along with their carriers, and enjoy the opulence of the three worlds. Please explain to me that Narayana armor, by which King Indra achieved success in battle, conquering the enemies who were endeavoring to kill him.

TEXT 3

TEXT

sri-badarayanir uvaca

vrtah purohitas tvastro

mahendrayanuprcchate

narayanakhyam varmaha

tad ihaika-manah srnu

SYNONYMS

sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; vrtah--the chosen; purohitah--priest; tvastrah--the son of Tvasta; mahendraya--unto King Indra; anuprcchate--after he (Indra) inquired; narayana-akhyam--named Narayana-kavaca; varma--defensive armor made of a mantra; aha--he said; tat--that; iha--this; eka-manah--with great attention; srnu--hear from me.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: King Indra, the leader of the demigods, inquired about the armor known as Narayana-kavaca from Visvarupa, who was engaged by the demigods as their priest. Please hear Visvarupa's reply with great attention.

TEXTS 4-6

TEXT

sri-visvarupa uvaca

dhautanghri-panir acamya

sapavitra udan-mukhah

krta-svanga-kara-nyaso

mantrabhyam vag-yatah sucih

narayana-param varma

sannahyed bhaya agate

padayor janunor urvor

udare hrdy athorasi

mukhe sirasy anupurvyad

omkaradini vinyaset

om namo narayanayeti

viparyayam athapi va

SYNONYMS

sri-visvarupah uvaca--Sri Visvarupa said; dhauta--having completely washed; anghri--feet; panih--hands; acamya--performing acamana (sipping a little water three times after chanting the prescribed mantra); sa-pavitrah--wearing rings made of kusa grass (on the ring finger of each hand); udak-mukhah--sitting facing the north; krta--making; sva-anga-kara-nyasah--mental assignment of the eight parts of the body and twelve parts of the hands; mantrabhyam--with the two mantras (om namo bhagavate vasudevaya and om namo narayanaya); vak-yatah--keeping oneself silent; sucih--being purified; narayana-param--fully intent on Lord Narayana; varma--armor; sannahyet-- put on oneself; bhaye--when fear; agate--has come; padayoh--on the two legs; janunoh--on the two knees; urvoh--on the two thighs; udare--on the abdomen; hrdi--on the heart; atha--thus; urasi--on the chest; mukhe--on the mouth; sirasi--on the head; anupurvyat--one after another; omkara-adini--beginning with omkara; vinyaset--one should place; om--the pranava; namah--obeisances; narayanaya-- unto Narayana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; iti--thus; viparyayam--the reverse; atha api--moreover; va--or.

TRANSLATION

Visvarupa said: If some form of fear arrives, one should first wash his hands and legs clean and then perform acamana by chanting this mantra: om apavitrah pavitro va sarvavastham gato 'pi va. yah smaret pundarikaksam sa bahyabhyantarah sucih. sri-visnu sri-visnu sri-visnu. Then one should touch kusa grass and sit gravely and silently, facing north. When completely purified, one should touch the mantra composed of eight syllables to the eight parts of his body and touch the mantra composed of twelve syllables to his hands. Thus, in the following manner, he should bind himself with the Narayana coat of armor. First, while chanting the mantra composed of eight syllables [om namo narayanaya], beginning with the pranava, the syllable om, one should touch his hands to eight parts of his body, starting with the two feet and progressing systematically to the knees, thighs, abdomen, heart, chest, mouth and head. Then one should chant the mantra in reverse, beginning from the last syllable [ya], while touching the parts of his body in the reverse order. These two processes are known as utpatti-nyasa and samhara-nyasa respectively.

TEXT 7

TEXT

kara-nyasam tatah kuryad

dvadasaksara-vidyaya

pranavadi-ya-karantam

anguly-angustha-parvasu

SYNONYMS

kara-nyasam--the ritual known as kara-nyasa, which assigns the syllables of the mantra to the fingers; tatah--thereafter; kuryat--should execute; dvadasa-aksara--composed of twelve syllables; vidyaya--with the mantra; pranava-adi--beginning with the omkara; ya-kara-antam--ending with the syllable ya; anguli--on the fingers, beginning with the index finger; angustha-parvasu--to the joints of the thumbs.

TRANSLATION

Then one should chant the mantra composed of twelve syllables [om namo bhagavate vasudevaya]. Preceding each syllable by the omkara, one should place the syllables of the mantra on the tips of his fingers, beginning with the index finger of the right hand and concluding with the index finger of the left. The four remaining syllables should be placed on the joints of the thumbs.

TEXTS 8-10

TEXT

nyased dhrdaya omkaram

vi-karam anu murdhani

sa-karam tu bhruvor madhye

na-karam sikhaya nyaset

ve-karam netrayor yunjyan

na-karam sarva-sandhisu

ma-karam astram uddisya

mantra-murtir bhaved budhah

savisargam phad-antam tat

sarva-diksu vinirdiset

om visnave nama iti

SYNONYMS

nyaset--should place; hrdaye--on the heart; omkaram--the pranava, omkara; vi-karam--the syllable vi of visnave; anu--thereafter; murdhani--on the top of the head; sa-karam--the syllable sa; tu--and; bhruvoh madhye--between the two eyebrows; na-karam--the syllable na; sikhaya--on the sikha on the head; nyaset--should place; vekaram--the syllable ve; netrayoh--between the two eyes; yunjyat--should be placed; na-karam--the syllable na of the word namah; sarva-sandhisu--on all the joints; ma-karam--the syllable ma of the word namah; astram--a weapon; uddisya--thinking; mantra-murtih--the form of the mantra; bhavet--should become; budhah--an intelligent person; sa-visargam--with the visarga (h); phat-antam--ending with the sound phat; tat--that; sarva-diksu--in all directions; vinirdiset--should fix; om--pranava; visnave--unto Lord Visnu; namah--obeisances; iti--thus.

TRANSLATION

One must then chant the mantra of six syllables [om visnave namah]. One should place the syllable "om" on his heart, the syllable "vi" on the top of his head, the syllable "sa" between his eyebrows, the syllable "na" on his tuft of hair [sikha], and the syllable "ve" between his eyes. The chanter of the mantra should then place the syllable "na" on all the joints of his body and meditate on the syllable "ma" as being a weapon. He should thus become the perfect personification of the mantra. Thereafter, adding visarga to the final syllable "ma," he should chant the mantra "mah astraya phat" in all directions, beginning from the east. In this way, all directions will be bound by the protective armor of the mantra.

TEXT 11

TEXT

atmanam paramam dhyayed

dhyeyam sat-saktibhir yutam

vidya-tejas-tapo-murtim

imam mantram udaharet

SYNONYMS

atmanam--the self; paramam--the supreme; dhyayet--one should meditate on; dhyeyam--worthy to be meditated on; sat-saktibhih--the six opulences; yutam--possessed of; vidya--learning; tejah--influence; tapah--austerity; murtim--personified; imam--this; mantram--mantra; udaharet--should chant.

TRANSLATION

After finishing this chanting, one should think himself qualitatively one with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is full in six opulences and is worthy to be meditated upon. Then one should chant the following protective prayer to Lord Narayana, the Narayana-kavaca.

TEXT 12

TEXT

om harir vidadhyan mama sarva-raksam

nyastanghri-padmah patagendra-prsthe

darari-carmasi-gadesu-capa-

pasan dadhano 'sta-guno 'sta-bahuh

SYNONYMS

om--O Lord; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vidadhyat--may He bestow; mama--my; sarva-raksam--protection from all sides; nyasta--placed; anghri-padmah--whose lotus feet; patagendra-prsthe--on the back of Garuda, the king of all birds; dara--conchshell; ari--disc; carma--shield; asi--sword; gada--club; isu--arrows; capa--bow; pasan--ropes; dadhanah--holding; asta--possessing eight; gunah--perfections; asta--eight; bahuh--arms.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Lord, who sits on the back of the bird Garuda, touching him with His lotus feet, holds eight weapons--the conchshell, disc, shield, sword, club, arrows, bow and ropes. May that Supreme Personality of Godhead protect me at all times with His eight arms. He is all-powerful because He fully possesses the eight mystic powers [anima, laghima, etc.].

PURPORT

Thinking oneself one with the Supreme is called ahangrahopasana. Through ahangrahopasana one does not become God, but he thinks of himself as qualitatively one with the Supreme. Understanding that as a spirit soul he is equal in quality to the supreme soul the way the water of a river is of the same nature as the water of the sea, one should meditate upon the Supreme Lord, as described in this verse, and seek His protection. The living entities are always subordinate to the Supreme. Consequently their duty is to always seek the mercy of the Lord in order to be protected by Him in all circumstances.

TEXT 13

TEXT

jalesu mam raksatu matsya-murtir

yado-ganebhyo varunasya pasat

sthalesu mayavatu-vamano 'vyat

trivikramah khe 'vatu visvarupah

SYNONYMS

jalesu--in the water; mam--me; raksatu--protect; matsya-murtih--the Supreme Lord in the form of a great fish; yadah-ganebhyah--from fierce aquatic animals; varunasya--of the demigod known as Varuna; pasat--from the arresting rope; sthalesu--on the land; maya-vatu--the merciful form of the Lord as a dwarf; vamanah--named Vamanadeva; avyat--may He protect; trivikramah--Trivikrama, whose three gigantic steps took the three worlds from Bali; khe--in the sky; avatu--may the Lord protect; visvarupah--the gigantic universal form.

TRANSLATION

May the Lord, who assumes the body of a great fish, protect me in the water from the fierce animals that are associates of the demigod Varuna. By expanding His illusory energy, the Lord assumed the form of the dwarf Vamana. May Vamana protect me on the land. Since the gigantic form of the Lord, Visvarupa, conquers the three worlds, may He protect me in the sky.

PURPORT

This mantra seeks the protection of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the water, land and sky in His incarnations as the fish, Vamanadeva and the Visvarupa.

TEXT 14

TEXT

durgesv atavy-aji-mukhadisu prabhuh

payan nrsimho 'sura-yuthaparih

vimuncato yasya mahatta-hasam

diso vinedur nyapatams ca garbhah

SYNONYMS

durgesu--in places where travel is very difficult; atavi--in the dense forest; aji-mukha-adisu--on the war front and so on; prabhuh--the Supreme Lord; payat--may He protect; nrsimhah--Lord Nrsimhadeva; asura-yuthapa--of Hiranyakasipu, the leader of the demons; arih--the enemy; vimuncatah--releasing; yasya--of whom; maha-atta-hasam--great and fearful laughing; disah--all the directions; vineduh--resounded through; nyapatan--fell down; ca--and; garbhah--the embryos of the wives of the demons.

TRANSLATION

May Lord Nrsimhadeva, who appeared as the enemy of Hiranyakasipu, protect me in all directions. His loud laughing vibrated in all directions and caused the pregnant wives of the asuras to have miscarriages. May that Lord be kind enough to protect me in difficult places like the forest and battlefront.

TEXT 15

TEXT

raksatv asau madhvani yajna-kalpah

sva-damstrayonnita-dharo varahah

ramo 'dri-kutesv atha vipravase

salaksmano 'vyad bharatagrajo 'sman

SYNONYMS

raksatu--may the Lord protect; asau--that; ma--me; adhvani--on the street; yajna-kalpah--who is ascertained by performance of ritualistic ceremonies; sva-damstraya--by His own tusk; unnita--raising; dharah--the planet earth; varahah--Lord Boar; ramah--Lord Rama; adri-kutesu--on the summits of the mountains; atha--then; vipravase--in foreign countries; sa-laksmanah--with His brother Laksmana; avyat--may He protect; bharata-agrajah--the elder brother of Maharaja Bharata; asman--us.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme indestructible Lord is ascertained through the performance of ritualistic sacrifices and is therefore known as Yajnesvara. In His incarnation as Lord Boar, He raised the planet earth from the water at the bottom of the universe and kept it on His pointed tusks. May that Lord protect me from rogues on the street. May Parasurama protect me on the tops of mountains, and may the elder brother of Bharata, Lord Ramacandra, along with His brother Laksmana, protect me in foreign countries.

PURPORT

There are three Ramas. One Rama is Parasurama (Jamadagnya). another Rama is Lord Ramacandra, and a third Rama is Lord Balarama. In this verse the words ramo'dri-kutesv atha indicate Lord Parasurama. The brother of Bharata Maharaja and Laksmana is Lord Ramacandra.

TEXT 16

TEXT

mam ugra-dharmad akhilat pramadan

narayanah patu naras ca hasat

dattas tv ayogad atha yoga-nathah

payad gunesah kapilah karma-bandhat

SYNONYMS

mam--me; ugra-dharmat--from unnecessary religious principles; akhilat--from all kinds of activities; pramadat--which are enacted in madness; narayanah--Lord Narayana; patu--may He protect; narah ca--and Nara; hasat--from unnecessary pride; dattah--Dattatreya; tu--of course; ayogat--from the path of false yoga; atha--indeed; yoga-nathah--the master of all mystic powers; payat--may He protect; guna-isah--the master of all spiritual qualities; kapilah--Lord Kapila; karma-bandhat--from the bondage of fruitive activities.

TRANSLATION

May Lord Narayana protect me from unnecessarily following false religious systems and falling from my duties due to madness. May the Lord in His appearance as Nara protect me from unnecessary pride. May Lord Dattatreya, the master of all mystic power, protect me from falling while performing bhakti-yoga, and may Lord Kapila, the master of all good qualities, protect me from the material bondage of fruitive activities.

TEXT 17

TEXT

sanat-kumaro 'vatu kamadevad

dhayasirsa mam pathi deva-helanat

devarsi-varyah purusarcanantarat

kurmo harir mam nirayad asesat

SYNONYMS

sanat-kumarah--the great brahmacari named Sanat-kumara; avatu--may he protect; kama-devat--from the hands of Cupid or lusty desire; haya-sirsa--Lord Hayagriva, the incarnation of the Lord whose head is like that of a horse; mam--me; pathi--on the path; deva-helanat--from neglecting to offer respectful obeisances to brahmanas, Vaisnavas and the Supreme Lord; devarsi-varyah--the best of the saintly sages, Narada; purusa-arcana-antarat--from the offenses in worshiping the Deity; kurmah--Lord Kurma, the tortoise; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mam--me; nirayat--from hell; asesat--unlimited.

TRANSLATION

May Sanat-kumara protect me from lusty desires. As I begin some auspicious activity, may Lord Hayagriva protect me from being an offender by neglecting to offer respectful obeisances to the Supreme Lord. May Devarsi Narada protect me from committing offenses in worshiping the Deity, and may Lord Kurma, the tortoise, protect me from falling to the unlimited hellish planets.

PURPORT

Lusty desires are very strong in everyone, and they are the greatest impediment to the discharge of devotional service. Therefore those who are very much influenced by lusty desires are advised to take shelter of Sanat-kumara, the great brahmacari devotee. Narada Muni, who is the guide for arcana, is the author of the Narada-pancaratra, which prescribes the regulative principles for worshiping the Deity. Everyone engaged in Deity worship, whether at home or in the temple, should always seek the mercy of Devarsi Narada in order to avoid the thirty-two offenses while worshiping the Deity. These offenses in Deity worship are mentioned in The Nectar of Devotion.

TEXT 18

TEXT

dhanvantarir bhagavan patv apathyad

dvandvad bhayad rsabho nirjitatma

yajnas ca lokad avataj janantad

balo ganat krodha-vasad ahindrah

SYNONYMS

dhanvantarih--the incarnation Dhanvantari, the physician; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; patu--may He protect me; apathyat--from things injurious to the health, such as meat and intoxicants; dvandvat--from duality; bhayat--from fear; rsabhah--Lord Rsabhadeva; nirjita-atma--who fully controlled his mind and self; yajnah--Yajna; ca--and; lokat--from the defamation of the populace; avatat--may He protect; jana-antat--from dangerous positions created by other people; balah--Lord Balarama; ganat--from the hordes of; krodha-vasat--the angry serpents; ahindrah--Lord Balarama in the form of the serpent Sesa Naga.

TRANSLATION

May the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His incarnation as Dhanvantari relieve me from undesirable eatables and protect me from physical illness. May Lord Rsabhadeva, who conquered His inner and outer senses, protect me from fear produced by the duality of heat and cold. May Yajna protect me from defamation and harm from the populace, and may Lord Balarama as Sesa protect me from envious serpents.

PURPORT

To live within this material world, one must face many dangers, as described herein. For example, undesirable food poses a danger to health, and therefore one must give up such food. The Dhanvantari incarnation can protect us in this regard. Since Lord Visnu is the Supersoul of all living entities, if He likes He can save us from adhibhautika disturbances, disturbances from other living entities. Lord Balarama is the Sesa incarnation, and therefore He can save us from angry serpents or envious persons, who are always ready to attack.

TEXT 19

TEXT

dvaipayano bhagavan aprabodhad

buddhas tu pasanda-gana-pramadat

kalkih kaleh kala-malat prapatu

dharmavanayoru-krtavatarah

SYNONYMS

dvaipayanah--Srila Vyasadeva, the giver of all Vedic knowledge; bhagavan--the most powerful incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; aprabodhat--from ignorance of the sastra; buddhah tu--also Lord Buddha; pasanda-gana--of atheists creating disillusionment for innocent persons; pramadat--from the madness; kalkih--Lord Kalki, the incarnation of Kesava; kaleh--of this Kali-yuga; kala-malat--from the darkness of the age; prapatu--may He protect; dharma-avanaya--for the protection of religious principles; uru--very great; krta-avatarah--who took an incarnation.

TRANSLATION

May the Personality of Godhead in His incarnation as Vyasadeva protect me from all kinds of ignorance resulting from the absence of Vedic knowledge. May Lord Buddhadeva protect me from activities opposed to Vedic principles and from laziness that causes one to madly forget the Vedic principles of knowledge and ritualistic action. May Kalkideva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appeared as an incarnation to protect religious principles, protect me from the dirt of the age of Kali.

PURPORT

This verse mentions various incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead who appear for various purposes. Srila Vyasadeva, Mahamuni, compiled the Vedic literature for the benefit of all human society. If one wants to be protected from the reactions of ignorance even in this age of Kali, one may consult the books left by Srila Vyasadeva, Upanisads, Vedanta-sutra (Brahma-sutra), Mahabharata, Srimad-Bhagavatam Maha-purana (Vyasadeva's commentary on the Brahma-sutra) and the other seventeen Puranas. Only by the mercy of Srila Vyasadeva do we have so many volumes of transcendental knowledge to save us from the clutches of ignorance.

As described by Srila Jayadeva Gosvami in his Dasavatara-stotra, Lord Buddha apparently decried the Vedic knowledge:

nindasi yajna-vidher ahaha sruti-jatam

sadaya-hrdaya-darsita-pasu-ghatam

kesava dhrta-buddha-sarira jaya jagad-isa hare

The mission of Lord Buddha was to save people from the abominable activity of animal killing and to save the poor animals from being unnecessarily killed. When pasandis were cheating by killing animals on the plea of sacrificing them in Vedic yajnas, the Lord said, "If the Vedic injunctions allow animal killing, I do not accept the Vedic principles." Thus he actually saved people who acted according to Vedic principles. One should therefore surrender to Lord Buddha so that he can help one avoid misusing the injunctions of the Vedas.

The Kalki avatara is the fierce incarnation who vanquishes the class of the atheists born in this age of Kali. Now, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, many irreligious principles are in effect, and as Kali-yuga advances, many pseudo religious principles will certainly be introduced, and people will forget the real religious principles enunciated by Lord Krsna before the beginning of Kali-yuga, namely principles of surrender unto the lotus feet of the Lord. Unfortunately, because of Kali-yuga, foolish people do not surrender to the lotus feet of Krsna. Even most people who claim to belong to the Vedic system of religion are actually opposed to the Vedic principles. Every day they manufacture a new type of dharma on the plea that whatever one manufactures is also a path of liberation. Atheistic men generally say, yata mata tata patha. According to this view, there are hundreds and thousands of different opinions in human society, and each opinion is a valid religious principle. This philosophy of rascals has killed the religious principles mentioned in the Vedas, and such philosophies will become increasingly influential as Kali-yuga progresses. In the last stage of Kali-yuga, Kalkideva, the fierce incarnation of Kesava, will descend to kill all the atheists and will save only the devotees of the Lord.

TEXT 20

TEXT

mam kesavo gadaya pratar avyad

govinda asangavam atta-venuh

narayanah prahna udatta-saktir

madhyan-dine visnur arindra-panih

SYNONYMS

mam--me; kesavah--Lord Kesava; gadaya--by His club; pratah--in the morning hours; avyat--may He protect; govindah--Lord Govinda; asangavam--during the second part of the day; atta-venuh--holding His flute; narayanah--Lord Narayana with four hands; prahnah--during the third part of the day; udatta-saktih--controlling different types of potencies; madhyam-dine--during the fourth part of the day; visnuh--Lord Visnu; arindra-panih--bearing the disc in His hand to kill the enemies.

TRANSLATION

May Lord Kesava protect me with His club in the first portion of the day, and may Govinda, who is always engaged in playing His flute, protect me in the second portion of the day. May Lord Narayana, who is equipped with all potencies, protect me in the third part of the day, and may Lord Visnu, who carries a disc to kill His enemies, protect me in the fourth part of the day.

PURPORT

According to Vedic astronomical calculations, day and night are each divided into thirty ghatikas (twenty-four minutes), instead of twelve hours. Generally, each day and each night is divided into six parts consisting of five ghatikas. In each of these six portions of the day and night, the Lord may be addressed for protection according to different names. Lord Kesava, the proprietor of the holy place of Mathura, is the Lord of the first portion of the day, and Govinda, the Lord of Vrndavana. is the master of the second portion.

TEXT 21

TEXT

devo 'parahne madhu-hogradhanva

sayam tri-dhamavatu madhavo mam

dose hrsikesa utardha-ratre

nisitha eko 'vatu padmanabhah

SYNONYMS

devah--the Lord; aparahne--in the fifth part of the day; madhu-ha--named Madhusudana; ugra-dhanva--bearing the very fearful bow known as Sarnga; sayam--the sixth part of the day; tri-dhama--manifesting as the three deities Brahma, Visnu and Mahesvara; avatu--may He protect; madhavah--named Madhava; mam--me; dose--during the first portion of the night; hrsikesah--Lord Hrsikesa; uta--also; ardha-ratre--during the second part of the night; nisithe--during the third part of the night; ekah--alone; avatu--may He protect; padmanabhah--Lord Padmanabha.

TRANSLATION

May Lord Madhusudana, who carries a bow very fearful for the demons, protect me during the fifth part of the day. In the evening, may Lord Madhava, appearing as Brahma, Visnu and Mahesvara, protect me, and in the beginning of night may Lord Hrsikesa protect me. At the dead of night [in the second and third parts of night] may Lord Padmanabha alone protect me.

TEXT 22

TEXT

srivatsa-dhamapara-ratra isah

pratyusa iso 'si-dharo janardanah

damodaro 'vyad anusandhyam prabhate

visvesvaro bhagavan kala-murtih

SYNONYMS

srivatsa-dhama--the Lord, on whose chest the mark of Srivatsa is resting; apara-ratre--in the fourth part of the night; isah--the Supreme Lord; pratyuse--in the end of the night; isah--the Supreme Lord; asi-dharah--carrying a sword in the hand; janardanah--Lord Janardana; damodarah--Lord Damodara; avyat--may He protect; anusandhyam--during each junction or twilight; prabhate--in the early morning (the sixth part of the night); visva-isvarah--the Lord of the whole universe; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kala-murtih--the personification of time.

TRANSLATION

May the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who bears the Srivatsa on His chest, protect me after midnight until the sky becomes pinkish. May Lord Janardana, who carries a sword in His hand, protect me at the end of night [during the last four ghatikas of night]. May Lord Damodara protect me in the early morning, and may Lord Visvesvara protect me during the junctions of day and night.

TEXT 23

TEXT

cakram yugantanala-tigma-nemi

bhramat samantad bhagavat-prayuktam

dandagdhi dandagdhy ari-sainyam asu

kaksam yatha vata-sakho hutasah

SYNONYMS

cakram--the disc of the Lord; yuga-anta--at the end of the millennium; anala--like the fire of devastation; tigma-nemi--with a sharp rim; bhramat--wandering; samantat--on all sides; bhagavat-prayuktam--being engaged by the Lord; dandagdhi dandagdhi--please burn completely, please burn completely; ari-sainyam--the army of our enemies; asu--immediately; kaksam--dry grass; yatha--like; vata-sakhah--the friend of the wind; hutasah--blazing fire.

TRANSLATION

Set into motion by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and wandering in all the four directions, the disc of the Supreme Lord has sharp edges as destructive as the fire of devastation at the end of the millennium. As a blazing fire burns dry grass to ashes with the assistance of the breeze, may that Sudarsana cakra burn our enemies to ashes.

TEXT 24

TEXT

gade 'sani-sparsana-visphulinge

nispindhi nispindhy ajita-priyasi

kusmanda-vainayaka-yaksa-rakso-

bhuta-grahams curnaya curnayarin

SYNONYMS

gade--O club in the hands of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; asani--like thunderbolts; sparsana--whose touch; visphulinge--giving off sparks of fire; nispindhi nispindhi--pound to pieces, pound to pieces; ajita-priya--very dear to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; asi--you are; kusmanda--imps named Kusmandas; vainayaka--ghosts named Vainayakas; yaksa--ghosts named Yaksas; raksah--ghosts named Raksasas; bhuta--ghosts named Bhutas; grahan--and evil demons named Grahas; curnaya--pulverize; curnaya--pulverize; arin--my enemies.

TRANSLATION

O club in the hand of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, you produce sparks of fire as powerful as thunderbolts, and you are extremely dear to the Lord. I am also His servant. Therefore kindly help me pound to pieces the evil living beings known as Kusmandas, Vainayakas, Yaksas, Raksasas, Bhutas and Grahas. Please pulverize them.

TEXT 25

TEXT

tvam yatudhana-pramatha-preta-matr-

pisaca-vipragraha-ghora-drstin

darendra vidravaya krsna-purito

bhima-svano 'rer hrdayani kampayan

SYNONYMS

tvam--you; yatudhana--Raksasas; pramatha--Pramathas; preta--Pretas; matr--Matas; pisaca--Pisacas; vipra-graha--brahmana ghosts; ghora-drstin--who have very fearful eyes; darendra--O Pancajanya, the conchshell in the hands of the Lord; vidravaya--drive away; krsna-puritah--being filled with air from the mouth of Krsna; bhima-svanah--sounding extremely fearful; areh--of the enemy; hrdayani--the cores of the hearts; kampayan--causing to tremble.

TRANSLATION

O best of conchshells, O Pancajanya in the hands of the Lord, you are always filled with the breath of Lord Krsna. Therefore you create a fearful sound vibration that causes trembling in the hearts of enemies like the Raksasas, pramatha ghosts, Pretas, Matas, Pisacas and brahmana ghosts with fearful eyes.

TEXT 26

TEXT

tvam tigma-dharasi-varari-sainyam

isa-prayukto mama chindhi chindhi

caksumsi carman chata-candra chadaya

dvisam aghonam hara papa-caksusam

SYNONYMS

tvam--you; tigma-dhara-asi-vara--O best of swords possessing very sharp blades; ari-sainyam--the soldiers of the enemy; isa-prayuktah--being engaged by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mama--my; chindhi chindhi--chop to pieces, chop to pieces; caksumsi--the eyes; carman--O shield; sata-candra--possessing brilliant circles like a hundred moons; chadaya--please cover; dvisam--of those who are envious of me; aghonam--who are completely sinful; hara--please take away; papa-caksusam--of those whose eyes are very sinful.

TRANSLATION

O king of sharp-edged swords, you are engaged by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Please cut the soldiers of my enemies to pieces. Please cut them to pieces! O shield marked with a hundred brilliant moonlike circles, please cover the eyes of the sinful enemies. Pluck out their sinful eyes.

TEXTS 27-28

TEXT

yan no bhayam grahebhyo 'bhut

ketubhyo nrbhya eva ca

sarisrpebhyo damstribhyo

bhutebhyo 'mhobhya eva ca

sarvany etani bhagavan-

nama-rupanukirtanat

prayantu sanksayam sadyo

ye nah sreyah-pratipakah

SYNONYMS

yat--which; nah--our; bhayam--fear; grahebhyah--from the Graha demons; abhut--was; ketubhyah--from meteors, or falling stars; nrbhyah--from envious human beings; eva ca--also; sarisrpebhyah--from snakes or scorpions; damstribhyah--from animals with fierce teeth like tigers, wolves and boars; bhutebhyah--from ghosts or the material elements (earth, water, fire, etc.); amhobhyah--from sinful activities; eva ca--as well as; sarvani etani--all these; bhagavat-nama-rupa-anukirtanat--by glorifying the transcendental form, name, attributes and paraphernalia of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prayantu--let them go; sanksayam--to complete destruction; sadyah--immediately; ye--which; nah--our; sreyah-pratipakah--hindrances to well-being.

TRANSLATION

May the glorification of the transcendental name, form, qualities and paraphernalia of the Supreme Personality of Godhead protect us from the influence of bad planets, meteors, envious human beings, serpents, scorpions, and animals like tigers and wolves. May it protect us from ghosts and the material elements like earth, water, fire and air, and may it also protect us from lightning and our past sins. We are always afraid of these hindrances to our auspicious life. Therefore, may they all be completely destroyed by the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.

TEXT 29

TEXT

garudo bhagavan stotra-

stobhas chandomayah prabhuh

raksatv asesa-krcchrebhyo

visvaksenah sva-namabhih

SYNONYMS

garudah--His Holiness Garuda, the carrier of Lord Visnu; bhagavan--as powerful as the Supreme Personality of Godhead; stotra-stobhah--who is glorified by selected verses and songs; chandah-mayah--the personified Vedas; prabhuh--the lord; raksatu--may He protect; asesa-krcchrebhyah--from unlimited miseries; visvaksenah--Lord Visvaksena; sva-namabhih--by His holy names.

TRANSLATION

Lord Garuda, the carrier of Lord Visnu, is the most worshipable lord, for he is as powerful as the Supreme Lord Himself. He is the personified Vedas and is worshiped by selected verses. May he protect us from all dangerous conditions, and may Lord Visvaksena, the Personality of Godhead, also protect us from all dangers by His holy names.

TEXT 30

TEXT

sarvapadbhyo harer nama-

rupa-yanayudhani nah

buddhindriya-manah-pranan

pantu parsada-bhusanah

SYNONYMS

sarva-apadbhyah--from all kinds of danger; hareh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nama--the holy name; rupa--the transcendental form; yana--the carriers; ayudhani--and all the weapons; nah--our; buddhi--intelligence; indriya--senses; manah--mind; pranan--life air; pantu--may they protect and maintain; parsada-bhusanah--the decorations who are personal associates.

TRANSLATION

May the Supreme Personality of Godhead's holy names, His transcendental forms, His carriers and all the weapons decorating Him as personal associates protect our intelligence, senses, mind and life air from all dangers.

PURPORT

There are various associates of the transcendental Personality of Godhead, and His weapons and carrier are among them. In the spiritual world, nothing is material. The sword, bow, club, disc and everything decorating the personal body of the Lord are spiritual living force. Therefore the Lord is called advaya jnana, indicating that there is no difference between Him and His names, forms, qualities, weapons and so on. Anything pertaining to Him is in the same category of spiritual existence. They are all engaged in the service of the Lord in varieties of spiritual forms.

TEXT 31

TEXT

yatha hi bhagavan eva

vastutah sad asac ca yat

satyenanena nah sarve

yantu nasam upadravah

SYNONYMS

yatha--just as; hi--indeed; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva--undoubtedly; vastutah--at the ultimate issue; sat--manifested; asat--unmanifested; ca--and; yat--whatever; satyena--by the truth; anena--this; nah--our; sarve--all; yantu--let them go; nasam--to annihilation; upadravah--disturbances.

TRANSLATION

The subtle and gross cosmic manifestation is material, but nevertheless it is nondifferent from the Supreme Personality of Godhead because He is ultimately the cause of all causes. Cause and effect are factually one because the cause is present in the effect. Therefore the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, can destroy all our dangers by any of His potent parts.

TEXTS 32-33

TEXT

yathaikatmyanubhavanam

vikalpa-rahitah svayam

bhusanayudha-lingakhya

dhatte saktih sva-mayaya

tenaiva satya-manena

sarva-jno bhagavan harih

patu sarvaih svarupair nah

sada sarvatra sarva-gah

SYNONYMS

yatha--just as; aikatmya--in terms of oneness manifested in varieties; anubhavanam--of those thinking; vikalpa-rahitah--the absence of difference; svayam--Himself; bhusana--decorations; ayudha--weapons; linga-akhyah--characteristics and different names; dhatte--possesses; saktih--potencies like wealth, influence, power, knowledge, beauty and renunciation; sva-mayaya--by expanding His spiritual energy; tena eva--by that; satya-manena--true understanding; sarva-jnah--omniscient; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; harih--who can take away all the illusion of the living entities; patu--may He protect; sarvaih--with all; sva-rupaih--His forms; nah--us; sada--always; sarvatra--everywhere; sarva-gah--who is all-pervasive.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the living entities, the material energy, the spiritual energy and the entire creation are all individual substances. In the ultimate analysis, however, together they constitute the supreme one, the Personality of Godhead. Therefore those who are advanced in spiritual knowledge see unity in diversity. For such advanced persons, the Lord's bodily decorations, His name, His fame, His attributes and forms and the weapons in His hand are manifestations of the strength of His potency. According to their elevated spiritual understanding, the omniscient Lord, who manifests various forms, is present everywhere. May He always protect us everywhere from all calamities.

PURPORT

A person highly elevated in spiritual knowledge knows that nothing exists but the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (9.4) where Lord Krsna says, maya tatam idam sarvam, indicating that everything we see is an expansion of His energy. This is confirmed in the Visnu Purana (1.22.52):

ekadesa-sthitasyagner

jyotsna vistarini yatha

parasya brahmanah saktis

tathedam akhilam jagat

As a fire, although existing in one place, can expand its light and heat everywhere, so the omnipotent Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, although situated in His spiritual abode, expands Himself everywhere, in both the material and spiritual worlds, by His various energies. Since both cause and effect are the Supreme Lord, there is no difference between cause and effect. Consequently the ornaments and weapons of the Lord, being expansions of His spiritual energy, are not different from Him. There is no difference between the Lord and His variously presented energies. This is also confirmed in the Padma Purana:

nama cintamanih krsnas

caitanya-rasa-vigrahah

purnah suddho nitya-mukto

'bhinnatvan nama-naminoh

The holy name of the Lord is fully identical with the Lord, not partially. The word purna means "complete." The Lord is omnipotent and omniscient, and similarly, His name, form, qualities, paraphernalia and everything pertaining to Him are complete, pure, eternal and free from material contamination. The prayer to the ornaments and carriers of the Lord is not false, for they are as good as the Lord. Since the Lord is all-pervasive, He exists in everything, and everything exists in Him. Therefore even worship of the Lord's weapons or ornaments has the same potency as worship of the Lord. Mayavadis refuse to accept the form of the Lord, or they say that the form of the Lord is maya, or false, but one should note very carefully that this is not acceptable. Although the Lord's original form and His impersonal expansion are one, the Lord maintains His form, qualities and abode eternally. Therefore this prayer says, patu sarvaih svarupair nah sada sarvatra sama-gah: "May the Lord, who is all-pervasive in His various forms, protect us everywhere." The Lord is always present everywhere by His name, form, qualities, attributes and paraphernalia, and they all have equal power to protect the devotees. Srila Madhvacarya explains this as follows:

eka eva paro visnur

bhusaheti dhvajesv ajah

tat-tac-chakti-pradatvena

svayam eva vyavasthitah

satyenanena mam devah

patu sarvesvaro harih

TEXT 34

TEXT

vidiksu diksurdhvam adhah samantad

antar bahir bhagavan narasimhah

prahapayal loka-bhayam svanena

sva-tejasa grasta-samasta-tejah

SYNONYMS

vidiksu--in all corners; diksu--in all directions (east, west, north and south); urdhvam--above; adhah--below; samantat--on all sides; antah--internally; bahih--externally; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; narasimhah--in the form of Nrsimhadeva (half-lion and half-man); prahapayan--completely destroying; loka-bhayam--fear created by animals, poison, weapons, water, air, fire and so on; svanena--by His roar or the vibration of His name by His devotee Prahlada Maharaja; sva-tejasa--by His personal effulgence; grasta--covered; samasta--all other; tejah--influences.

TRANSLATION

Prahlada Maharaja loudly chanted the holy name of Lord Nrsimhadeva. May Lord Nrsimhadeva, roaring for His devotee Prahlada Maharaja, protect us from all fear of dangers created by stalwart leaders in all directions through poison, weapons, water, fire, air and so on. May the Lord cover their influence by His own transcendental influence. May Nrsimhadeva protect us in all directions and in all corners, above, below, within and without.

TEXT 35

TEXT

maghavann idam akhyatam

varma narayanatmakam

vijesyase 'njasa yena

damsito 'sura-yuthapan

SYNONYMS

maghavan--O King Indra; idam--this; akhyatam--described; varma--mystic armor; narayana-atmakam--related to Narayana; vijesyase--you will conquer; anjasa--very easily; yena--by which; damsitah--being protected; asura-yuthapan--the chief leaders of the demons.

TRANSLATION

Visvarupa continued: O Indra, this mystic armor related to Lord Narayana has been described by me to you. By putting on this protective covering, you will certainly be able to conquer the leaders of the demons.

TEXT 36

TEXT

etad dharayamanas tu

yam yam pasyati caksusa

pada va samsprset sadyah

sadhvasat sa vimucyate

SYNONYMS

etat--this; dharayamanah--a person employing; tu--but; yam yam--whomever; pasyati--he sees; caksusa--by his eyes; pada--by his feet; va--or; samsprset--may touch; sadyah--immediately; sadhvasat--from all fear; sah--he; vimucyate--is freed.

TRANSLATION

If one employs this armor, whomever he sees with his eyes or touches with his feet is immediately freed from all the above-mentioned dangers.

TEXT 37

TEXT

na kutascid bhayam tasya

vidyam dharayato bhavet

raja-dasyu-grahadibhyo

vyadhy-adibhyas ca karhicit

SYNONYMS

na--not; kutascit--from anywhere; bhayam--fear; tasya--of him; vidyam--this mystical prayer; dharayatah--employing; bhavet--may appear; raja--from the government; dasyu--from rogues and thieves; graha-adibhyah--from demons and so on; vyadhi-adibhyah--from diseases and so on; ca--also; karhicit--at any time.

TRANSLATION

This prayer, Narayana-kavaca, constitutes subtle knowledge transcendentally connected with Narayana. One who employs this prayer is never disturbed or put in danger by the government, by plunderers, by evil demons or by any type of disease.

TEXT 38

TEXT

imam vidyam pura kascit

kausiko dharayan dvijah

yoga-dharanaya svangam

jahau sa maru-dhanvani

SYNONYMS

imam--this; vidyam--prayer; pura--formerly; kascit--someone; kausikah--Kausika; dharayan--using; dvijah--a brahmana; yoga-dharanaya--by mystic power; sva-angam--his own body; jahau--gave up; sah--he; maru-dhanvani--in the desert.

TRANSLATION

O King of heaven, a brahmana named Kausika formerly used this armor when he purposely gave up his body in the desert by mystic power.

TEXT 39

TEXT

tasyopari vimanena

gandharva-patir ekada

yayau citrarathah stribhir

vrto yatra dvija-ksayah

SYNONYMS

tasya--his dead body; upari--above; vimanena--by airplane; gandharva-patih--the King of Gandharvaloka, Citraratha; ekada--once upon a time; yayau--went; citrarathah--Citraratha; stribhih--by many beautiful women; vrtah--surrounded; yatra--where; dvija-ksayah--the brahmana Kausika had died.

TRANSLATION

Surrounded by many beautiful women, Citraratha, the King of Gandharvaloka, was once passing in his airplane over the brahmana's body at the spot where the brahmana had died.

TEXT 40

TEXT

gaganan nyapatat sadyah

savimano hy avak-sirah

sa valikhilya-vacanad

asthiny adaya vismitah

prasya praci-sarasvatyam

snatva dhama svam anvagat

SYNONYMS

gaganat--from the sky; nyapatat--fell; sadyah--suddenly; sa-vimanah--with his airplane; hi--certainly; avak-sirah--with his head downward; sah--he; valikhilya--of the great sages named the Valikhilyas; vacanat--by the instructions; asthini--all the bones; adaya--taking; vismitah--struck with wonder; prasya--throwing; praci-sarasvatyam--in the River Sarasvati, which flows to the east; snatva--bathing in that river; dhama--to the abode; svam--his own; anvagat--returned.

TRANSLATION

Suddenly Citraratha was forced to fall from the sky headfirst with his airplane. Struck with wonder, he was ordered by the great sages named the Valikhilyas to throw the brahmana's bones in the nearby River Sarasvati. He had to do this and bathe in the river before returning to his own abode.

TEXT 41

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

ya idam srnuyat kale

yo dharayati cadrtah

tam namasyanti bhutani

mucyate sarvato bhayat

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; yah--anyone who; idam--this; srnuyat--may hear; kale--at a time of fear; yah--anyone who; dharayati--employs this prayer; ca--also; adrtah--with faith and adoration; tam--unto him; namasyanti--offer respectful obeisances; bhutani--all living beings; mucyate--is released; sarvatah--from all; bhayat--fearful conditions.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: My dear Maharaja Pariksit, one who employs this armor or hears about it with faith and veneration when afraid because of any conditions in the material world is immediately freed from all dangers and is worshiped by all living entities.

TEXT 42

TEXT

etam vidyam adhigato

visvarupac chatakratuh

trailokya-laksmim bubhuje

vinirjitya mrdhe 'suran

SYNONYMS

etam--this; vidyam--prayer; adhigatah--received; visvarupat--from the brahmana Visvarupa; sata-kratuh--Indra, the King of heaven; trailokya-laksmim--all the opulence of the three worlds; bubhuje--enjoyed; vinirjitya--conquering; mrdhe--in battle; asuran--all the demons.

TRANSLATION

King Indra, who performed one hundred sacrifices, received this prayer of protection from Visvarupa. After conquering the demons, he enjoyed all the opulences of the three worlds.

PURPORT

This mystical mantric armor given by Visvarupa to Indra, the King of heaven, acted powerfully, with the effect that Indra was able to conquer the asuras and enjoy the opulence of the three worlds without impediments. In this regard, Madhvacarya points out:

vidyah karmani ca sada

guroh praptah phala-pradah

anyatha naiva phaladah

prasannoktah phala-pradah

One must receive all kinds of mantras from a bona fide spiritual master; otherwise the mantras will not be fruitful. This is also indicated in Bhagavad-gita (4.34):

tad viddhi pranipatena

pariprasnena sevaya

upadeksyanti te jnanam

jnaninas tattva-darsinah

"Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized soul can impart knowledge unto you because he has seen the truth." All mantras should be received through the authorized guru, and the disciple must satisfy the guru in all respects, after surrendering at his lotus feet. In the Padma Purana it is also said, sampradaya-vihina ye mantras te nisphala matah. There are four sampradayas, or disciplic successions, namely the Brahma-sampradaya, the Rudra-sampradaya, the Sri sampradaya and the Kumara-sampradaya. If one wants to advance in spiritual power, one must receive his mantras from one of these bona fide sampradayas; otherwise he will never successfully advance in spiritual life.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Eighth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Narayana-kavaca Shield."

Chapter Nine

Appearance of the Demon Vrtrasura

As described in this chapter, Indra, the King of heaven, killed Visvarupa, and therefore Visvarupa's father performed a yajna to kill Indra. When Vrtrasura appeared from that yajna, the demigods, in fear, sought shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and glorified Him.

Because of affection for the demons, Visvarupa secretly supplied them the remnants of yajna. When Indra learned about this, he beheaded Visvarupa, but he later regretted killing Visvarupa because Visvarupa was a brahmana. Although competent to neutralize the sinful reactions for killing a brahmana, Indra did not do so. Instead he accepted the reactions. Later, he distributed these reactions among the land, water, trees and women in general. Since the land accepted one fourth of the sinful reactions, a portion of the land turned into desert. The trees were also given one fourth of the sinful reactions, and therefore they drip sap, which is prohibited for drinking. Because women accepted one fourth of the sinful reactions, they are untouchable during their menstrual period. Since water was also infested with sinful reactions, when bubbles appear in water it cannot be used for any purpose.

After Visvarupa was killed, his father, Tvasta, performed a sacrifice to kill King Indra. Unfortunately, if mantras are chanted irregularly, they yield an opposite result. This happened when Tvasta performed this yajna. While performing the sacrifice to kill Indra. Tvasta chanted a mantra to increase Indra's enemies, but because he chanted the mantra wrong, the sacrifice produced an asura named Vrtrasura, of whom Indra was the enemy. When Vrtrasura was generated from the sacrifice, his fierce features made the whole world afraid, and his personal effulgence diminished even the power of the demigods. Finding no other means of protection, the demigods began to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the enjoyer of all the results of sacrifice, who is supreme throughout the entire universe. The demigods all worshiped Him because ultimately no one but Him can protect a living entity from fear and danger. Seeking shelter of a demigod instead of worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead is compared to trying to cross the ocean by grasping the tail of a dog. A dog can swim, but that does not mean that one can cross the ocean by grasping a dog's tail.

Being pleased with the demigods, the Supreme Personality of Godhead advised them to approach Dadhici to beg him for the bones of his own body. Dadhici would comply with the request of the demigods, and with the help of his bones Vrtrasura could be killed.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

tasyasan visvarupasya

siramsi trini bharata

soma-pitham sura-pitham

annadam iti susruma

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; tasya--of him; asan--there were; visvarupasya--of Visvarupa, the priest of the demigods; siramsi--heads; trini--three; bharata--O Maharaja Pariksit; soma-pitham--used for drinking the beverage soma; sura-pitham--used for drinking wine; anna-adam--used for eating; iti--thus; susruma--I have heard by the parampara system.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Visvarupa, who was engaged as the priest of the demigods, had three heads. He used one to drink the beverage soma-rasa, another to drink wine and the third to eat food. O King Pariksit, thus I have heard from authorities.

PURPORT

One cannot directly perceive the kingdom of heaven, its king and other inhabitants, or how they perform their various engagements, for no one can go to the heavenly planets. Although modern scientists have invented many powerful space vehicles, they cannot even go to the moon, not to speak of other planets. By direct experience one cannot learn anything beyond the range of human perception. One must hear from authorities. Therefore Sukadeva Gosvami, a great personality, says, "What I am describing to you, O King, is what I have heard from authoritative sources." This is the Vedic system. The Vedic knowledge is called sruti because it must be received by being heard from authorities. It is beyond the realm of our false experimental knowledge.

TEXT 2

TEXT

sa vai barhisi devebhyo

bhagam pratyaksam uccakaih

adadad yasya pitaro

devah saprasrayam nrpa

SYNONYMS

sah--he (Visvarupa); vai--indeed; barhisi--in the sacrificial fire; devebhyah--unto the particular demigods; bhagam--the proper share; pratyaksam--visibly; uccakaih--by loud chanting of the mantras; adadat--offered; yasya--of whom; pitarah--the fathers; devah--demigods; sa-prasrayam--very humbly in a gentle voice; nrpa--O King Pariksit.

TRANSLATION

O Maharaja Pariksit, the demigods were related to Visvarupa from his father's side, and therefore he visibly offered clarified butter in the fire while chanting mantras such as indraya idam svaha ["this is meant for King Indra"] and idam agnaye ["this is for the demigod of fire"]. He loudly chanted these mantras and offered each of the demigods his proper share.

TEXT 3

TEXT

sa eva hi dadau bhagam

paroksam asuran prati

yajamano 'vahad bhagam

matr-sneha-vasanugah

SYNONYMS

sah--he (Visvarupa); eva--indeed; hi--certainly; dadau--offered; bhagam--share; paroksam--without the knowledge of the demigods; asuran--the demons; prati--unto; yajamanah--performing sacrifice; avahat--offered; bhagam--share; matr-sneha--by affection for his mother; vasa-anugah--being compelled.

TRANSLATION

Although offering clarified butter in the sacrificial fire in the name of the demigods, without the knowledge of the demigods he also offered oblations to the demons because they were his relatives through his mother.

PURPORT

Because of Visvarupa's affection for the families of both the demigods and the demons, he appeased the Supreme Lord on behalf of both dynasties. When he offered oblations in the fire on behalf of the asuras, he did so secretly. without the knowledge of the demigods.

TEXT 4

TEXT

tad deva-helanam tasya

dharmalikam suresvarah

alaksya tarasa bhitas

tac-chirsany acchinad rusa

SYNONYMS

tat--that; deva-helanam--offense to the demigods; tasya--of him (Visvarupa); dharma-alikam--cheating in religious principles (pretending to be the priest of the demigods, but secretly acting as the priest of the demons also); sura-isvarah--the king of the demigods; alaksya--observing; tarasa--quickly; bhitah--being afraid (that the demons would gain strength by being blessed by Visvarupa); tat--his (Visvarupa's); sirsani--heads; acchinat--cut off; rusa--with great anger.

TRANSLATION

Once upon a time, however, the King of heaven, Indra, understood that Visvarupa was secretly cheating the demigods by offering oblations on behalf of the demons. He became extremely afraid of being defeated by the demons, and in great anger at Visvarupa he cut Visvarupa's three heads from his shoulders.

TEXT 5

TEXT

soma-pitham tu yat tasya

sira asit kapinjalah

kalavinkah sura-pitham

annadam yat sa tittirih

SYNONYMS

soma-pitham--used for drinking soma-rasa; tu--however; yat--which; tasya--of him (Visvarupa); sirah--the head; asit--became; kapinjalah--a francolin partridge; kalavinkah--a sparrow; sura-pitham--meant for drinking wine; anna-adam--used for eating food; yat--which; sah--that; tittirih--a common partridge.

TRANSLATION

Thereafter, the head meant for drinking soma-rasa was transformed into a kapinjala [francolin partridge]. Similarly, the head meant for drinking wine was transformed into a kalavinka [sparrow], and the head meant for eating food became a tittiri [common partridge].

TEXT 6

TEXT

brahma-hatyam anjalina

jagraha yad apisvarah

samvatsarante tad agham

bhutanam sa visuddhaye

bhumy-ambu-druma-yosidbhyas

caturdha vyabhajad dharih

SYNONYMS

brahma-hatyam--the sinful reaction for killing a brahmana; anjalina--with folded hands; jagraha--assumed the responsibility for; yat api--although; isvarah--very powerful; samvatsara-ante--after one year; tat agham--that sinful reaction; bhutanam--of the material elements; sah--he; visuddhaye--for purification; bhumi--unto the earth; ambu--water; druma--trees; yosidbhyah--and unto women; caturdha--in four divisions; vyabhajat--divided; harih--King Indra.

TRANSLATION

Although Indra was so powerful that he could neutralize the sinful reactions for killing a brahmana, he repentantly accepted the burden of these reactions with folded hands. He suffered for one year, and then to purify himself he distributed the reactions for this sinful killing among the earth, water, trees and women.

TEXT 7

TEXT

bhumis turiyam jagraha

khata-pura-varena vai

irinam brahma-hatyaya

rupam bhumau pradrsyate

SYNONYMS

bhumih--the earth; turiyam--one fourth; jagraha--accepted; khata-pura--of the filling of holes; varena--because of the benediction; vai--indeed; irinam--the deserts; brahma-hatyayah--of the reaction for killing a brahmana; rupam--form; bhumau--on the earth; pradrsyate--is visible.

TRANSLATION

In return for King Indra's benediction that ditches in the earth would be filled automatically, the land accepted one fourth of the sinful reactions for killing a brahmana. Because of those sinful reactions, we find many deserts on the surface of the earth.

PURPORT

Because deserts are manifestations of the earth's diseased condition, no auspicious ritualistic ceremony can be performed in a desert. Persons destined to live in deserts are understood to be sharing the reactions for the sin of brahma-hatya, the killing of a brahmana.

TEXT 8

TEXT

turyam cheda-virohena

varena jagrhur drumah

tesam niryasa-rupena

brahma-hatya pradrsyate

SYNONYMS

turyam--one fourth; cheda--although being cut; virohena--of growing again; varena--because of the benediction; jagrhuh--accepted; drumah--the trees; tesam--of them; niryasa-rupena--by the liquid oozing from the trees; brahma-hatya--the reaction for killing a brahmana; pradrsyate--is visible.

TRANSLATION

In return for Indra's benediction that their branches and twigs would grow back when trimmed, the trees accepted one fourth of the reactions for killing a brahmana. These reactions are visible in the flowing of sap from trees. [Therefore one is forbidden to drink this sap.]

TEXT 9

TEXT

sasvat-kama-varenamhas

turiyam jagrhuh striyah

rajo-rupena tasv amho

masi masi pradrsyate

SYNONYMS

sasvat--perpetual; kama--of sexual desire; varena--because of the benediction; amhah--the sinful reaction for killing a brahmana; turiyam--one fourth; jagrhuh--accepted; striyah--women; rajah-rupena--in the form of the menstrual period; tasu--in them; amhah--the sinful reaction; masi masi--every month; pradrsyate--is visible.

TRANSLATION

In return for Lord Indra's benediction that they would be able to enjoy lusty desires continuously, even during pregnancy for as long as sex is not injurious to the embryo, women accepted one fourth of the sinful reactions. As a result of those reactions, women manifest the signs of menstruation every month.

PURPORT

Women as a class are very lusty, and apparently their continuous lusty desires are never satisfied. In return for Lord Indra's benediction that there would be no cessation to their lusty desires, women accepted one fourth of the sinful reactions for killing a brahmana.

TEXT 10

TEXT

dravya-bhuyo-varenapas

turiyam jagrhur malam

tasu budbuda-phenabhyam

drstam tad dharati ksipan

SYNONYMS

dravya--other things; bhuyah--of increasing; varena--by the benediction; apah--water; turiyam--one fourth; jagrhuh--accepted; malam--the sinful reaction; tasu--in the water; budbuda-phenabhyam--by bubbles and foam; drstam--visible; tat--that; harati--one collects; ksipan--throwing away.

TRANSLATION

And in return for King Indra's benediction that water would increase the volume of other substances with which it was mixed, water accepted one fourth of the sinful reactions. Therefore there are bubbles and foam in water. When one collects water, these should be avoided.

PURPORT

If water is mixed with milk, fruit juice or other similar substances, it increases their volume, and no one can understand which has increased. In return for this benediction, water accepted one fourth of Indra's sinful reactions. These sinful reactions are visible in foam and bubbles. Therefore one should avoid foam and bubbles while collecting drinking water.

TEXT 11

TEXT

hata-putras tatas tvasta

juhavendraya satrave

indra-satro vivardhasva

ma ciram jahi vidvisam

SYNONYMS

hata-putrah--who lost his son; tatah--thereafter; tvasta--Tvasta; juhava--performed a sacrifice; indraya--of Indra; satrave--for creating an enemy; indra-satro--O enemy of Indra; vivardhasva--increase; ma--not; ciram--after a long time; jahi--kill; vidvisam--your enemy.

TRANSLATION

After Visvarupa was killed, his father, Tvasta, performed ritualistic ceremonies to kill Indra. He offered oblations in the sacrificial fire, saying, "O enemy of Indra, flourish to kill your enemy without delay."

PURPORT

There was some defect in Tvasta's chanting of the mantra because he chanted it long instead of short, and therefore the meaning changed. Tvasta intended to chant the word indra-satro, meaning, "O enemy of Indra." In this mantra, the word indra is in the possessive case (sasthi), and the word indra-satro is called a tat-purusa compound (tatpurusa-samasa). Unfortunately, instead of chanting the mantra short, Tvasta chanted it long, and its meaning changed from "the enemy of Indra" to "Indra, who is an enemy." Consequently instead of an enemy of Indra's, there emerged the body of Vrtrasura, of whom Indra was the enemy.

TEXT 12

TEXT

athanvaharya-pacanad

utthito ghora-darsanah

krtanta iva lokanam

yuganta-samaye yatha

SYNONYMS

atha--thereafter; anvaharya-pacanat--from the fire known as Anvaharya; utthitah--arisen; ghora-darsanah--appearing very fearful; krtantah--personified annihilation; iva--like; lokanam--of all the planets; yuga-anta--of the end of the millennium; samaye--at the time; yatha--just as.

TRANSLATION

Thereafter, from the southern side of the sacrificial fire known as Anvaharya came a fearful personality who looked like the destroyer of the entire creation at the end of the millennium.

TEXTS 13-17

TEXT

visvag vivardhamanam tam

isu-matram dine dine

dagdha-saila-pratikasam

sandhyabhranika-varcasam

tapta-tamra-sikha-smasrum

madhyahnarkogra-locanam

dedipyamane tri-sikhe

sula aropya rodasi

nrtyantam unnadantam ca

calayantam pada mahim

dari-gambhira-vaktrena

pibata ca nabhastalam

lihata jihvayarksani

grasata bhuvana-trayam

mahata raudra-damstrena

jrmbhamanam muhur muhuh

vitrasta dudruvur loka

viksya sarve diso dasa

SYNONYMS

visvak--all around; vivardhamanam--increasing; tam--him; isu-matram--an arrow's flight; dine dine--day after day; dagdha--burnt; saila--mountain; pratikasam--resembling; sandhya--in the evening; abhra-anika--like an array of clouds; varcasam--having an effulgence; tapta--melted; tamra--like copper; sikha--hair; smasrum--moustache and beard; madhyahna--at midday; arka--like the sun; ugra-locanam--having powerful eyes; dedipyamane--blazing; tri-sikhe--three-pointed; sule--on his spear; aropya--keeping; rodasi--heaven and earth; nrtyantam--dancing; unnadantam--shouting loudly; ca--and; calayantam--moving; pada--by his foot; mahim--the earth; dari-gambhira--as deep as a cave; vaktrena--by the mouth; pibata--drinking; ca--also; nabhastalam--the sky; lihata--licking up; jihvaya--by the tongue; rksani--the stars; grasata--swallowing; bhuvana-trayam--the three worlds; mahata--very great; raudra-damstrena--with fearful teeth; jrmbhamanam--yawning; muhuh muhuh--again and again; vitrastah--fearful; dudruvuh--ran; lokah--people; viksya--seeing; sarve--all; disah dasa--ten directions.

TRANSLATION

Like arrows released in the four directions, the demon's body grew, day after day. Tall and blackish, he appeared like a burnt hill and was as lustrous as a bright array of clouds in the evening. The hair on the demon's body and his beard and moustache were the color of melted copper, and his eyes were piercing like the midday sun. He appeared unconquerable, as if holding the three worlds on the points of his blazing trident. Dancing and shouting with a loud voice, he made the entire surface of the earth tremble as if from an earthquake. As he yawned again and again, he seemed to be trying to swallow the whole sky with his mouth, which was as deep as a cave. He seemed to be licking up all the stars in the sky with his tongue and eating the entire universe with his long, sharp teeth. Seeing this gigantic demon, everyone, in great fear, ran here and there in all directions.

TEXT 18

TEXT

yenavrta ime lokas

tapasa tvastra-murtina

sa vai vrtra iti proktah

papah parama-darunah

SYNONYMS

yena--by whom; avrtah--covered; ime--all these; lokah--planets; tapasa--by the austerity; tvastra-murtina--in the form of the son of Tvasta; sah--he; vai--indeed; vrtrah--Vrtra; iti--thus; proktah--called; papah--personified sin; parama-darunah--very fearful.

TRANSLATION

That very fearful demon, who was actually the son of Tvasta, covered all the planetary systems by dint of austerity. Therefore he was named Vrtra, or one who covers everything.

PURPORT

In the Vedas it is said, sa imal lokan avrnot tad vrtrasya vrtratvam: because the demon covered all the planetary systems, his name was Vrtrasura.

TEXT 19

TEXT

tam nijaghnur abhidrutya

sagana vibudharsabhah

svaih svair divyastra-sastraughaih

so 'grasat tani krtsnasah

SYNONYMS

tam--him; nijaghnuh--struck; abhidrutya--running to; sa-ganah--with soldiers; vibudha-rsabhah--all the great demigods; svaih svaih--with their own respective; divya--transcendental; astra--bows and arrows; sastra-oghaih--different weapons; sah--he (Vrtra); agrasat--swallowed; tani--them (the weapons); krtsnasah--all together.

TRANSLATION

The demigods, headed by Indra, charged the demon with their soldiers, striking him with their own transcendental bows and arrows and other weapons but Vrtrasura swallowed all their weapons.

TEXT 20

TEXT

tatas te vismitah sarve

visanna grasta-tejasah

pratyancam adi-purusam

upatasthuh samahitah

SYNONYMS

tatah--thereafter; te--they (the demigods); vismitah--being struck with wonder; sarve--all; visannah--being very morose; grasta-tejasah--having lost all their personal strength; pratyancam--to the Supersoul; adi-purusam--the original person; upatasthuh--prayed; samahitah--all gathered together.

TRANSLATION

Struck with wonder and disappointment upon seeing the strength of the demon, the demigods lost their own strength. Therefore they all met together to try to please the Supersoul, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, by worshiping Him.

TEXT 21

TEXT

sri-deva ucuh

vayv-ambaragny-ap-ksitayas tri-loka

brahmadayo ye vayam udvijantah

harama yasmai balim antako 'sau

bibheti yasmad aranam tato nah

SYNONYMS

sri-devah ucuh--the demigods said; vayu--composed of air; ambara--sky; agni--fire; ap--water; ksitayah--and land; tri-lokah--the three worlds; brahma-adayah--beginning from Lord Brahma; ye--who; vayam--we; udvijantah--being very much afraid; harama--offer; yasmai--unto whom; balim--presentation; antakah--the destroyer, death; asau--that; bibheti--fears; yasmat--from whom; aranam--shelter; tatah--therefore; nah--our.

TRANSLATION

The demigods said: The three worlds are created by the five elements--namely ether, air, fire, water and earth--which are controlled by various demigods, beginning from Lord Brahma. Being very much afraid that the time factor will end our existence, we offer presentations unto time by performing our work as time dictates. The time factor himself, however, is afraid of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore let us now worship that Supreme Lord, who alone can give us full protection.

PURPORT

When one is afraid of being killed, one must take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is worshiped by all the demigods. beginning from Brahma, although they are in charge of the various elements of this material world. The words bibheti yasmat indicate that all the demons, regardless of how great and powerful, fear the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The demigods, being afraid of death, took shelter of the Lord and offered Him these prayers. Although the time factor is fearful to everyone, fear personified is afraid of the Supreme Lord, who is therefore known as abhaya, fearless. Taking shelter of the Supreme Lord brings actual fearlessness, and therefore the demigods decided to take shelter of the Lord.

TEXT 22

TEXT

avismitam tam paripurna-kamam

svenaiva labhena samam prasantam

vinopasarpaty aparam hi balisah

sva-langulenatititarti sindhum

SYNONYMS

avismitam--who is never struck with wonder; tam--Him; paripurna-kamam--who is fully satisfied; svena--by His own; eva--indeed; labhena--achievements; samam--equipoised; prasantam--very steady; vina--without; upasarpati--approaches; aparam--another; hi--indeed; balisah--a fool; sva--of a dog; langulena--by the tail; atititarti--wants to cross; sindhum--the sea.

TRANSLATION

Free from all material conceptions of existence and never wonder-struck by anything, the Lord is always jubilant and fully satisfied by His own spiritual perfection. He has no material designations, and therefore He is steady and unattached. That Supreme Personality of Godhead is the only shelter of everyone. Anyone desiring to be protected by others is certainly a great fool who desires to cross the sea by holding the tail of a dog.

PURPORT

A dog can swim in the water, but if a dog dives in the ocean and someone wants to cross the ocean by holding the dog's tail, he is certainly fool number one. A dog cannot cross the ocean, nor can a person cross the ocean by catching a dog's tail. Similarly, one who desires to cross the ocean of nescience should not seek the shelter of any demigod or anyone else but the fearless shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.58) therefore says:

samasrita ye pada-pallava-plavam

mahat-padam punya-yaso-murareh

bhavambudhir vatsa-padam param padam

padam padam yad vipadam na tesam

The Lord's lotus feet are an indestructible boat, and if one takes shelter of that boat he can easily cross the ocean of nescience. Consequently there are no dangers for a devotee although he lives within this material world, which is full of dangers at every step. One should seek the shelter of the all-powerful instead of trying to be protected by one's own concocted ideas.

TEXT 23

TEXT

yasyoru-srnge jagatim sva-navam

manur yathabadhya tatara durgam

sa eva nas tvastra-bhayad durantat

tratasritan varicaro 'pi nunam

SYNONYMS

yasya--of whom; uru--very strong and high; srnge--on the born; jagatim--in the form of the world; sva-navam--his own boat; manuh--Manu, King Satyavrata; yatha--just as; abadhya--binding; tatara--crossed; durgam--the very difficult to cross (inundation); sah--He (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); eva--certainly; nah--us; tvastra-bhayat--from fear of the son of Tvasta; durantat--endless; trata--deliverer; asritan--dependents (like us); vari-carah api--although taking the form of a fish; nunam--indeed.

TRANSLATION

The Manu named King Satyavrata formerly saved himself by tying the small boat of the entire world to the horn of the Matsya avatara, the fish incarnation. By the grace of the Matsya avatara, Manu saved himself from the great danger of the flood. May that same fish incarnation save us from the great and fearful danger caused by the son of Tvasta.

TEXT 24

TEXT

pura svayambhur api samyamambhasy

udirna-vatormi-ravaih karale

eko 'ravindat patitas tatara

tasmad bhayad yena sa no 'stu parah

SYNONYMS

pura--formerly (during the time of creation); svayambhuh--Lord Brahma; api--also; samyama-ambhasi--in the water of inundation; udirna--very high; vata--of wind; urmi--and of waves; ravaih--by the sounds; karale--very fearful; ekah--alone; aravindat--from the lotus seat; patitah--almost fallen; tatara--escaped; tasmat--from that; bhayat--fearful situation; yena--by whom (the Lord); sah--He; nah--of us; astu--let there be; parah--deliverance.

TRANSLATION

In the beginning of creation, a tremendous wind caused fierce waves of inundating water. The great waves made such a horrible sound that Lord Brahma almost fell from his seat on the lotus into the water of devastation, but he was saved with the help of the Lord. Thus we also expect the Lord to protect us from this dangerous condition.

TEXT 25

TEXT

ya eka iso nija-mayaya nah

sasarja yenanusrjama visvam

vayam na yasyapi purah samihatah

pasyama lingam prthag isa-maninah

SYNONYMS

yah--He who; ekah--one; isah--controller; nija-mayaya--by His transcendental potency; nah--us; sasarja--created; yena--by whom (through whose mercy); anusrjama--we also create; visvam--the universe; vayam--we; na--not; yasya--of whom; api--although; purah--in front of us; samihatah--of Him who is acting; pasyama--see; lingam--the form; prthak--separate; isa--as controllers; maninah--thinking of ourselves.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who created us by His external potency and by whose mercy we expand the creation of the universe, is always situated before us as the Supersoul, but we cannot see His form. We are unable to see Him because all of us think that we are separate and independent gods.

PURPORT

Here is an explanation of why the conditioned soul cannot see the Supreme Personality of Godhead face to face. Even though the Lord appears before us as Lord Krsna or Lord Ramacandra and lives in human society as a leader or king, the conditioned soul cannot understand Him. Avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritam: rascals (mudhas) deride the Supreme Personality of Godhead, thinking Him an ordinary human being. However insignificant we are, we think that we are also God, that we can create a universe or that we can create another God. This is why we cannot see or understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In this regard, Srila Madhvacarya says:

lingam eva pasyamah

kadacid abhimanas tu

devanam api sann iva

prayah kalesu nasty eva

taratamyena so 'pi tu

We are all conditioned to various degrees, but we think that we are God. This is why we cannot understand who God is or see Him face to face.

TEXTS 26-27

TEXT

yo nah sapatnair bhrsam ardyamanan

devarsi-tiryan-nrsu nitya eva

krtavataras tanubhih sva-mayaya

krtvatmasat pati yuge yuge ca

tam eva devam vayam atma-daivatam

param pradhanam purusam visvam anyam

vrajama sarve saranam saranyam

svanam sa no dhasyati sam mahatma

SYNONYMS

yah--He who; nah--us; sapatnaih--by our enemies, the demons; bhrsam--almost always; ardyamanan--being persecuted; deva--among the demigods; rsi--the saintly persons; tiryak--the animals; nrsu--and men; nityah--always; eva--certainly; krta-avatarah--appearing as an incarnation; tanubhih--with different forms; sva-mayaya--by His internal potency; krtva atmasat--considering very near and dear to Him; pati--protects; yuge yuge--in every millennium; ca--and; tam--Him; eva--indeed; devam--the Supreme Lord; vayam--all of us; atma-daivatam--the Lord of all living entities; param--transcendental; pradhanam--the original cause of the total material energy; purusam--the supreme enjoyer; visvam--whose energy constitutes this universe; anyam--separately situated; vrajama--we approach; sarve--all; saranam--shelter; saranyam--suitable as shelter; svanam--unto His own devotees; sah--He; nah--unto us; dhasyati--shall give; sam--good fortune; mahatma--the Supersoul.

TRANSLATION

By His inconceivable internal potency, the Supreme Personality of Godhead expands into various transcendental bodies as Vamanadeva, the incarnation of strength among the demigods; Parasurama, the incarnation among saints; Nrsimhadeva and Varaha, incarnations among animals; and Matsya and Kurma, incarnations among aquatics. He accepts various transcendental bodies among all types of living entities, and among human beings He especially appears as Lord Krsna and Lord Rama. By His causeless mercy, He protects the demigods, who are always harassed by the demons. He is the supreme worshipable Deity of all living entities. He is the supreme cause, represented as the male and female creative energies. Although different from this universe, He exists in His universal form [virat-rupa]. In our fearful condition, let us take shelter of Him, for we are sure that the Supreme Lord, the Supreme Soul, will give us His protection.

PURPORT

In this verse, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, is ascertained to be the original cause of creation. Sridhara Svami, in his commentary Bhavartha-dipika, replies to the idea that prakrti and purusa are the causes of the cosmic manifestation. As stated herein, param pradhanam purusam visvam anyam: "He is the supreme cause, represented as the male and female creative energies. Although different from this universe, He exists in His universal form [virat 'rupa]." The word prakrti, which is used to indicate the source of generation, refers to the material energy of the Supreme Lord, and the word purusa refers to the living entities, who are the superior energy of the Lord. Both the prakrti and purusa ultimately enter the Supreme Lord, as stated in Bhagavad-gita (prakrtim yanti mamikam).

Although prakrti and purusa superficially appear to be the causes of the material manifestation, both are emanations of different energies of the Supreme Lord. Therefore the Supreme Lord is the cause of prakrti and purusa. He is the original cause (sarva-karana-karanam). The Naradiya Purana says:

avikaro 'pi paramah

prakrtis tu vikarini

anupravisya govindah

prakrtis cabhidhiyate

Both the prakrti and purusa, which are inferior and superior energies, are emanations from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As explained in Bhagavad-gita (gam avisya), the Lord enters the prakrti, and then the prakrti creates different manifestations. The prakrti is not independent or beyond His energies. Vasudeva, Lord Sri Krsna, is the original cause of everything. Therefore the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (10.8):

aham sarvasya prabhavo

mattah sarvam pravartate

iti matva bhajante mam

budha bhava-samanvitah

"I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from Me. The wise who perfectly know this engage in My devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts." In Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.9.33) the Lord also says, aham evasam evagre: "Only I existed before the creation." This is confirmed in the Brahmanda Purana as follows:

smrtir avyavadhanena

prakrtitvam iti sthitih

ubhayatmaka-sutitvad

vasudevah parah puman

prakrtih purusas ceti

sabdair eko 'bhidhiyate

To generate the universe, the Lord acts indirectly as the purusa and directly as the prakrti. Because both energies emanate from Lord Vasudeva, the all-pervasive Supreme Personality of Godhead, He is known as both prakrti and purusa. Therefore Vasudeva is the cause of everything (sarva-karana-karanam).

TEXT 28

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

iti tesam maharaja

suranam upatisthatam

praticyam disy abhud avih

sankha-cakra-gada-dharah

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; iti--thus; tesam--of them; maharaja--O King; suranam--of the demigods; upatisthatam--praying; praticyam--inside; disi--in the direction; abhut--became; avih--visible; sankha-cakra-gada-dharah--bearing the transcendental weapons: the conchshell, disc and club.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: My dear King, when all the demigods offered Him their prayers, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari, carrying His weapons, the conchshell, disc and club, appeared first within their hearts and then before them.

TEXTS 29-30

TEXT

atma-tulyaih sodasabhir

vina srivatsa-kaustubhau

paryupasitam unnidra-

sarad-amburuheksanam

drstva tam avanau sarva

iksanahlada-viklavah

dandavat patita rajan

chanair utthaya tustuvuh

SYNONYMS

atma-tulyaih--almost equal to Himself; sodasabhih--by sixteen (servants); vina--without; srivatsa-kaustubhau--the Srivatsa mark and Kaustubha jewel; paryupasitam--being attended on all sides; unnidra--blooming; sarat--of the autumn; amburuha--like lotus flowers; iksanam--having eyes; drstva--seeing; tam--Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana); avanau--on the ground; sarve--all of them; iksana--from directly seeing; ahlada--with happiness; viklavah--being overwhelmed; danda-vat--like a stick; patitah--fell; rajan--O King; sanaih--slowly; utthaya--standing up; tustuvuh--offered prayers.

TRANSLATION

Surrounding and serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, were sixteen personal attendants, decorated with ornaments and appearing exactly like Him but without the mark of Srivatsa and the Kaustubha jewel. O King, when all the demigods saw the Supreme Lord in that posture, smiling with eyes like the petals of lotuses grown in autumn, they were overwhelmed with happiness and immediately fell down like rods, offering dandavats. Then they slowly rose and pleased the Lord by offering Him prayers.

PURPORT

In Vaikunthaloka the Supreme Personality of Godhead has four hands and decorations like the Srivatsa mark on His chest and the gem known as Kaustubha. These are special indications of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord's personal attendants and other devotees in Vaikuntha have the same features, except for the Srivatsa mark and the Kaustubha gem.

TEXT 31

TEXT

sri-deva ucuh

namas te yajna-viryaya

vayase uta te namah

namas te hy asta-cakraya

namah supuru-hutaye

SYNONYMS

sri-devah ucuh--the demigods said; namah--obeisances; te--unto You; yajna-viryaya--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is able to give the results of sacrifice; vayase--who is the time factor, which ends the results of yajna; uta--although; te--unto You; namah--obeisances; namah--obeisances; te--unto You; hi--indeed; asta-cakraya--who throws the disc; namah--respectful obeisances; supuru-hutaye--having varieties of transcendental names.

TRANSLATION

The demigods said: O Supreme Personality of Godhead, You are competent to give the results of sacrifice, and You are also the time factor that destroys all such results in due course. You are the one who releases the cakra to kill the demons. O Lord, who possesses many varieties of names, we offer our respectful obeisances unto You.

TEXT 32

TEXT

yat te gatinam tisrnam

isituh paramam padam

narvacino visargasya

dhatar veditum arhati

SYNONYMS

yat--which; te--of You; gatinam tisrnam--of the three destinations (the heavenly planets, the earthly planets and hell); isituh--who are the controller; paramam padam--the supreme abode, Vaikunthaloka; na--not; arvacinah--a person appearing after; visargasya--the creation; dhatah--O supreme controller; veditum--to understand; arhati--is able.

TRANSLATION

O supreme controller, You control the three destinations [promotion to the heavenly planets, birth as a human being, and condemnation in hell], yet Your supreme abode is Vaikuntha-dhama. Since we appeared after You created this cosmic manifestation, Your activities are impossible for us to understand. We therefore have nothing to offer You but our humble obeisances.

PURPORT

An inexperienced man generally does not know what to beg from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Everyone is under the jurisdiction of the created material world, and no one knows what benediction to ask when praying to the Supreme Lord. People generally pray to be promoted to the heavenly planets because they have no information of Vaikunthaloka. Srila Madhvacarya quotes the following verse:

deva-lokat pitr-lokat

nirayac capi yat param

tisrbhyah paramam sthanam

vaisnavam vidusam gatih

There are different planetary systems, known as Devaloka (the planets of the demigods), Pitrloka (the planet of the Pitas) and Niraya (the hellish planets). When one transcends these various planetary systems and enters Vaikunthaloka, he achieves the ultimate resort of the Vaisnavas. Vaisnavas have nothing to do with the other planetary systems.

TEXT 33

TEXT

om namas te 'stu bhagavan narayana vasudevadi-purusa maha-purusa mahanubhava parama-mangala parama-kalyana parama-karunika kevala jagad-adhara lokaika-natha sarvesvara laksmi-natha paramahamsa-parivrajakaih paramenatma-yoga-samadhina paribhavita-parisphuta-paramahamsya-dharmenodghatita-tamah-kapata-dvare citte 'pavrta atma-loke svayam upalabdha-nija-sukhanubhavo bhavan.

SYNONYMS

om--O Lord; namah--respectful obeisances; te--unto You; astu--let there be; bhagavan--O Supreme Personality of Godhead; narayana--the resort of all living entities, Narayana; vasudeva--Lord Vasudeva, Sri Krsna; adi-purusa--the original person; maha-purusa--the most exalted personality; maha-anubhava--the supremely opulent; parama-mangala--the most auspicious; parama-kalyana--the supreme benediction; parama-karunika--the supremely merciful; kevala--changeless; jagat-adhara--the support of the cosmic manifestation; loka-eka-natha--the only proprietor of all the planetary systems; sarva-isvara--the supreme controller; laksmi-natha--the husband of the goddess of fortune; paramahamsa-parivrajakaih--by the topmost sannyasis wandering all over the world; paramena--by supreme; atma-yoga-samadhina--absorption in bhakti-yoga; paribhavita--fully purified; parisphuta--and fully manifested; paramahamsya-dharmena--by executing the transcendental process of devotional service; udghatita--pushed open; tamah--of illusory existence; kapata--in which the door; dvare--existing as the entrance; citte--in the mind; apavrte--without contamination; atma-loke--in the spiritual world; svayam--personally; upalabdha--experiencing; nija--personal; sukha-anubhavah--perception of happiness; bhavan--Your Lordship.

TRANSLATION

O Supreme Personality of Godhead, O Narayana, O Vasudeva, original person! O most exalted person, supreme experience, welfare personified! O supreme benediction, supremely merciful and changeless! O support of the cosmic manifestation, sole proprietor of all planetary systems, master of everything and husband of the goddess of fortune! Your Lordship is realized by the topmost sannyasis, who wander about the world to preach Krsna consciousness, fully absorbed in samadhi through bhakti-yoga. Because their minds are concentrated upon You, they can receive the conception of Your personality in their fully purified hearts. When the darkness in their hearts is completely eradicated and You are revealed to them, the transcendental bliss they enjoy is the transcendental form of Your Lordship. No one but such persons can realize You. Therefore we simply offer You our respectful obeisances.

PURPORT

The Supreme Personality of Godhead has numerous transcendental names pertaining to different grades of revelation to various grades of devotees and transcendentalists. When He is realized in His impersonal form He is called the Supreme Brahman, when realized as the Paramatma He is called antaryami, and when He expands Himself in different forms for material creation He is called Ksirodakasayi Visnu, Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Karanodakasayi Visnu. When He is realized as Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha--the Caturvyuha, who are beyond the three forms of Visnu--He is the Vaikuntha Narayana. Above realization of Narayana is realization of Baladeva, and above that is realization of Krsna. All these realizations are possible when one engages fully in devotional service. The covered core of one's heart is then completely open to receiving an understanding of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His various forms.

TEXT 34

TEXT

duravabodha iva tavayam vihara-yogo yad asarano 'sarira idam anaveksitasmat-samavaya atmanaivavikriyamanena sagunam agunah srjasi pasi harasi.

SYNONYMS

duravabodhah--difficult to understand; iva--quite; tava--Your; ayam--this; vihara-yogah--engagement in the pastimes of material creation, maintenance and annihilation; yat--which; asaranah--not dependent on any other support; asarirah--without having a material body; idam--this; anaveksita--without waiting for; asmat--of us; samavayah--the cooperation; atmana--by Your own self; eva--indeed; avikriyamanena--without being transformed; sa-gunam--the material modes of nature; agunah--although transcendental to such material qualities; srjasi--You create; pasi--maintain; harasi--annihilate.

TRANSLATION

O Lord, You need no support, and although You have no material body, You do not need cooperation from us. Since You are the cause of the cosmic manifestation and You supply its material ingredients without being transformed, You create, maintain and annihilate this cosmic manifestation by Yourself. Nevertheless, although You appear engaged in material activity, You are transcendental to all material qualities. Consequently these transcendental activities of Yours are extremely difficult to understand.

PURPORT

The Brahma-samhita (5.37) says, goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhutah: the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, is always situated in Goloka Vrndavana. It is also said, vrndavanam parityajya padam ekam na gacchati: Krsna never goes even a step from Vrndavana. Nevertheless, although Krsna is situated in His own abode, Goloka Vrndavana, He is simultaneously all-pervading and is therefore present everywhere. This is very difficult for a conditioned soul to understand. but devotees can understand how Krsna, without undergoing any changes, can simultaneously be in His abode and be all-pervasive. The demigods are understood to be various limbs of the Supreme Lord's body, although the Supreme Lord has no material body and does not need anyone's help. He is spread everywhere (maya tatam idam sarvam jagad avyakta-murtina). Nevertheless, He is not present everywhere in His spiritual form. According to the Mayavada philosophy, the Supreme Truth, being all-pervasive, does not need a transcendental form. The Mayavadis suppose that since His form is distributed everywhere, He has no form. This is untrue. The Lord keeps His transcendental form, and at the same time He extends everywhere, in every nook and corner of the material creation.

TEXT 35

TEXT

atha tatra bhavan kim devadattavad iha guna-visarga-patitah paratantryena sva-krta-kusalakusalam phalam upadadaty ahosvid atmarama upasama-silah samanjasa-darsana udasta iti ha vava na vidamah.

SYNONYMS

atha--therefore; tatra--in that; bhavan--Your Lordship; kim--whether; deva-datta-vat--like an ordinary human being, forced by the fruits of his activities; iha--in this material world; guna-visarga-patitah--fallen in a material body impelled by the modes of material nature; paratantryena--by dependence on the conditions of time, space, activity and nature; sva-krta--executed by oneself; kusala--auspicious; akusalam--inauspicious; phalam--results of action; upadadati--accepts; ahosvit--or; atmaramah--completely self-satisfied; upasama-silah--self-controlled in nature; samanjasa-darsanah--not deprived of full spiritual potencies; udaste--remains neutral as the witness; iti--thus; ha vava--certainly; na vidamah--we do not understand.

TRANSLATION

These are our inquiries. The ordinary conditioned soul is subject to the material laws, and he thus receives the fruits of his actions. Does Your Lordship, like an ordinary human being, exist within this material world in a body produced by the material modes? Do You enjoy or suffer the good or bad results of actions under the influence of time, past work and so forth? Or, on the contrary, are You present here only as a neutral witness who is self-sufficient, free from all material desires, and always full of spiritual potency? We certainly cannot understand Your actual position.

PURPORT

In Bhagavad-gita Krsna says that He descends to this material world for two purposes, namely paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam--to relieve the devotees and kill demons or nondevotees. These two kinds of action are the same for the Absolute Truth. When the Lord comes to punish the demons, He bestows His favor upon them, and similarly when He delivers His devotees and gives them relief, He also bestows His favor. Thus the Lord bestows His favor equally upon the conditioned souls. When a conditioned soul gives relief to others he acts piously, and when he gives trouble to others he acts impiously, but the Lord is neither pious nor impious; He is always full in His spiritual potency, by which He shows equal mercy to the punishable and the protectable. The Lord is apapa-viddham; He is never contaminated by the reactions of so-called sinful activities. When Krsna was present on this earth, He killed many inimical nondevotees, but they all received sarupya; in other words, they returned to their original spiritual bodies. One who does not know the Lord's position says that God is unkind to him but merciful to others. Actually the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (9.29), samo 'ham sarva-bhutesu na me dvesyo 'sti na priyah: "I am equal to everyone. No one is My enemy, and no one is My friend." But He also says, ye bhajanti tu mam bhaktya mayi te tesu capy aham: "If one becomes My devotee and fully surrenders unto Me, I give him special attention."

TEXT 36

TEXT

na hi virodha ubhayam bhagavaty aparimita-guna-gana isvare 'navagahya-mahatmye 'rvacina-vikalpa-vitarka-vicara-pramanabhasa-kutarka-sastra-kalilantahkaranasraya-duravagraha-vadinam vivadanavasara uparata-samasta-mayamaye kevala evatma-mayam antardhaya ko nv artho durghata iva bhavati svarupa-dvayabhavat.

SYNONYMS

na--not; hi--certainly; virodhah--contradiction; ubhayam--both; bhagavati--in the Supreme personality of Godhead; aparimita--unlimited; guna-gane--whose transcendental attributes; isvare--in the supreme controller; anavagahya--possessing; mahatmye--unfathomable ability and glories; arvacina--recent; vikalpa--full of equivocal calculations; vitarka--opposing arguments; vicara--judgments; pramana-abhasa--imperfect evidence; kutarka--useless arguments; sastra--by unauthorized scriptures; kalila--agitated; antahkarana--minds; asraya--whose shelter; duravagraha--with wicked obstinacies; vadinam--of theorists; vivada--of the controversies; anavasare--not within the range; uparata--withdrawn; samasta--from whom all; maya-maye--illusory energy; kevale--without a second; eva--indeed; atma-mayam--the illusory energy, which can do and undo the inconceivable; antardhaya--placing between; kah--what; nu--indeed; arthah--meaning; durghatah--impossible; iva--as it were; bhavati--is; sva-rupa--natures; dvaya--of two; abhavat--due to the absence.

TRANSLATION

O Supreme Personality of Godhead, all contradictions can be reconciled in You. O Lord, since You are the Supreme Person, the reservoir of unlimited spiritual qualities, the supreme controller, Your unlimited glories are inconceivable to the conditioned souls. Many modern theologians argue about right and wrong without knowing what is actually right. Their arguments are always false and their judgments inconclusive because they have no authorized evidence with which to gain knowledge of You. Because their minds are agitated by scriptures containing false conclusions, they are unable to understand the truth concerning You. Furthermore, because of polluted eagerness to arrive at the right conclusion, their theories are incapable of revealing You, who are transcendental to their material conceptions. You are one without a second, and therefore in You contradictions like doing and not doing, happiness and distress, are not contradictory. Your potency is so great that it can do and undo anything as You like. With the help of that potency, what is impossible for You? Since there is no duality in Your constitutional position, You can do everything by the influence of Your energy.

PURPORT

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, being self-sufficient, is full of transcendental bliss (atmarama). He enjoys bliss in two ways--when He appears happy and when He appears distressed. Distinctions and contradictions are impossible in Him because only from Him have they emanated. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the reservoir of all knowledge, all potency, all strength, opulence and influence. There is no limit to His powers. Since He is full in all transcendental attributes, nothing abominable from the material world can exist in Him. He is transcendental and spiritual, and therefore conceptions of material happiness and distress do not apply to Him.

We should not be astonished to find contradictions in the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Actually there are no contradictions. That is the meaning of His being supreme. Because He is all-powerful, He is not subject to the conditioned soul's arguments regarding His existence or nonexistence. He is pleased to protect His devotees by killing their enemies. He enjoys both the killing and the protecting.

Such freedom from duality applies not only to the Lord but also to His devotees. In Vrndavana, the damsels of Vrajabhumi enjoy transcendental bliss in the company of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, and they feel the same transcendental bliss in separation when Krsna and Balarama leave Vrndavana for Mathura. There is no question of material pains or pleasures for either the Supreme Personality of Godhead or His pure devotees, although they are sometimes superficially said to be distressed or happy. One who is atmarama is blissful in both ways.

Nondevotees cannot understand the contradictions present in the Supreme Lord or His devotees. Therefore in Bhagavad-gita the Lord says, bhaktya mam abhijanati: the transcendental pastimes can be understood through devotional service; to nondevotees they are inconceivable. Acintyah khalu ye bhava na tams tarkena yojayet: the Supreme Lord and His form, name, pastimes and paraphernalia are inconceivable to nondevotees, and one should not try to understand such realities simply by logical arguments. They will not bring one to the right conclusion about the Absolute Truth.

TEXT 37

TEXT

sama-visama-matinam matam anusarasi yatha rajju-khandah sarpadi-dhiyam.

SYNONYMS

sama--equal or proper; visama--and unequal or mistaken; matinam--of those having intelligence; matam--conclusion; anusarasi--You follow; yatha--just as; rajju-khandah--a piece of rope; sarpa-adi--a snake, etc.; dhiyam--of those who perceive.

TRANSLATION

A rope causes fear for a bewildered person who considers it a snake, but not for a person with proper intelligence who knows it to be only a rope. Similarly, You, as the Supersoul in everyone's heart, inspire fear or fearlessness according to one's intelligence, but in You there is no duality.

PURPORT

In Bhagavad-gita (4.11) the Lord says, ye yatha mam prapadyante tams tathaiva bhajamy aham: "As one surrenders unto Me, I reward him accordingly." The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the reservoir of everything, including all knowledge, all truth and all contradictions. The example cited herein is very appropriate. A rope is one truth, but some mistake it for a snake, whereas others know it to be a rope. Similarly, devotees who know the Supreme Personality of Godhead do not see contradictions in Him, but nondevotees regard Him as the snakelike source of all fear. For example, when Nrsimhadeva appeared, Prahlada Maharaja saw the Lord as the supreme solace, whereas his father, a demon, saw Him as the ultimate death. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.2.37), bhayam dvitiyabhinivesatah syat: fear results from being absorbed in duality. When one is in knowledge of duality, one knows both fear and bliss. The same Supreme Lord is a source of bliss to devotees and fear to nondevotees who have a poor fund of knowledge. God is one, but people understand the Absolute Truth from different angles of vision. The unintelligent see contradictions in Him, but sober devotees find no contradictions.

TEXT 38

TEXT

sa eva hi punah sarva-vastuni vastu-svarupah sarvesvarah sakala-jagat-karana-karana-bhutah sarva-pratyag-atmatvat sarva-gunabhasopalaksita eka eva paryavasesitah.

SYNONYMS

sah--He (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); eva--indeed; hi--certainly; punah--again; sarva-vastuni--in everything, material and spiritual; vastu-svarupah--the substance; sarva-isvarah--the controller of everything; sakala-jagat--of the whole universe; karana--of the causes; karana-bhutah--existing as the cause; sarva-pratyak-atmatvat--because of being the Supersoul of every living being, or being present in everything, even the atom; sarva-guna--of all the effects of the material modes of nature (such as intelligence and the senses); abhasa--by the manifestations; upalaksitah--perceived; ekah--alone; eva--indeed; paryavasesitah--left remaining.

TRANSLATION

With deliberation, one will see that the Supreme Soul, although manifested in different ways, is actually the basic principle of everything. The total material energy is the cause of the material manifestation, but the material energy is caused by Him. Therefore He is the cause of all causes, the manifester of intelligence and the senses. He is perceived as the Supersoul of everything. Without Him, everything would be dead. You, as that Supersoul, the supreme controller, are the only one remaining.

PURPORT

The words sarva-vastuni vastu-svarupah indicate that the Supreme Lord is the active principle of everything. As described in the Brahma-samhita (5.35):

eko 'py asau racayitum jagad-anda-kotim

yac-chaktir asti jagad-anda-caya yad-antah

andantara-stha-paramanu-cayantara-stham

govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami

"I worship the Personality of Godhead, Govinda, who enters the existence of every universe and every atom by one of His plenary portions and thus manifests His infinite energy throughout the material creation." By His one plenary portion as Paramatma, antaryami, the Lord is all-pervading throughout the unlimited universes. He is the pratyak, or antaryami, of all living entities. The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (13.3), ksetrajnam capi mam viddhi sarva-ksetresu bharata: "O scion of Bharata, you should understand that I am also the knower in all bodies." Because the Lord is the Supersoul, He is the active principle of every living entity and even the atom (anda-ntara-stha-paramanu-cayantara-stham). He is the actual reality. According to various stages of intelligence, one realizes the presence of the Supreme in everything through the manifestations of His energy. The entire world is permeated by the three gunas, and one can understand His presence according to one's modes of material nature.

TEXT 39

TEXT

atha ha vava tava mahimamrta-rasa-samudra-viprusa sakrd avalidhaya sva-manasi nisyandamananavarata-sukhena vismarita-drsta-sruta-visaya-sukha-lesabhasah parama-bhagavata ekantino bhagavati sarva-bhuta-priya-suhrdi sarvatmani nitaram nirantaram nirvrta-manasah katham u ha va ete madhumathana punah svartha-kusala hy atma-priya-suhrdah sadhavas tvac-caranambujanusevam visrjanti na yatra punar ayam samsara-paryavartah.

SYNONYMS

atha ha--therefore; vava--indeed; tava--Your; mahima--of glories; amrta--of the nectar; rasa--of the mellow; samudra--of the ocean; viprusa--by a drop; sakrt--only once; avalidhaya--tasted; sva-manasi--in his mind; nisyandamana--flowing; anavarata--continuously; sukhena--by the transcendental bliss; vismarita--forgotten; drsta--from material sight; sruta--and sound; visaya-sukha--of the material happiness; lesa-abhasah--the dim reflection of a tiny portion; parama-bhagavatah--great, exalted devotees; ekantinah--who have faith only in the Supreme Lord and nothing else; bhagavati--in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarva-bhuta--to all living entities; priya--who is dearmost; suhrdi--the friend; sarva-atmani--the Supersoul of all; nitaram--completely; nirantaram--continuously; nirvrta--with happiness; manasah--those whose minds; katham--how; u ha--then; va--or; ete--these; madhu-mathana--O killer of the Madhu demon; punah--again; sva-artha-kusalah--who are expert in the interest of life; hi--indeed; atma-priya-suhrdah--who have accepted You as the Supersoul, dearmost lover and friend; sadhavah--the devotees; tvat-carana-ambuja-anusevam--service to the lotus feet of Your Lordship; visrjanti--can give up; na--not; yatra--wherein; punah--again; ayam--this; samsara-paryavartah--repetition of birth and death within the material world.

TRANSLATION

Therefore, O killer of the Madhu demon, incessant transcendental bliss flows in the minds of those who have even once tasted but a drop of the nectar from the ocean of Your glories. Such exalted devotees forget the tiny reflection of so-called material happiness produced from the material senses of sight and sound. Free from all desires, such devotees are the real friends of all living entities. Offering their minds unto You and enjoying transcendental bliss, they are expert in achieving the real goal of life. O Lord, You are the soul and dear friend of such devotees, who never need return to this material world. How could they give up engagement in Your devotional service?

PURPORT

Although nondevotees, because of their meager knowledge and speculative habits, cannot understand the real nature of the Lord, a devotee who has once tasted the nectar from the Lord's lotus feet can realize what transcendental pleasure there is in the Lord's devotional service. A devotee knows that simply by rendering service to the Lord, he serves everyone. Therefore devotees are real friends to all living entities. Only a pure devotee can preach the glories of the Lord for the benefit of all conditioned souls.

TEXT 40

TEXT

tri-bhuvanatma-bhavana trivikrama tri-nayana tri-loka-manoharanubhava tavaiva vibhutayo ditija-danujadayas capi tesam upakrama-samayo 'yam iti svatma-mayaya sura-nara-mrga-misrita-jalacarakrtibhir yathaparadham dandam danda-dhara dadhartha evam enam api bhagavan jahi tvastram uta yadi manyase.

SYNONYMS

tri-bhuvana-atma-bhavana--O Lord, You are the shelter of the three worlds because You are the Supersoul of the three worlds; tri-vikrama--O Lord, who assumes the form of Vamana, Your power and opulence are distributed throughout the three worlds; tri-nayana--O maintainer and seer of the three worlds; tri-loka-manohara-anubhava--O You who are perceived as the most beautiful within the three worlds; tava--of You; eva--certainly; vibhutayah--the expansions of energy; diti-ja-danu-ja-adayah--the demoniac sons of Diti, and the Danavas, another type of demon; ca--and; api--also (the human beings); tesam--of all of them; upakrama-samayah--the time of enterprise; ayam--this; iti--thus; sva-atma-mayaya--by Your own energy; sura-nara-mrga-misrita-jalacara-akrtibhih--with different forms like those of the demigods, human beings, animals, mixtures and aquatics (the incarnations Vamana, Lord Ramacandra, Krsna, Varaha, Hayagriva, Nrsimha, Matsya and Kurma); yatha-aparadham--according to their offenses; dandam--punishment; danda-dhara--O supreme chastiser; dadhartha--You awarded; evam--thus; enam--this one (Vrtrasura); api--also; bhagavan--O Supreme Personality of Godhead; jahi--kill; tvastram--the son of Tvasta; uta--indeed; yadi manyase--if You think it proper.

TRANSLATION

O Lord, O personified three worlds, father of the three worlds! O strength of the three worlds, in the form of the Vamana incarnation! O three-eyed form of Nrsimhadeva! O most beautiful person within the three worlds! Everything and everyone, including human beings and even the Daitya demons and the Danavas, is but an expansion of Your energy. O supremely powerful one, You have always appeared in Your forms as the various incarnations to punish the demons as soon as they become very powerful. You appear as Lord Vamanadeva, Lord Rama and Lord Krsna. You appear sometimes as an animal like Lord Boar, sometimes a mixed incarnation like Lord Nrsimhadeva and Lord Hayagriva, and sometimes an aquatic like Lord Fish and Lord Tortoise. Assuming such various forms, You have always punished the demons and Danavas. We therefore pray that Your Lordship appear today as another incarnation, if You so desire, to kill the great demon Vrtrasura.

PURPORT

There are two kinds of devotees, known as sakama and akama. Pure devotees are akama, whereas devotees in the upper planetary systems, such as the demigods, are called sakama because they still want to enjoy material opulence. Because of their pious activities, the sakama devotees are promoted to the higher planetary systems, but at heart they still desire to lord it over the material resources. The sakama devotees are sometimes disturbed by the demons and Raksasas, but the Lord is so kind that He always saves them by appearing as an incarnation. The Lord's incarnations are so powerful that Lord Vamanadeva covered the entire universe with two steps and therefore had no place for His third step. The Lord is called Trivikrama because He showed His strength by delivering the entire universe with merely three steps.

The difference between sakama and akama devotees is that when sakama devotees, like the demigods, fall into difficulty, they approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead for relief, whereas akama devotees, even in the greatest danger, never disturb the Lord for material benefits. Even if an akama devotee is suffering, he thinks this is due to his past impious activities and agrees to suffer the consequences. He never disturbs the Lord. Sakama devotees immediately pray to the Lord as soon as they are in difficulty, but they are regarded as pious because they consider themselves fully dependent on the mercy of the Lord. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.8):

tat te 'nukampam susamiksamano

bhunjana evatma-krtam vipakam

hrd-vag-vapurbhir vidadhan namas te

jiveta yo mukti-pade sa daya-bhak

Even while suffering in the midst of difficulties, devotees simply offer their prayers and service more enthusiastically. In this way they become firmly fixed in devotional service and eligible to return home, back to Godhead, without a doubt. Sakama devotees, of course, achieve from the Lord the results they desire from their prayers, but they do not immediately become fit to return to Godhead. It is to be noted herein that Lord Visnu, in His various incarnations, is always the protector of His devotees. Srila Madhvacarya says: vividham bhava-patratvat sarve visnor vibhutayah. Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead (krsnas tu bhagavan svayam). All the other incarnations proceed from Lord Visnu.

TEXT 41

TEXT

asmakam tavakanam tatatata natanam hare tava carana-nalina-yugala-dhyananubaddha-hrdaya-nigadanam sva-linga-vivaranenatmasat-krtanam anukampanuranjita-visada-rucira-sisira-smitavalokena vigalita-madhura-mukha-rasamrta-kalaya cantas tapam anagharhasi samayitum.

SYNONYMS

asmakam--of us; tavakanam--who are wholly and solely dependent upon You; tata-tata--O grandfather, father of the father; natanam--who are fully surrendered unto You; hare--O Lord Hari; tava--Your; carana--on the feet; nalina-yugala--like two blue lotus flowers; dhyana--by meditation; anubaddha--bound; hrdaya--in the heart; nigadanam--whose chains; sva-linga-vivaranena--by manifesting Your own form; atmasat-krtanam--of those You have accepted as Your own; anukampa--by compassion; anuranjita--being colored; visada--bright; rucira--very pleasing; sisira--cool; smita--with a smile; avalokena--by Your glance; vigalita--melted with compassion; madhura-mukha-rasa--of the very sweet words from Your mouth; amrta-kalaya--by the drops of nectar; ca--and; antah--within the cores of our hearts; tapam--the great pain; anagha--O supreme pure; arhasi--You deserve; samayitum--to curb.

TRANSLATION

O supreme protector, O grandfather, O supreme pure, O Lord! We are all surrendered souls at Your lotus feet. Indeed, our minds are bound to Your lotus feet in meditation by chains of love. Now please manifest Your incarnation. Accepting us as Your own eternal servants and devotees, be pleased with us and sympathetic toward us. By Your love-filled glance, with its cool and pleasing smile of sympathy, and by the sweet, nectarean words emanating from Your beautiful face, free us from the anxiety caused by this Vrtrasura, who always pains the cores of our hearts.

PURPORT

Lord Brahma is considered the father of the demigods, but Krsna, or Lord Visnu, is the father of Brahma because Brahma took birth from the lotus flower growing from the Lord's abdomen.

TEXT 42

TEXT

atha bhagavams tavasmabhir akhila-jagad-utpatti-sthiti-laya-nimittayamana-divya-maya-vinodasya sakala-jiva-nikayanam antar-hrdayesu bahir api ca brahma-pratyag-atma-svarupena pradhana-rupena ca yatha-desa-kala-dehavasthana-visesam tad-upadanopalambhakatayanubhavatah sarva-pratyaya-saksina akasa-sarirasya saksat para-brahmanah paramatmanah kiyan iha vartha-viseso vijnapaniyah syad visphulingadibhir iva hiranya-retasah.

SYNONYMS

atha--therefore; bhagavan--O Lord; tava--of You; asmabhih--by us; akhila--all; jagat--of the material world; utpatti--of the creation; sthiti--maintenance; laya--and annihilation; nimittayamana--being the cause; divya-maya--with the spiritual energy; vinodasya--of You, who amuse Yourself; sakala--all; jiva-nikayanam--of the hordes of living entities; antah-hrdayesu--in the cores of the hearts; bahih api--externally also; ca--and; brahma--of impersonal Brahman, or the Absolute Truth; pratyak-atma--of the Supersoul; sva-rupena--by Your forms; pradhana-rupena--by Your form as the external ingredients; ca--also; yatha--according to; desa-kala-deha-avasthana--of country, time, body and position; visesam--the particulars; tat--of them; upadana--of the material causes; upalambhakataya--by being the exhibitor; anubhavatah--witnessing; sarva-pratyaya-saksinah--the witness of all different activities; akasa-sarirasya--the Supersoul of the whole universe; saksat--directly; para-brahmanah--the Supreme Absolute Truth; paramatmanah--the Supersoul; kiyan--of what extent; iha--herein; va--or; artha-visesah--special necessity; vijnapaniyah--to be informed; syat--may be; visphulinga-adibhih--by the sparks of the fire; iva--like; hiranya-retasah--to the original fire.

TRANSLATION

O Lord, as the small sparks of a fire cannot possibly perform the actions of the whole fire, we sparks of Your Lordship cannot inform You of the necessities of our lives. You are the complete whole. Therefore, of what do we need to inform You? You know everything because You are the original cause of the cosmic manifestation, the maintainer and the annihilator of the entire universal creation. You always engage in Your pastimes with Your spiritual and material energies, for You are the controller of all these varied energies. You exist within all living entities, within the cosmic manifestation, and also beyond them. You exist internally as Parabrahman and externally as the ingredients of the material creation. Therefore, although manifested in various stages, at different times and places, and in various bodies, You, the Personality of Godhead, are the original cause of all causes. Indeed, You are the original element. You are the witness of all activities, but because You are as great as the sky, You are never touched by any of them. You are the witness of everything as Parabrahman and Paramatma. O Supreme Personality of Godhead, nothing is unknown to You.

PURPORT

The Absolute Truth exists in three phases of spiritual understanding--Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan (brahmeti paramatmeti bhagavan iti sabdyate). Bhagavan, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the cause of Brahman and Paramatma. Brahman, the impersonal Absolute Truth, is all-pervading, and Paramatma is locally situated in everyone's heart, but Bhagavan, who is worshipable by the devotees. is the original cause of all causes. A pure devotee is aware that since nothing is unknown to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He need not be informed of a devotee's conveniences and inconveniences. A pure devotee knows that there is no need to ask the Absolute Truth for any material necessities. Therefore, while informing the Supreme Lord about their distress in being attacked by Vrtrasura, the demigods apologized for offering prayers for their safety. A neophyte devotee, of course, approaches the Supreme Lord for relief from distress or poverty, or for speculative knowledge of the Lord. Bhagavad-gita (7.16) mentions four kinds of pious men who begin devotional service to the Lord--one who is distressed (arta), one in need of money (artharthi), one who is inquisitive (jijnasu) and one who is searching for the Absolute Truth (jnani). A pure devotee, however, knows that since the Lord is omnipresent and omniscient, there is no need to offer prayers or worship Him for one's personal benefit. A pure devotee always engages in the service of the Lord without demanding anything. The Lord is present everywhere and knows the necessities of His devotees; consequently there is no need to disturb Him by asking Him for material benefits.

TEXT 43

TEXT

ata eva svayam tad upakalpayasmakam bhagavatah parama-guros tava carana-sata-palasac-chayam vividha-vrjina-samsara-parisramopasamanim upasrtanam vayam yat-kamenopasaditah.

SYNONYMS

ata eva--therefore; svayam--Yourself; tat--that; upakalpaya--please arrange; asmakam--of us; bhagavatah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; parama-guroh--the supreme spiritual master; tava--of You; carana--of the feet; sata-palasat--like lotus flowers with hundreds of petals; chayam--the shade; vividha--various; vrjina--with dangerous positions; samsara--of this conditioned life; parisrama--the pain; upasamanim--relieving; upasrtanam--the devotees who have taken shelter at Your lotus feet; vayam--we; yat--for which; kamena--by the desires; upasaditah--caused to come near (the shelter of Your lotus feet).

TRANSLATION

Dear Lord, You are omniscient, and therefore You know very well why we have taken shelter at Your lotus feet, which provide shade that gives relief from all material disturbances. Since You are the supreme spiritual master and You know everything, we have sought shelter of Your lotus feet for instruction. Please give us relief by counteracting our present distress. Your lotus feet are the only shelter for a fully surrendered devotee and are the only means for subduing all the tribulations of this material world.

PURPORT

One need only seek shelter of the shade of the Lord's lotus feet. Then all the material tribulations that disturb him will be subdued, just as when one comes under the shadow of a big tree, the disturbances caused by the heat of the scorching sun are immediately mitigated, without one's asking for relief. Therefore the whole concern of the conditioned soul should be the lotus feet of the Lord. The conditioned soul suffering from various tribulations because of existing in this material world can be relieved only when he seeks shelter at the Lord's lotus feet.

TEXT 44

TEXT

atho isa jahi tvastram

grasantam bhuvana-trayam

grastani yena nah krsna

tejamsy astrayudhani ca

SYNONYMS

atho--therefore; isa--O supreme controller; jahi--kill; tvastram--the demon Vrtrasura, son of Tvasta; grasantam--who is devouring; bhuvana-trayam--the three worlds; grastani--devoured; yena--by whom; nah--our; krsna--O Lord Krsna; tejamsi--all strength and prowess; astra--arrows; ayudhani--and other weapons; ca--also.

TRANSLATION

Therefore, O Lord, O supreme controller, O Lord Krsna, please annihilate this dangerous demon Vrtrasura, Tvasta's son, who has already swallowed all our weapons, our paraphernalia for fighting, and our strength and influence.

PURPORT

The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (7.15-16):

na mam duskrtino mudhah

prapadyante naradhamah

mayayapahrta-jnana

asuram bhavam asritah

catur-vidha bhajante mam

janah sukrtino 'rjuna

arto jijnasur artharthi

jnani ca bharatarsabha

"Those miscreants who are grossly foolish, lowest among mankind, whose knowledge is stolen by illusion, and who partake of the atheistic nature of demons, do not surrender unto Me. O best among the Bharatas [Arjuna], four kinds of pious men render devotional service unto Me--the distressed, the desirer of wealth, the inquisitive, and he who is searching for knowledge of the Absolute."

The four classes of neophyte devotees who approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead to offer devotional service because of material motives are not pure devotees, but the advantage for such materialistic devotees is that they sometimes give up their material desires and become pure. When the demigods are utterly helpless, they approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead in grief and with tears in their eyes, praying to the Lord, and thus they become almost pure devotees, free from material desires. Admitting that they have forgotten pure devotional service because of extensive material opportunities, they fully surrender to the Lord, leaving to His consideration whether to maintain them or annihilate them. Such surrender is necessary. Bhaktivinoda Thakura sings, marabi rakhabi--yo iccha tohara: "O Lord, I fully surrender unto Your lotus feet. Now, as You desire, You may protect me or annihilate me. You have the full right to do either."

TEXT 45

TEXT

hamsaya dahra-nilayaya niriksakaya

krsnaya mrsta-yasase nirupakramaya

sat-sangrahaya bhava-pantha-nijasramaptav

ante parista-gataye haraye namas te

SYNONYMS

hamsaya--unto the most exalted and pure (pavitram paramam, the supreme pure); dahra--in the core of the heart; nilayaya--whose abode; niriksakaya--supervising the activities of the individual soul; krsnaya--unto the Supersoul, who is a partial manifestation of Krsna; mrsta-yasase--whose reputation is very bright; nirupakramaya--who has no beginning; sat-sangrahaya--understood only by pure devotees; bhava-pantha-nija-asrama-aptau--being obtainment of the shelter of Krsna for persons within this material world; ante--at the ultimate end; parista-gataye--unto Him who is the ultimate goal, the highest success of life; haraye--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; namah--respectful obeisances; te--unto You.

TRANSLATION

O Lord, O supreme pure, You live within the core of everyone's heart and observe all the desires and activities of the conditioned souls. O Supreme Personality of Godhead known as Lord Krsna, Your reputation is bright and illuminating. You have no beginning, for You are the beginning of everything. This is understood by pure devotees because You are easily accessible to the pure and truthful. When the conditioned souls are liberated and sheltered at Your lotus feet after roving throughout the material world for many millions of years, they attain the highest success of life. Therefore, O Lord, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, we offer our respectful obeisances at Your lotus feet.

PURPORT

The demigods certainly wanted Lord Visnu to relieve their anxiety, but now they directly approach Lord Krsna, for although there is no difference between Lord Krsna and Lord Visnu, Krsna descends to this planet in His Vasudeva feature for the purpose of paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam--protecting His devotees and annihilating the miscreants. Demons, or atheists, always disturb the demigods, or devotees, and therefore Krsna descends to punish the atheists and demons and fulfill the desire of His devotees. Krsna, being the original cause of everything, is the Supreme Person, above even Visnu and Narayana, although there is no difference between these different forms of the Lord. As explained in Brahma-samhita (5.46):

diparcir eva hi dasantaram abhyupetya

dipayate vivrta-hetu-samana-dharma

yas tadrg eva hi ca visnutaya vibhati

govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami

Krsna expands Himself as Visnu the way a bright candle kindles another. Although there is no difference between the power of one candle and another, Krsna is compared to the original candle.

The word mrsta-yasase is significant herein because Krsna is always famous for relieving His devotee from danger. A devotee who has sacrificed everything for the service of Krsna and whose only source of relief is the Lord is known as akincana.

As expressed in the prayers offered by Queen Kunti, the Lord is akincana-vitta, the property of such a devotee. Those who are liberated from the bondage of conditioned life are elevated to the spiritual world, where they achieve five kinds of liberation--sayujya, salokya, sarupya, sarsti and samipya. They personally associate with the Lord in five mellows--santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhurya. These rasas are all emanations from Krsna. As described by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura, the original mellow, adi-rasa, is conjugal love. Krsna is the origin of pure and spiritual conjugal love.

TEXT 46

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

athaivam idito rajan

sadaram tri-dasair harih

svam upasthanam akarnya

praha tan abhinanditah

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; atha--thereafter; evam--in this way; iditah--being worshiped and offered obeisances; rajan--O King; sa-adaram--with proper respect; tri-dasaih--by all the demigods from the higher planetary systems; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svam upasthanam--their prayer glorifying Him; akarnya--hearing; praha--replied; tan--unto them (the demigods); abhinanditah--being pleased.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: O King Pariksit, when the demigods offered the Lord their sincere prayers in this way, the Lord listened by His causeless mercy. Being pleased, He then replied to the demigods.

TEXT 47

TEXT

sri-bhagavan uvaca

prito 'ham vah sura-srestha

mad-upasthana-vidyaya

atmaisvarya-smrtih pumsam

bhaktis caiva yaya mayi

SYNONYMS

sri-bhagavan uvaca--the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; pritah--pleased; aham--I; vah--of you; sura-sresthah--O best of the demigods; mat-upasthana-vidyaya--by the highly advanced knowledge and prayers offered unto Me; atma-aisvarya-smrtih--remembrance of the exalted transcendental position of Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pumsam--of men; bhaktih--devotional service; ca--and; eva--certainly; yaya--by which; mayi--unto Me.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O beloved demigods, you have offered your prayers to Me with great knowledge, and I am certainly most pleased with you. A person is liberated by such knowledge, and thus he remembers My exalted position, which is above the conditions of material life. Such a devotee is fully purified by offering prayers in full knowledge. This is the source of devotional service to Me.

PURPORT

Another name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is Uttamasloka, which means that He is offered prayers with selected verses. Bhakti means sravanam kirtanam visnoh, chanting and hearing about Lord Visnu. Impersonalists cannot be purified, for they do not offer personal prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Even though they sometimes offer prayers, the prayers are not directed toward the Supreme Person. Impersonalists sometimes show their incomplete knowledge by addressing the Lord as being nameless. They always offer prayers indirectly, saying, "You are this, You are that," but they do not know to whom they are praying. A devotee, however, always offers personal prayers. A devotee says, govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami: "I offer my respectful obeisances unto Govinda, unto Krsna." That is the way to offer prayers. If one continues to offer such personal prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he is eligible to become a pure devotee and return home, back to Godhead.

TEXT 48

TEXT

kim durapam mayi prite

tathapi vibudharsabhah

mayy ekanta-matir nanyan

matto vanchati tattva-vit

SYNONYMS

kim--what; durapam--difficult to obtain; mayi--when 1; prite--satisfied; tathapi--still; vibudha-rsabhah--O best of the intelligent demigods; mayi--in Me; ekanta--exclusively fixed; matih--whose attention; na anyat--not anything other; mattah--than Me; vanchati--desires; tattva-vit--one who knows the truth.

TRANSLATION

O best of the intelligent demigods, although it is true that nothing is difficult for one to obtain when I am pleased with him, a pure devotee, whose mind is exclusively fixed upon Me, does not ask Me for anything but the opportunity to engage in devotional service.

PURPORT

When the demigods finished offering their prayers, they anxiously waited for their enemy Vrtrasura to be killed. This means that the demigods are not pure devotees. Although without difficulty one can get anything he desires if the Lord is pleased, the demigods aspire for material profit by pleasing the Lord. The Lord wanted the demigods to pray for unalloyed devotional service, but instead they prayed for an opportunity to kill their enemy. This is the difference between a pure devotee and a devotee on the material platform. Indirectly, the Lord regretted that the demigods did not ask for pure devotional service.

TEXT 49

TEXT

na veda krpanah sreya

atmano guna-vastu-drk

tasya tan icchato yacched

yadi so 'pi tatha-vidhah

SYNONYMS

na--not; veda--knows; krpanah--a miserly living entity; sreyah--the ultimate necessity; atmanah--of the soul; guna-vastu-drk--who is attracted by the creation of the modes of material nature; tasya--of him; tan--things created by the material energy; icchatah--desiring; yacchet--one bestows; yadi--if; sah api--he also; tatha-vidhah--of the kind (a foolish krpana who does not know his real self-interest).

TRANSLATION

Those who think material assets to be everything or to be the ultimate goal of life are called misers [krpanas]. They do not know the ultimate necessity of the soul. Moreover, if one awards that which is desired by such fools, he must also be considered foolish.

PURPORT

There are two classes of men--namely the krpana and the brahmana. A brahmana is one who knows Brahman, the Absolute Truth, and who thus knows his real interest. A krpana, however, is one who has a material, bodily concept of life. Not knowing how to utilize his human or demigod life, a krpana is attracted by things created by the material modes of nature. The krpanas, who always desire material benefits, are foolish, whereas brahmanas, who always desire spiritual benefits, are intelligent. If a krpana, not knowing his self-interest, foolishly asks for something material, one who awards it to him is also foolish. Krsna, however, is not a foolish person; He is supremely intelligent. If someone comes to Krsna asking for material benefits, Krsna does not award him the material things he desires. Instead, the Lord gives him intelligence so that he will forget his material desires and become attached to the Lord's lotus feet. In such cases, although the krpana offers prayers to Lord Krsna for material things, the Lord takes away whatever material possessions the krpana has and gives him the sense to become a devotee. As stated by the Lord in the Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 22.39):

ami--vijna, ei murkhe 'visaya' kene diba?

sva-caranamrta diya 'visaya' bhulaiba

"Since I am very intelligent, why should I give this fool material prosperity? Instead I shall induce him to take the nectar of the shelter of My lotus feet and make him forget illusory material enjoyment." If one sincerely prays to God for material possessions in exchange for devotional service, the Lord, who is not foolish like such an unintelligent devotee, shows him special favor by taking away whatever material possessions he has and gradually giving him the intelligence to be satisfied only by rendering service to His lotus feet. Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura comments in this regard that if a foolish child requests his mother to give him poison, the mother, being intelligent, will certainly not give him poison, even though he requests it. A materialist does not know that to accept material possessions means to accept poison, or the repetition of birth and death. An intelligent person, a brahmana, aspires for liberation from material bondage. That is the real self-interest of a human being.

TEXT 50

TEXT

svayam nihsreyasam vidvan

na vakty ajnaya karma hi

na rati rogino 'pathyam

vanchato 'pi bhisaktamah

SYNONYMS

svayam--personally; nihsreyasam--the supreme goal of life, namely the means of obtaining ecstatic love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vit-van--one who is accomplished in devotional service; na--not; vakti--teaches; ajnaya--unto a foolish person not conversant with the ultimate goal of life; karma--fruitive activities; hi--indeed; na--not; rati--administers; roginah--unto the patient; apathyam--something unconsumable; vanchatah--desiring; api--although; bhisak-tamah--an experienced physician.

TRANSLATION

A pure devotee who is fully accomplished in the science of devotional service will never instruct a foolish person to engage in fruitive activities for material enjoyment, not to speak of helping him in such activities. Such a devotee is like an experienced physician, who never encourages a patient to eat food injurious to his health, even if the patient desires it.

PURPORT

Here is the difference between the benedictions awarded by the demigods and those awarded by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu. Devotees of the demigods ask for benedictions simply for sense gratification, and therefore they have been described in Bhagavad-gita (7.20) as bereft of intelligence.

kamais tais tair hrta-jnanah

prapadyante 'nya-devatah

tam tam niyamam asthaya

prakrtya niyatah svaya

"Those whose minds are distorted by material desires surrender unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations of worship according to their own natures."

Conditioned souls are generally bereft of intelligence because of profound desires for sense gratification. They do not know what benedictions to ask. Therefore nondevotees are advised in the sastras to worship various demigods to achieve material benefits. For example, if one wants a beautiful wife, he is advised to worship Uma, or goddess Durga. If one wants to be cured of a disease, he is advised to worship the sun-god. All requests for benedictions from the demigods, however, are due to material lust. The benedictions will be finished at the end of the cosmic manifestation, along with those who bestow them. If one approaches Lord Visnu for benedictions, the Lord will give him a benediction that will help him return home, back to Godhead. This is also confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (10.10):

tesam satata-yuktanam

bhajatam priti-purvakam

dadami buddhi-yogam tam

yena mam upayanti te

Lord Visnu, or Lord Krsna, instructs a devotee who constantly engages in His service how to approach Him at the end of his material body. The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (4.9):

janma karma ca me divyam

evam yo vetti tattvatah

tyaktva deham punar janma

naiti mam eti so 'rjuna

"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities, does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna." This is the benediction of Lord Visnu, Krsna. After giving up his body, a devotee returns home, back to Godhead.

A devotee may foolishly ask for material benedictions, but Lord Krsna does not give him such benedictions, despite the devotee's prayers. Therefore people who are very attached to material life do not generally become devotees of Krsna or Visnu. Instead they become devotees of the demigods (kamais tais tair hrta jnanah prapadyante 'nya-devatah). The benedictions of the demigods, however, are condemned in Bhagavad-gita. Antavat tu phalam tesam tad bhavaty alpa-medhasam: "Men of small intelligence worship the demigods, and their fruits are limited and temporary." A non-Vaisnava, one who is not engaged in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is considered a fool with a small quantity of brain substance.

TEXT 51

TEXT

maghavan yata bhadram vo

dadhyancam rsi-sattamam

vidya-vrata-tapah-saram

gatram yacata ma ciram

SYNONYMS

maghavan--O Indra; yata--go; bhadram--good fortune; vah--to all of you; dadhyancam--to Dadhyanca; rsi-sat-tamam--the most exalted saintly person; vidya--of education; vrata--vow; tapah--and austerities; saram--the essence; gatram--his body; yacata--ask for; ma ciram--without delay.

TRANSLATION

O Maghavan [Indra], all good fortune unto you. I advise you to approach the exalted saint Dadhyanca [Dadhici]. He has become very accomplished in knowledge, vows and austerities, and his body is very strong. Go ask him for his body without delay.

PURPORT

Everyone in this material world, from Lord Brahma down to the ant, is eager to keep his body comfortable. A pure devotee may also be comfortable, but he is not eager for such a benediction. Since Maghavan, the King of heaven, still aspired for a comfortable bodily situation, Lord Visnu advised him to ask Dadhyanca for his body, which was very strong due to his knowledge, vows and austerity.

TEXT 52

TEXT

sa va adhigato dadhyann

asvibhyam brahma niskalam

yad va asvasiro nama

tayor amaratam vyadhat

SYNONYMS

sah--he; va--certainly; adhigatah--having obtained; dadhyan--Dadhyanca; asvibhyam--to the two Asvini-kumaras; brahma--spiritual knowledge; niskalam--pure; yat va--by which; asvasirah--Asvasira; nama--named; tayoh--of the two; amaratam--liberation in one's life; vyadhat--awarded.

TRANSLATION

That saintly Dadhyanca, who is also known as Dadhici, personally assimilated the spiritual science and then delivered it to the Asvini-kumaras. It is said that Dadhyanca gave them mantras through the head of a horse. Therefore the mantras are called Asvasira. After obtaining the mantras of spiritual science from Dadhici, the Asvini-kumaras became jivan-mukta, liberated even in this life.

PURPORT

The following story is narrated by many acaryas in their commentaries:

nisamyatharvanam daksam pravargya-brahmavidyayoh; dadhyancam samupagamya tam ucatur athasvinau; bhagavan dehi nau vidyam iti srutva sa cabravit; karmany avasthito 'dyaham pascad vaksyami gacchatam; tayor nirgatayor eva sakra agatya tam munim; uvaca bhisajor vidyam ma vadir asvinor mune; yadi mad-vakyam ullanghya bravisi sahasaiva te; siras-chindyam na sandeha ity uktva sa yayau harih; indre gate tathabhyetya nasatyav ucatur dvijam; tan-mukhad indra-gaditam srutva tav ucatuh punah; avam tava siras chittva purvam asvasya mastakam; sandhasyavas tato bruhi tena vidyam ca nau dvija; tasminn indrena sanchinne punah sandhaya mastakam; nijam te daksinam dattva gamisyavo yathagatam; etac chrutva tadovaca dadhyann atharvanas tayoh pravargyam brahma-vidyam ca sat-krto 'satya-sankitah.

The great saint Dadhici had perfect knowledge of how to perform fruitive activities, and he had advanced spiritual knowledge as well. Knowing this, the Asvini-kumaras once approached him and begged him to instruct them in spiritual science (brahma-vidya). Dadhici Muni replied, "I am now engaged in arranging sacrifices for fruitive activities. Come back some time later." When the Asvini-kumaras left, Indra, the King of heaven, approached Dadhici and said, "My dear Muni, the Asvini-kumaras are only physicians. Please do not instruct them in spiritual science. If you impart the spiritual science to them despite my warning, I shall punish you by cutting off your head." After warning Dadhici in this way, Indra returned to heaven. The Asvini-kumaras, who understood Indra's desires, returned and begged Dadhici for brahma-vidya. When the great saint Dadhici informed them of Indra's threat, the Asvini-kumaras replied, "Let us first cut off your head and replace it with the head of a horse. You can instruct brahma-vidya through the horse's head, and when Indra returns and cuts off that head, we shall reward you and restore your original head." Since Dadhici had promised to impart brahma-vidya to the Asvini-kumaras, he agreed to their proposal. Therefore, because Dadhici imparted brahma-vidya through the mouth of a horse, this brahma-vidya is also known as Asvasira.

TEXT 53

TEXT

dadhyann atharvanas tvastre

varmabhedyam mad-atmakam

visvarupaya yat pradat

tvasta yat tvam adhas tatah

SYNONYMS

dadhyan--Dadhyanca; atharvanah--the son of Atharva; tvastre--unto Tvasta; varma--the protective covering known as Narayana-kavaca; abhedyam--invincible; mat-atmakam--consisting of Myself; visvarupaya--unto Visvarupa; yat--which; pradat--delivered; tvasta--Tvasta; yat--which; tvam--you; adhah--received; tatah--from him.

TRANSLATION

Dadhyanca's invincible protective covering known as the Narayana-kavaca was given to Tvasta, who delivered it to his son Visvarupa, from whom you have received it. Because of this Narayana-kavaca, Dadhici's body is now very strong. You should therefore beg him for his body.

TEXT 54

TEXT

yusmabhyam yacito 'svibhyam

dharma-jno 'ngani dasyati

tatas tair ayudha-srestho

visvakarma-vinirmitah

yena vrtra-siro harta

mat-teja-upabrmhitah

SYNONYMS

yusmabhyam--for all of you; yacitah--being asked; asvibhyam--by the Asvini-kumaras; dharma-jnah--Dadhici, who knows the principles of religion; angani--his limbs; dasyati--will give; tatah--after that; taih--by those bones; ayudha--of weapons; sresthah--the most powerful (the thunderbolt); visvakarma-vinirmitah--manufactured by Visvakarma; yena--by which; vrtra-sirah--the head of Vrtrasura; harta--will be taken away; mat-tejah--by My strength; upabrmhitah--increased.

TRANSLATION

When the Asvini-kumaras beg for Dadhyanca's body on your behalf, he will surely give it because of affection. Do not doubt this, for Dadhyanca is very experienced in religious understanding. When Dadhyanca awards you his body, Visvakarma will prepare a thunderbolt from his bones. This thunderbolt will certainly kill Vrtrasura because it will be invested with My power.

TEXT 55

TEXT

tasmin vinihate yuyam

tejo-'strayudha-sampadah

bhuyah prapsyatha bhadram vo

na himsanti ca mat-paran

SYNONYMS

tasmin--when he (Vrtrasura); vinihate--is killed; yuyam--all of you; tejah--power; astra--arrows; ayudha--other weapons; sampadah--and opulence; bhuyah--again; prapsyatha--will obtain; bhadram--all good fortune; vah--unto you; na--not; himsanti--hurt; ca--also; mat-paran--My devotees.

TRANSLATION

When Vrtrasura is killed because of My spiritual strength, you will regain your strength, weapons and wealth. Thus there will be all good fortune for all of you. Although Vrtrasura can destroy all the three worlds, do not fear that he will harm you. He is also a devotee and will never be envious of you.

PURPORT

A devotee of the Lord is never envious of anyone, what to speak of other devotees. As revealed later, Vrtrasura was also a devotee. Therefore be was not expected to be envious of the demigods. Indeed, of his own accord, he would try to benefit the demigods. A devotee does not hesitate to give up his own body for a better cause. Canakya Pandita said, san-nimitte varam tyago vinase niyate sati. After all, all one's material possessions, including his body, will be destroyed in due course of time. Therefore if the body and other possessions can be utilized for a better cause, a devotee never hesitates to give up even his own body. Because Lord Visnu wanted to save the demigods, Vrtrasura, even though able to swallow the three worlds, would agree to be killed by the demigods. For a devotee there is no difference between living and dying because in this life a devotee engages in devotional service, and after giving up his body, he engages in the same service in the spiritual world. His devotional service is never hindered.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to the Ninth Chapter, Sixth Canto, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "Appearance of the Demon Vrtrasura."

Chapter Ten

The Battle Between the Demigods and Vrtrasura

As described in this chapter, after Indra obtained the body of Dadhici, a thunderbolt was prepared from Dadhici's bones, and a fight took place between Vrtrasura and the demigods.

Following the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the demigods approached Dadhici Muni and begged for his body. Dadhici Muni, just to hear from the demigods about the principles of religion, jokingly refused to relinquish his body, but for higher purposes he thereafter agreed to give it up, for after death the body is usually eaten by low animals like dogs and jackals. Dadhici Muni first merged his gross body made of five elements into the original stock of five elements and then engaged his soul at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus he gave up his gross body. With the help of Visvakarma, the demigods then prepared a thunderbolt from Dadhici's bones. Armed with the thunderbolt weapon, they prepared themselves to fight and got up on the backs of elephants.

At the end of Satya-yuga and the beginning of Treta-yuga. a great fight took place between the demigods and the asuras. Unable to tolerate the effulgence of the demigods, the asuras fled the battle. leaving Vrtrasura, their commander in chief, to fight for himself. Vrtrasura, however, seeing the demons fleeing, instructed them in the importance of fighting and dying in the battlefield. One who is victorious in battle gains material possessions, and one who dies in the battlefield attains a residence at once in the celestial heavens. In either way, the fighter benefits.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-badarayanir uvaca

indram evam samadisya

bhagavan visva-bhavanah

pasyatam animesanam

tatraivantardadhe harih

SYNONYMS

sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; indram--Indra, the heavenly King; evam--thus; samadisya--after instructing; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; visva-bhavanah--the original cause of all cosmic manifestations; pasyatam animesanam--while the demigods were looking on; tatra--then and there; eva--indeed; antardadhe--disappeared; harih--the Lord.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: After instructing Indra in this way, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, the cause of the cosmic manifestation, then and there disappeared from the presence of the onlooking demigods.

TEXT 2

TEXT

tathabhiyacito devair

rsir atharvano mahan

modamana uvacedam

prahasann iva bharata

SYNONYMS

tatha--in that manner; abhiyacitah--being begged; devaih--by the demigods; rsih--the great saintly person; atharvanah--Dadhici, the son of Atharva; mahan--the great personality; modamanah--being merry; uvaca--said; idam--this; prahasan--smiling; iva--somewhat; bharata--O Maharaja Pariksit.

TRANSLATION

O King Pariksit, following the Lord's instructions, the demigods approached Dadhici, the son of Atharva. He was very liberal, and when they begged him to give them his body, he at once partially agreed. However, just to hear religious instructions from them, he smiled and jokingly spoke as follows.

TEXT 3

TEXT

api vrndaraka yuyam

na janitha saririnam

samsthayam yas tv abhidroho

duhsahas cetanapahah

SYNONYMS

api--although; vrndarakah--O demigods; yuyam--all of you; na janitha--do not know; saririnam--of those who have material bodies; samsthayam--at the time of death, or while quitting this body; yah--which; tu--then; abhidrohah--severe pain; duhsahah--unbearable; cetana--the consciousness; apahah--which takes away.

TRANSLATION

O elevated demigods, at the time of death, severe, unbearable pain takes away the consciousness of all living entities who have accepted material bodies. Don't you know about this pain?

TEXT 4

TEXT

jijivisunam jivanam

atma prestha ihepsitah

ka utsaheta tam datum

bhiksamanaya visnave

SYNONYMS

jijivisunam--aspiring to remain alive; jivanam--of all living entities; atma--the body; presthah--very dear; iha--here; ipsitah--desired; kah--who; utsaheta--can bear; tam--that body; datum--to deliver; bhiksamanaya--begging; visnave--even to Lord Visnu.

TRANSLATION

In this material world, every living entity is very much addicted to his material body. Struggling to keep his body forever, everyone tries to protect it by all means, even at the sacrifice of all his possessions. Therefore, who would be prepared to deliver his body to anyone, even if it were demanded by Lord Visnu?

PURPORT

It is said, atmanam sarvato rakset tato dharmam tato dhanam: one must protect his body by all means; then he may protect his religious principles and thereafter his possessions. This is the natural desire of all living entities. No one wants to give up his body unless it is forcibly given away. Even though the demigods said that they were demanding Dadhici's body for their benefit in accordance with the order of Lord Visnu, Dadhici superficially refused to give them his body.

TEXT 5

TEXT

sri-deva ucuh

kim nu tad dustyajam brahman

pumsam bhutanukampinam

bhavad-vidhanam mahatam

punya-slokedya-karmanam

SYNONYMS

sri-devah ucuh--the demigods said; kim--what; nu--indeed; tat--that; dustyajam--difficult to give up; brahman--O exalted brahmana; pumsam--of persons; bhuta-anukampinam--who are very sympathetic toward the suffering living entities; bhavat-vidhanam--like Your Lordship; mahatam--who are very great; punya-sloka-idya-karmanam--whose pious activities are praised by all great souls.

TRANSLATION

The demigods replied: O exalted brahmana, pious persons like you, whose activities are praiseworthy, are very kind and affectionate to people in general. What can't such pious souls give for the benefit of others? They can give everything, including their bodies.

TEXT 6

TEXT

nunam svartha-paro loko

na veda para-sankatam

yadi veda na yaceta

neti naha yad isvarah

SYNONYMS

nunam--certainly; sva-artha-parah--interested only in sense gratification in this life or the next; lokah--materialistic people in general; na--not; veda--know; para-sankatam--the pain of others; yadi--if; veda--know; na--not; yaceta--would ask; na--no; iti--thus; na aha--does not say; yat--since; isvarah--able to give charity.

TRANSLATION

Those who are too self-interested beg something from others, not knowing of others' pain. But if the beggar knew the difficulty of the giver, he would not ask for anything. Similarly, he who is able to give charity does not know the beggar's difficulty, for otherwise he would not refuse to give the beggar anything he might want as charity.

PURPORT

This verse describes two people--one who gives charity and one who begs for it. A beggar should not ask charity from a person who is in difficulty. Similarly, one who is able to give charity should not deny a beggar. These are the moral instructions of the sastra. Canakya Pandita says, san-nimitte varam tyago vinase niyate sati: everything within this material world will be destroyed, and therefore one should use everything for good purposes. If one is advanced in knowledge, he must always be prepared to sacrifice anything for a better cause. At the present moment the entire world is in a dangerous position under the spell of a godless civilization. The Krsna consciousness movement needs many exalted, learned persons who will sacrifice their lives to revive God consciousness throughout the world. We therefore invite all men and women advanced in knowledge to join the Krsna consciousness movement and sacrifice their lives for the great cause of reviving the God consciousness of human society.

TEXT 7

TEXT

sri-rsir uvaca

dharmam vah srotu-kamena

yuyam me pratyudahrtah

esa vah priyam atmanam

tyajantam santyajamy aham

SYNONYMS

sri-rsih uvaca--the great saint Dadhici said; dharmam--the principles of religion; vah--from you; srotu-kamena--by the desire to hear; yuyam--you; me--by me; pratyudahrtah--replied to the contrary; esah--this; vah--for you; priyam--dear; atmanam--body; tyajantam--leaving me anyway, today or tomorrow; santyajami--give up; aham--I.

TRANSLATION

The great sage Dadhici said: Just to hear from you about religious principles, I refused to offer my body at your request. Now, although my body is extremely dear to me, I must give it up for your better purposes since I know that it will leave me today or tomorrow.

TEXT 8

TEXT

yo 'dhruvenatmana natha

na dharmam na yasah puman

iheta bhuta-dayaya

sa socyah sthavarair api

SYNONYMS

yah--anyone who; adhruvena--impermanent; atmana--by the body; nathah--O lords; na--not; dharmam--religious principles; na--not; yasah--fame; puman--a person; iheta--endeavors for; bhuta-dayaya--by mercy for the living beings; sah--that person; socyah--pitiable; sthavaraih--by the immobile creatures; api--even.

TRANSLATION

O demigods, one who has no compassion for humanity in its suffering and does not sacrifice his impermanent body for the higher causes of religious principles or eternal glory is certainly pitied even by the immovable beings.

PURPORT

In this regard, a very exalted example was set by Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and the six Gosvamis of Vrndavana. Concerning Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu it is said in Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.34):

tyaktva sudustyaja-surepsita-rajya-laksmim

dharmistha arya-vacasa yad agad aranyam

maya-mrgam dayitayepsitam anvadhavad

vande maha-purusa te caranaravindam

"We offer our respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of the Lord. upon whom one should always meditate. He left His householder life, leaving aside His eternal consort, whom even the denizens of heaven adore. He went into the forest to deliver the fallen souls, who are put into illusion by material energy." To accept sannyasa means to commit civil suicide. but sannyasa is compulsory, at least for every brahmana, every first-class human being. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had a very young and beautiful wife and a very affectionate mother. Indeed, the affectionate dealings of His family members were so pleasing that even the demigods could not expect such happiness at home. Nevertheless, for the deliverance of all the fallen souls of the world, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu took sannyasa and left home when He was only twenty-four years old. He lived a very strict life as a sannyasi, refusing all bodily comforts. Similarly, His disciples the six Gosvamis were ministers who held exalted positions in society, but they also left everything to join the movement of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Srinivasa Acarya says:

tyaktva turnam asesa-mandala-pati-srenim sada tucchavat

bhutva dina-ganesakau karunaya kaupina-kanthasritau

These Gosvamis left their very comfortable lives as ministers. Zamindars and learned scholars and joined Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's movement, just to show mercy to the fallen souls of the world (dina-ganesakau karunaya). Accepting very humble lives as mendicants, wearing no more than loincloths and torn quilts (kaupina-kantha). they lived in Vrndavana and followed Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's order to excavate Vrndavana's lost glories.

Similarly. everyone else with a materially comfortable condition in this world should join the Krsna consciousness movement to elevate the fallen souls. The words bhuta-dayaya, maya-mrgam dayitayepsitam and dina-ganesakau karunaya all convey the same sense. These are very significant words for those interested in elevating human society to a proper understanding of life. One should join the Krsna consciousness movement, following the examples of such great personalities as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the six Gosvamis and, before them, the great sage Dadhici. Instead of wasting one's life for temporary bodily comforts. one should always be prepared to give up one's life for better causes. After all, the body will be destroyed. Therefore one should sacrifice it for the glory of distributing religious principles throughout the world.

TEXT 9

TEXT

etavan avyayo dharmah

punya-slokair upasitah

yo bhuta-soka-harsabhyam

atma socati hrsyati

SYNONYMS

etavan--this much; avyayah--imperishable; dharmah--religious principle; punya-slokaih--by famous persons who are celebrated as pious; upasitah--recognized; yah--which; bhuta--of the living beings; soka--by the distress; harsabhyam--and by the happiness; atma--the mind; socati--laments; hrsyati--feels happiness.

TRANSLATION

If one is unhappy to see the distress of other living beings and happy to see their happiness, his religious principles are appreciated as imperishable by exalted persons who are considered pious and benevolent.

PURPORT

One generally follows different types of religious principles or performs various occupational duties according to the body given to him by the modes of material nature. In this verse, however, real religious principles are explained. Everyone should be unhappy to see others in distress and happy to see others happy. Atmavat sarva-bhutesu: one should feel the happiness and distress of others as his own. It is on this basis that the Buddhist religious principle of nonviolence--ahimsah parama-dharmah--is established. We feel pain when someone disturbs us, and therefore we should not inflict pain upon other living beings. Lord Buddha's mission was to stop unnecessary animal killing, and therefore he preached that the greatest religious principle is nonviolence.

One cannot continue killing animals and at the same time be a religious man. That is the greatest hypocrisy. Jesus Christ said, "Do not kill," but hypocrites nevertheless maintain thousands of slaughterhouses while posing as Christians. Such hypocrisy is condemned in this verse. One should be happy to see others happy, and one should be unhappy to see others unhappy. This is the principle to be followed. Unfortunately, at the present moment so-called philanthropists and humanitarians advocate the happiness of humanity at the cost of the lives of poor animals. That is not recommended herein. This verse clearly says that one should be compassionate to all living entities. Regardless of whether human. animal, tree or plant, all living entities are sons of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Lord Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (14.4):

sarva-yonisu kaunteya

murtayah sambhavanti yah

tasam brahma mahad yonir

aham bija-pradah pita

"It should be understood that all species of life, O son of Kunti, are made possible by birth in this material nature, and that I am the seed-giving father." The different forms of these living entities are only their external dresses. Every living being is actually a spirit soul, a part and parcel of God. Therefore one should not favor only one kind of living being. A Vaisnava sees all living entities as part and parcel of God. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (5.18 and 18.54):

vidya-vinaya-sampanne

brahmane gavi hastini

suni caiva svapake ca

panditah sama-darsinah

"The humble sage, by virtue of true knowledge, sees with equal vision a learned and gentle brahmana, a cow, an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcaste]."

brahma-bhutah prasannatma

na socati na kanksati

samah sarvesu bhutesu

mad-bhaktim labhate param

"One who is transcendentally situated at once realizes the Supreme Brahman and becomes fully joyful. He never laments nor desires to have anything; he is equally disposed to every living entity. In that state he attains pure devotional service unto Me." A Vaisnava, therefore, is truly a perfect person because he laments to see others unhappy and feels joy at seeing others happy. A Vaisnava is para-duhkha-duhkhi; he is always unhappy to see the conditioned souls in an unhappy state of materialism. Therefore a Vaisnava is always busy preaching Krsna consciousness throughout the world.

TEXT 10

TEXT

aho dainyam aho kastam

parakyaih ksana-bhanguraih

yan nopakuryad asvarthair

martyah sva-jnati-vigrahaih

SYNONYMS

aho--alas; dainyam--a miserable condition; aho--alas; kastam--simply tribulation; parakyaih--which after death are eatable by dogs and jackals; ksana-bhanguraih--perishable at any moment; yat--because; na--not; upakuryat--would help; a-sva-arthaih--not meant for self-interest; martyah--a living entity destined to die; sva--with his wealth; jnati--relatives and friends; vigrahaih--and his body.

TRANSLATION

This body, which is eatable by jackals and dogs after death, does not actually do any good for me, the spirit soul. It is usable only for a short time and may perish at any moment. The body and its possessions, its riches and relatives, must all be engaged for the benefit of others, or else they will be sources of tribulation and misery.

PURPORT

Similar advice is also given in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.22.35):

etavaj janma-saphalyam

dehinam iha dehisu

pranair arthair dhiya vaca

sreya-acaranam sada

"It is the duty of every living being to perform welfare activities for the benefit of others with his life, wealth, intelligence and words." This is the mission of life. One's own body and the bodies of his friends and relatives, as well as one's own riches and everything else one has, should be engaged for the benefit of others. This is the mission of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. As stated in Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi 9.41):

bharata-bhumite haila manusya-janma yara

janma sarthaka kari' kara para-upakara

"One who has taken birth as a human being in the land of India [Bharata-varsa] should make his life successful and work for the benefit of all other people.

The word upakuryat means para-upakara, helping others. Of course, in human society there are many institutions to help others, but because philanthropists do not know how to help others, their propensity for philanthropy is ineffectual. They do not know the ultimate goal of life (sreya acaranam), which is to please the Supreme Lord. If all philanthropic and humanitarian activities were directed toward achieving the ultimate goal of life--to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead--they would all be perfect. Humanitarian work without Krsna is nothing. Krsna must be brought to the center of all our activities; otherwise no activity will have value.

TEXT 11

TEXT

sri-badarayanir uvaca

evam krta-vyavasito

dadhyann atharvanas tanum

pare bhagavati brahmany

atmanam sannayan jahau

SYNONYMS

sri-badarayanih uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; evam--thus; krta-vyavasitah--making certain of what to do (in giving his body to the demigods); dadhyan--Dadhici Muni; atharvanah--the son of Atharva; tanum--his body; pare--to the Supreme; bhagavati--Personality of Godhead; brahmani--the Supreme Brahman; atmanam--himself. the spirit soul; sannayan--offering; jahau--gave up.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: Dadhici Muni, the son of Atharva, thus resolved to give his body to the service of the demigods. He placed himself, the spirit soul, at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and in this way gave up his gross material body made of five elements.

PURPORT

As indicated by the words pare bhagavati brahmany atmanam sannayan, Dadhici placed himself, as spirit soul, at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In this regard, one may refer to the incident of Dhrtarastra's leaving his body, as described in the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.13.55). Dhrtarastra analytically divided his gross material body into the five different elements of which it was made--earth, water, fire, air and ether--and distributed them to the different reservoirs of these elements; in other words, he merged these five elements into the original mahat-tattva. By identifying his material conception of life, he gradually separated his spirit soul from material connections and placed himself at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The example given in this connection is that when an earthen pot is broken, the small portion of the sky within the pot is united with the large sky outside the pot. Mayavadi philosophers misunderstand this description of Srimad-Bhagavatam. Therefore Sri Ramanuja Svami, in his book Vedanta-tattva-sara, has described that this merging of the soul means that after separating himself from the material body made of eight elements--earth, water, fire, air, ether, false ego, mind and intelligence--the individual soul engages himself in devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His eternal form (isvarah paramah krsnah sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah. anadir adir govindah sarva-karana-karanam). The material cause of the material elements absorbs the material body, and the spiritual soul assumes its original position. As described by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, jivera 'svarupa' haya--krsnera 'nitya-dasa': the constitutional position of the living entity is that he is the eternal servant of Krsna. When one overcomes the material body through cultivation of spiritual knowledge and devotional service, one can revive his own position and thus engage in the service of the Lord.

TEXT 12

TEXT

yataksasu-mano-buddhis

tattva-drg dhvasta-bandhanah

asthitah paramam yogam

na deham bubudhe gatam

SYNONYMS

yata--controlled; aksa--senses; asu--the life air; manah--the mind; buddhih--intelligence; tattva-drk--one who knows the tattvas, the material and spiritual energies; dhvasta-bandhanah--liberated from bondage; asthitah--being situated in; paramam--the supreme; yogam--absorption, trance; na--not; deham--the material body; bubudhe--perceived; gatam--left.

TRANSLATION

Dadhici Muni controlled his senses, life force, mind and intelligence and became absorbed in trance. Thus he cut all his material bonds. He could not perceive how his material body became separated from his self.

PURPORT

The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (8.5):

anta-kale ca mam eva

smaran muktva kalevaram

yah prayati sa mad-bhavam

yati nasty atra samsayah

"Whoever, at the time of death, quits his body remembering Me alone, at once attains My nature. Of this there is no doubt." Of course, one must practice before one is overcome by death, but the perfect yogi, namely the devotee, dies in trance, thinking of Krsna. He does not feel his material body being separated from his soul; the soul is immediately transferred to the spiritual world. Tyaktva deham punar janma naiti mam eti: the soul does not enter the womb of a material mother again. but is transferred back home, back to Godhead. This yoga, bhakti-yoga, is the highest yoga system, as explained by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (6.47):

yoginam api sarvesam

mad-gatenantaratmana

sraddhavan bhajate yo mam

sa me yuktatamo matah

"Of all yogis, he who always abides in Me with great faith. worshiping Me in transcendental loving service, is most intimately united with Me in yoga and is the highest of all." The bhakti-yogi always thinks of Krsna, and therefore at the time of death he can very easily transfer himself to Krsnaloka, without even perceiving the pains of death.

TEXTS 13-14

TEXT

athendro vajram udyamya

nirmitam visvakarmana

muneh saktibhir utsikto

bhagavat-tejasanvitah

vrto deva-ganaih sarvair

gajendropary asobhata

stuyamano muni-ganais

trailokyam harsayann iva

SYNONYMS

atha--thereafter; indrah--the King of heaven; vajram--the thunderbolt; udyamya--firmly taking up; nirmitam--manufactured; visvakarmana--by Visvakarma; muneh--of the great sage, Dadhici; saktibhih--by the power; utsiktah--saturated; bhagavat--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tejasa--with spiritual power; anvitah--endowed; vrtah--encircled; deva-ganaih--by the other demigods; sarvaih--all; gajendra--of his elephant carrier; upari--upon the back; asobhata--shone; stuyamanah--being offered prayers; muni-ganaih--by the saintly persons; trai-lokyam--to the three worlds; harsayan--causing pleasure; iva--as it were.

TRANSLATION

Thereafter, King Indra very firmly took up the thunderbolt manufactured by Visvakarma from the bones of Dadhici. Charged with the exalted power of Dadhici Muni and enlightened by the power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Indra rode on the back of his carrier, Airavata, surrounded by all the demigods, while all the great sages offered him praise. Thus he shone very beautifully, pleasing the three worlds as he rode off to kill Vrtrasura.

TEXT 15

TEXT

vrtram abhyadravac chatrum

asuranika-yuthapaih

paryastam ojasa rajan

kruddho rudra ivantakam

SYNONYMS

vrtram--Vrtrasura; abhyadravat--attacked; satrum--the enemy; asura-anika-yuthapaih--by the commanders or captains of the soldiers of the asuras; paryastam--surrounded; ojasa--with great force; rajan--O King; kruddhah--being angry; rudrah--an incarnation of Lord Siva; iva--like; antakam--Antaka, or Yamaraja.

TRANSLATION

My dear King Pariksit, as Rudra, being very angry at Antaka [Yamaraja] had formerly run toward Antaka to kill him, Indra angrily and with great force attacked Vrtrasura, who was surrounded by the leaders of the demoniac armies.

TEXT 16

TEXT

tatah suranam asurai

ranah parama-darunah

treta-mukhe narmadayam

abhavat prathame yuge

SYNONYMS

tatah--thereafter; suranam--of the demigods; asuraih--with the demons; ranah--a great battle; parama-darunah--very fearful; treta-mukhe--in the beginning of Treta-yuga; narmadayam--on the bank of the River Narmada; abhavat--took place; prathame--in the first; yuge--millennium.

TRANSLATION

Thereafter, at the end of Satya-yuga and the beginning of Treta-yuga, a fierce battle took place between the demigods and the demons on the bank of the Narmada.

PURPORT

Herein the Narmada does not mean the Narmada River in India. The five sacred rivers in India--Ganga, Yamuna, Narmada, Kaveri and Krsna--are all celestial. Like the Ganges River, the Narmada River also flows in the higher planetary systems. The battle between the demigods and the demons took place in the higher planets.

The words prathame yuge mean "in the beginning of the first millennium," that is to say, in the beginning of the Vaivasvata manvantara. In one day of Brahma there are fourteen Manus, who each live for seventy-one millenniums. The four yugas--Satya, Treta, Dvapara and Kali--constitute one millennium. We are presently in the manvantara of Vaivasvata Manu, who is mentioned in Bhagavad-gita (imam vivasvate yogam proktavan aham avyayam. vivasvan manave praha). We are now in the twenty-eighth millennium of Vaivasvata Manu, but this fight took place in the beginning of Vaivasvata Manu's first millennium. One can historically calculate how long ago the battle took place. Since each millennium consists of 4,300,000 years and we are now in the twenty-eighth millennium, some 120,400,000 years have passed since the battle took place on the bank of the River Narmada.

TEXTS 17-18

TEXT

rudrair vasubhir adityair

asvibhyam pitr-vahnibhih

marudbhir rbhubhih sadhyair

visvedevair marut-patim

drstva vajra-dharam sakram

rocamanam svaya sriya

namrsyann asura rajan

mrdhe vrtra-purahsarah

SYNONYMS

rudraih--by the Rudras; vasubhih--by the Vasus; adityaih--by the Adityas; asvibhyam--by the Asvini-kumaras; pitr--by the Pitas; vahnibhih--and the Vahnis; marudbhih--by the Maruts; rbhubhih--by the Rbhus; sadhyaih--by the Sadhyas; visve-devaih--by the Visvadevas; marut-patim--Indra, the heavenly King; drstva--seeing; vajra-dharam--bearing the thunderbolt; sakram--another name of Indra; rocamanam--shining; svaya--by his own; sriya--opulence; na--not; amrsyan--tolerated; asurah--all the demons; rajan--O King; mrdhe--in the fight; vrtra-purahsarah--headed by Vrtrasura.

TRANSLATION

O King, when all the asuras came onto the battlefield, headed by Vrtrasura, they saw King Indra carrying the thunderbolt and surrounded by the Rudras, Vasus, Adityas, Asvini-kumaras, Pitas, Vahnis, Maruts, Rbhus, Sadhyas and Visvadevas. Surrounded by his company, Indra shone so brightly that his effulgence was intolerable to the demons.

TEXTS 19-22

TEXT

namucih sambaro 'narva

dvimurdha rsabho 'surah

hayagrivah sankusira

vipracittir ayomukhah

puloma vrsaparva ca

prahetir hetir utkalah

daiteya danava yaksa

raksamsi ca sahasrasah

sumali-mali-pramukhah

kartasvara-paricchadah

pratisidhyendra-senagram

mrtyor api durasadam

abhyardayann asambhrantah

simha-nadena durmadah

gadabhih parighair banaih

prasa-mudgara-tomaraih

SYNONYMS

namucih--Namuci; sambarah--Sambara; anarva--Anarva; dvimurdha--Dvimurdha; rsabhah--Rsabha; asurah--Asura; hayagrivah--Hayagriva; sankusirah--Sankusira; vipracittih--Vipracitti; ayomukhah--Ayomukha; puloma--Puloma; vrsaparva--Vrsaparva; ca--also; prahetih--Praheti; hetih--Heti; utkalah--Utkala; daiteyah--the Daityas; danavah--the Danavas; yaksah--the Yaksas; raksamsi--the Raksasas; ca--and; sahasrasah--by the thousands; sumali-mali-pramukhah--others, headed by Sumali and Mali; kartasvara--of gold; paricchadah--dressed in ornaments; pratisidhya--keeping back; indra-sena-agram--the front of Indra's army; mrtyoh--for death; api--even; durasadam--difficult to approach; abhyardayan--harassed; asambhrantah--without fear; simha-nadena--with a sound like a lion; durmadah--furious; gadabhih--with clubs; parighaih--with iron-studded bludgeons; banaih--with arrows; prasa-mudgara-tomaraih--with barbed missiles, mallets and lances.

TRANSLATION

Many hundreds and thousands of demons, demi-demons, Yaksas, Raksasas [man-eaters] and others, headed by Sumali and Mali, resisted the armies of King Indra, which even death personified cannot easily overcome. Among the demons were Namuci, Sambara, Anarva, Dvimurdha, Rsabha, Asura, Hayagriva, Sankusira, Vipracitti, Ayomukha, Puloma, Vrsaparva, Praheti, Heti and Utkala. Roaring tumultuously and fearlessly like lions, these invincible demons, all dressed in golden ornaments, gave pain to the demigods with weapons like clubs, bludgeons, arrows, barbed darts, mallets and lances.

TEXT 23

TEXT

sulaih parasvadhaih khadgaih

sataghnibhir bhusundibhih

sarvato 'vakiran sastrair

astrais ca vibudharsabhan

SYNONYMS

sulaih--by spears; parasvadhaih--by axes; khadgaih--by swords; sataghnibhih--by sataghnis; bhusundibhih--by bhusundis; sarvatah--all around; avakiran--scattered; sastraih--with weapons; astraih--with arrows; ca--and; vibudha-rsabhan--the chiefs of the demigods.

TRANSLATION

Armed with lances, tridents, axes, swords and other weapons like sataghnis and bhusundis, the demons attacked from different directions and scattered all the chiefs of the demigod armies.

TEXT 24

TEXT

na te 'drsyanta sanchannah

sara-jalaih samantatah

punkhanupunkha-patitair

jyotimsiva nabho-ghanaih

SYNONYMS

na--not; te--they (the demigods); adrsyanta--were seen; sanchannah--being completely covered; sara-jalaih--by networks of arrows; samantatah--all around; punkha-anupunkha--one arrow after another; patitaih--falling; jyotimsi iva--like the stars in the sky; nabhah-ghanaih--by the dense clouds.

TRANSLATION

As the stars in the sky cannot be seen when covered by dense clouds, the demigods, being completely covered by networks of arrows falling upon them one after another, could not be seen.

TEXT 25

TEXT

na te sastrastra-varsaugha

hy aseduh sura-sainikan

chinnah siddha-pathe devair

laghu-hastaih sahasradha

SYNONYMS

na--not; te--those; sastra-astra-varsa-oghah--showers of arrows and other weapons; hi--indeed; aseduh--reached; sura-sainikan--the armies of the demigods; chinnah--cut; siddha-pathe--in the sky; devaih--by the demigods; laghu-hastaih--quick-handed; sahasradha--into thousands of pieces.

TRANSLATION

The showers of various weapons and arrows released to kill the soldiers of the demigods did not reach them because the demigods, acting quickly, cut the weapons into thousands of pieces in the sky.

TEXT 26

TEXT

atha ksinastra-sastraugha

giri-srnga-drumopalaih

abhyavarsan sura-balam

cicchidus tams ca purvavat

SYNONYMS

atha--thereupon; ksina--being reduced; astra--of the arrows released by mantras; sastra--and weapons; oghah--the multitudes; giri--of mountains; srnga--with the peaks; druma--with trees; upalaih--and with stones; abhyavarsan--showered; sura-balam--the soldiers of the demigods; cicchiduh--broke to pieces; tan--them; ca--and; purva-vat--as before.

TRANSLATION

As their weapons and mantras decreased, the demons began showering mountain peaks, trees and stones upon the demigod soldiers, but the demigods were so powerful and expert that they nullified all these weapons by breaking them to pieces in the sky as before.

TEXT 27

TEXT

tan aksatan svastimato nisamya

sastrastra-pugair atha vrtra-nathah

drumair drsadbhir vividhadri-srngair

aviksatams tatrasur indra-sainikan

SYNONYMS

tan--them (the soldiers of the demigods); aksatan--not injured; svasti-matah--being very healthy; nisamya--seeing; sastra-astra-pugaih--by the bunches of weapons and mantras; atha--thereupon; vrtra-nathah--the soldiers led by Vrtrasura; drumaih--by the trees; drsadbhih--by the stones; vividha--various; adri--of mountain s; srngaih--by the peaks; aviksatan--not injured; tatrasuh--became afraid; indra-sainikan--the soldiers of King Indra.

TRANSLATION

When the soldiers of the demons, commanded by Vrtrasura, saw that the soldiers of King Indra were quite well, having not been injured at all by their volleys of weapons, not even by the trees, stones and mountain peaks, the demons were very much afraid.

TEXT 28

TEXT

sarve prayasa abhavan vimoghah

krtah krta deva-ganesu daityaih

krsnanukulesu yatha mahatsu

ksudraih prayukta usati ruksa-vacah

SYNONYMS

sarve--all; prayasah--endeavors; abhavan--were; vimoghah--futile; krtah--performed; krtah--again performed; deva-ganesu--unto the demigods; daityaih--by the demons; krsna-anukulesu--who were always protected by Krsna; yatha--just as; mahatsu--unto the Vaisnavas; ksudraih--by insignificant persons; prayuktah--used; usatih--unfavorable; ruksa--rough; vacah--words.

TRANSLATION

When insignificant persons use rough words to cast false, angry accusations against saintly persons, their fruitless words do not disturb the great personalities. Similarly, all the efforts of the demons against the demigods, who were favorably situated under the protection of Krsna, were futile.

PURPORT

There is a Bengali saying that if a vulture curses a cow to die, the curse will not be effective. Similarly, accusations made by demoniac persons against devotees of Krsna cannot have any effect. The demigods are devotees of Lord Krsna, and therefore the curses of the demons were futile.

TEXT 29

TEXT

te sva-prayasam vitatham niriksya

harav abhakta hata-yuddha-darpah

palayanayaji-mukhe visrjya

patim manas te dadhur atta-sarah

SYNONYMS

te--they (the demons); sva-prayasam--their own endeavors; vitatham--fruitless; niriksya--seeing; harau abhaktah--the asuras, those who are not devotees of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hata--defeated; yuddha-darpah--their pride in fighting; palayanaya--for leaving the battlefield; aji-mukhe--in the very beginning of the battle; visrjya--leaving aside; patim--their commander, Vrtrasura; manah--their minds; te--all of them; dadhuh--gave; atta-sarah--whose prowess was taken away.

TRANSLATION

The asuras, who are never devotees of Lord Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, lost their pride in fighting when they found all their endeavors futile. Leaving aside their leader even in the very beginning of the fight, they decided to flee because all their prowess had been taken away by the enemy.

TEXT 30

TEXT

vrtro 'surams tan anugan manasvi

pradhavatah preksya babhasa etat

palayitam preksya balam ca bhagnam

bhayena tivrena vihasya virah

SYNONYMS

vrtrah--Vrtrasura, the commander of the demons; asuran--all the demons; tan--them; anugan--his followers; manasvi--the great-minded; pradhavatah--fleeing; preksya--observing; babhasa--spoke; etat--this; palayitam--fleeing; preksya--seeing; balam--army; ca--and; bhagnam--broken; bhayena--out of fear; tivrena--intense; vihasya--smiling; virah--the great hero.

TRANSLATION

Seeing his army broken and all the asuras, even those known as great heroes, fleeing the battlefield out of intense fear, Vrtrasura, who was truly a great-minded hero, smiled and spoke the following words.

TEXT 31

TEXT

kalopapannam ruciram manasvinam

jagada vacam purusa-pravirah

he vipracitte namuce puloman

mayanarvan chambara me srnudhvam

SYNONYMS

kala-upapannam--suitable to the time and circumstances; ruciram--very beautiful; manasvinam--to the great, deep-minded personalities; jagada--spoke; vacam--words; purusa-pravirah--the hero among heroes, Vrtrasura; he--O; vipracitte--Vipracitti; namuce--O Namuci; puloman--O Puloma; maya--O Maya; anarvan--O Anarva; sambara--O Sambara; me--from me; srnudhvam--please hear.

TRANSLATION

According to his position and the time and circumstances, Vrtrasura, the hero among heroes, spoke words that were much to be appreciated by thoughtful men. He called to the heroes of the demons, "O Vipracitti! O Namuci! O Puloma! O Maya, Anarva and Sambara! Please hear me and do not flee."

TEXT 32

TEXT

jatasya mrtyur dhruva eva sarvatah

pratikriya yasya na ceha klpta

loko yasas catha tato yadi hy amum

ko nama mrtyum na vrnita yuktam

SYNONYMS

jatasya--of one who has taken birth (all living beings); mrtyuh--death; dhruvah--inevitable; eva--indeed; sarvatah--everywhere in the universe; pratikriya--counteraction; yasya--of which; na--not; ca--also; iha--in this material world; klpta--devised; lokah--promotion to higher planets; yasah--reputation and glory; ca--and; atha--then; tatah--from that; yadi--if; hi--indeed; amum--that; kah--who; nama--indeed; mrtyum--death; na--not; vrnita--would accept; yuktam--suitable.

TRANSLATION

Vrtrasura said: All living entities who have taken birth in this material world must die. Surely, no one in this world has found any means to be saved from death. Even providence has not provided a means to escape it. Under the circumstances, death being inevitable, if one can gain promotion to the higher planetary systems and be always celebrated here by dying a suitable death, what man will not accept such a glorious death?

PURPORT

If by dying one can be elevated to the higher planetary systems and be ever-famous after his death, who is so foolish that he will refuse such a glorious death? Similar advice was also given by Krsna to Arjuna. "My dear Arjuna," the Lord said, "do not desist from fighting. If you gain victory in the fight, you will enjoy a kingdom, and even if you die you will be elevated to the heavenly planets." Everyone should be ready to die while performing glorious deeds. A glorious person is not meant to meet death like cats and dogs.

TEXT 33

TEXT

dvau sammatav iha mrtyu durapau

yad brahma-sandharanaya jitasuh

kalevaram yoga-rato vijahyad

yad agranir vira-saye 'nivrttah

SYNONYMS

dvau--two; sammatau--approved (by sastra and great personalities); iha--in this world; mrtyu--deaths; durapau--extremely rare; yat--which; brahma-sandharanaya--with concentration on Brahman, Paramatma or Parabrahma, Krsna; jita-asuh--controlling the mind and senses; kalevaram--the body; yoga-ratah--being engaged in the performance of yoga; vijahyat--one may leave; yat--which; agranih--taking the lead; vira-saye--on the battlefield; anivrttah--not turning back.

TRANSLATION

There are two ways to meet a glorious death, and both are very rare. One is to die after performing mystic yoga, especially bhakti-yoga, by which one can control the mind and living force and die absorbed in thought of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The second is to die on the battlefield, leading the army and never showing one's back. These two kinds of death are recommended in the sastra as glorious.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Tenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Battle Between the Demigods and Vrtrasura."

Chapter Eleven

The Transcendental Qualities of Vrtrasura

This chapter describes Vrtrasura's great qualities. When the prominent commanders of the demons fled, not hearing Vrtrasura's advice. Vrtrasura condemned them all as cowards. Speaking very bravely, he stood alone to face the demigods. When the demigods saw Vrtrasura's attitude, they were so afraid that they practically fainted, and Vrtrasura began trampling them down. Unable to tolerate this, Indra, the King of the demigods, threw his club at Vrtrasura, but Vrtrasura was such a great hero that he easily caught the club with his left hand and used it to beat Indra's elephant. Struck by the blow of Vrtrasura, the elephant was pushed back fourteen yards and fell, with Indra on its back.

King Indra had first accepted Visvarupa as his priest and thereafter killed him. Reminding Indra of his heinous activities, Vrtrasura said, "If one is a devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Visnu, and depends on Lord Visnu in every respect, then victory, opulence and peace of mind are all inevitably available. Such a person has nothing for which to aspire in the three worlds. The Supreme Lord is so kind that He especially favors such a devotee by not giving him opulence that will hamper his devotional service. Therefore I wish to give up everything for the service of the Lord. I wish always to chant the glories of the Lord and engage in His service. Let me become unattached to my worldly family and make friendships with the devotees of the Lord. I do not desire to be promoted to the higher planetary systems, even to Dhruvaloka or Brahmaloka, nor do I desire an unconquerable position within this material world. I have no need for such things."

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

ta evam samsato dharmam

vacah patyur acetasah

naivagrhnanta sambhrantah

palayana-para nrpa

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; te--they; evam--thus; samsatah--praising; dharmam--the principles of religion; vacah--the words; patyuh--of their master; acetasah--their minds being very disturbed; na--not; eva--indeed; agrhnanta--accepted; sambhrantah--fearful; palayana-parah--intent upon fleeing; nrpa--O King.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King, Vrtrasura, the commander in chief of the demons, advised his lieutenants in the principles of religion, but the cowardly demoniac commanders, intent upon fleeing the battlefield, were so disturbed by fear that they could not accept his words.

TEXTS 2-3

TEXT

visiryamanam prtanam

asurim asurarsabhah

kalanukulais tridasaih

kalyamanam anathavat

drstvatapyata sankruddha

indra-satrur amarsitah

tan nivaryaujasa rajan

nirbhartsyedam uvaca ha

SYNONYMS

visiryamanam--being shattered; prtanam--the army; asurim--of the demons; asura-rsabhah--the best of the asuras, Vrtrasura; kala-anukulaih--following the circumstances presented by time; tridasaih--by the demigods; kalyamanam--being chased; anatha-vat--as if no one were there to protect them; drstva--seeing; atapyata--felt pain; sankruddhah--being very angry; indra-satruh--Vrtrasura, the enemy of Indra; amarsitah--unable to tolerate; tan--them (the demigods); nivarya--blocking; ojasa--with great force; rajan--O King Pariksit; nirbhartsya--rebuking; idam--this; uvaca--said; ha--indeed.

TRANSLATION

O King Pariksit, the demigods, taking advantage of a favorable opportunity presented by time, attacked the army of the demons from the rear and began driving away the demoniac soldiers, scattering them here and there as if their army had no leader. Seeing the pitiable condition of his soldiers, Vrtrasura, the best of the asuras, who was called Indrasatru, the enemy of Indra, was very much aggrieved. Unable to tolerate such reverses, he stopped and forcefully rebuked the demigods, speaking the following words in an angry mood.

TEXT 4

TEXT

kim va uccaritair matur

dhavadbhih prsthato hataih

na hi bhita-vadhah slaghyo

na svargyah sura-maninam

SYNONYMS

kim--what is the benefit; vah--for you; uccaritaih--with those like the stool; matuh--of the mother; dhavadbhih--running away; prsthatah--from the back; hataih--killed; na--not; hi--certainly; bhita-vadhah--the killing of a person who is afraid; slaghyah--glorious; na--nor; svargyah--leading to the heavenly planets; sura-maninam--of persons who consider themselves heroes.

TRANSLATION

O demigods, these demoniac soldiers have taken birth uselessly. Indeed, they have come from the bodies of their mothers exactly like stool. What is the benefit of killing such enemies from behind while they are running in fear? One who considers himself a hero should not kill an enemy who is afraid of losing his life. Such killing is never glorious, nor can it promote one to the heavenly planets.

PURPORT

Vrtrasura rebuked both the demigods and the demoniac soldiers because the demons were running in fear of their lives and the demigods were killing them from behind. The actions of both were abominable. When a fight takes place, the opposing parties must be prepared to fight like heroes. A hero never runs from the field of battle. He always fights face to face, determined to gain victory or lay down his life in the fight. That is heroic. Killing an enemy from behind is also inglorious. When an enemy turns his back and runs in fear of his life, he should not be killed. This is the etiquette of military science.

Vrtrasura insulted the demoniac soldiers by comparing them to the stool of their mothers. Both stool and a cowardly son come from the abdomen of the mother, and Vrtrasura said that there is no difference between them. A similar comparison was given by Tulasi dasa, who commented that a son and urine both come from the same channel. In other words, semen and urine both come from the genitals, but semen produces a child whereas urine produces nothing. Therefore if a child is neither a hero nor a devotee, he is not a son but urine. Similarly, Canakya Pandita also says:

ko 'rthah putrena jatena

yo na vidvan na dharmikah

kanena caksusa kim va

caksuh pidaiva kevalam

"What is the use of a son who is neither glorious nor devoted to the Lord? Such a son is like a blind eye, which simply gives pain but cannot help one see."

TEXT 5

TEXT

yadi vah pradhane sraddha

saram va ksullaka hrdi

agre tisthata matram me

na ced gramya-sukhe sprha

SYNONYMS

yadi--if; vah--of you; pradhane--in battle; sraddha--faith; saram--patience; va--or; ksullakah--O insignificant ones; hrdi--in the core of the heart; agre--in front; tisthata--just stand; matram--for a moment; me--of me; na--not; cet--if; gramya-sukhe--in sense gratification; sprha--desire.

TRANSLATION

O insignificant demigods, if you truly have faith in your heroism, if you have patience in the cores of your hearts and if you are not ambitious for sense gratification, please stand before me for a moment.

PURPORT

Rebuking the demigods, Vrtrasura challenged, "O demigods, if you are actually heroes, stand before me now and try to show your prowess. If you do not wish to fight, if you are afraid of losing your lives, I shall not kill you, for unlike you, I am not so evil minded as to kill persons who are neither heroic nor willing to fight. If you have faith in your heroism, please stand before me."

TEXT 6

TEXT

evam sura-ganan kruddho

bhisayan vapusa ripun

vyanadat sumaha-prano

yena loka vicetasah

SYNONYMS

evam--thus; sura-ganan--the demigods; kruddhah--being very angry; bhisayan--terrifying; vapusa--by his body; ripun--his enemies; vyanadat--roared; su-maha-pranah--the most powerful Vrtrasura; yena--by which; lokah--all people; vicetasah--unconscious.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami said: Vrtrasura, the angry and most powerful hero, terrified the demigods with his stout and strongly built body. When he roared with a resounding voice, nearly all living entities fainted.

TEXT 7

TEXT

tena deva-ganah sarve

vrtra-visphotanena vai

nipetur murcchita bhumau

yathaivasanina hatah

SYNONYMS

tena--by that; deva-ganah--the demigods; sarve--all; vrtra-visphotanena--the tumultuous sound of Vrtrasura; vai--indeed; nipetuh--fell; murcchitah--fainted; bhumau--on the ground; yatha--just as if; eva--indeed; asanina--by a thunderbolt; hatah--struck.

TRANSLATION

When all the demigods heard Vrtrasura's tumultuous roar, which resembled that of a lion, they fainted and fell to the ground as if struck by thunderbolts.

TEXT 8

TEXT

mamarda padbhyam sura-sainyam aturam

nimilitaksam rana-ranga-durmadah

gam kampayann udyata-sula ojasa

nalam vanam yutha-patir yathonmadah

SYNONYMS

mamarda--trampled; padbhyam--by his feet; sura-sainyam--the army of the demigods; aturam--who were very afraid; nimilita-aksam--closing their eyes; rana-ranga-durmadah--arrogant on the battlefield; gam--the surface of the globe; kampayan--causing to tremble; udyata-sulah--taking up his trident; ojasa--with his strength; nalam--of hollow bamboo sticks; vanam--a forest; yutha-patih--an elephant; yatha--just as; unmadah--maddened.

TRANSLATION

As the demigods closed their eyes in fear, Vrtrasura, taking up his trident and making the earth tremble with his great strength, trampled the demigods beneath his feet on the battlefield the way a mad elephant tramples hollow bamboos in the forest.

TEXT 9

TEXT

vilokya tam vajra-dharo 'tyamarsitah

sva-satrave 'bhidravate maha-gadam

ciksepa tam apatatim suduhsaham

jagraha vamena karena lilaya

SYNONYMS

vilokya--seeing; tam--him (Vrtrasura); vajra-dharah--the carrier of the thunderbolt (King Indra); ati--very much; amarsitah--intolerant; sva--his own; satrave--toward the enemy; abhidravate--running; maha-gadam--a very powerful club; ciksepa--threw; tam--that (club); apatatim--flying toward him; su-duhsaham--very difficult to counteract; jagraha--caught; vamena--with his left; karena--hand; lilaya--very easily.

TRANSLATION

Seeing Vrtrasura's disposition, Indra, the King of heaven, became intolerant and threw at him one of his great clubs, which are extremely difficult to counteract. However, as the club flew toward him, Vrtrasura easily caught it with his left hand.

TEXT 10

TEXT

sa indra-satruh kupito bhrsam taya

mahendra-vaham gadayoru-vikramah

jaghana kumbha-sthala unnadan mrdhe

tat karma sarve samapujayan nrpa

SYNONYMS

sah--that; indra-satruh--Vrtrasura; kupitah--being angry; bhrsam--very much; taya--with that; mahendra-vaham--the elephant who is the carrier of Indra; gadaya--by the club; uru-vikramah--who is famous for his great strength; jaghana--struck; kumbha-sthale--on the head; unnadan--roaring loudly; mrdhe--in that fight; tat karma--that action (striking the head of Indra's elephant with the club in his left hand); sarve--all the soldiers (on both sides); samapujayan--glorified; nrpa--O King Pariksit.

TRANSLATION

O King Pariksit, the powerful Vrtrasura, the enemy of King Indra, angrily struck the head of Indra's elephant with that club, making a tumultuous sound on the battlefield. For this heroic deed, the soldiers on both sides glorified him.

TEXT 11

TEXT

airavato vrtra-gadabhimrsto

vighurnito 'drih kulisahato yatha

apasarad bhinna-mukhah sahendro

muncann asrk sapta-dhanur bhrsartah

SYNONYMS

airavatah--Airavata, the elephant of King Indra; vrtra-gada-abhimrstah--struck by the club in Vrtrasura's hand; vighurnitah--shaken; adrih--a mountain; kulisa--by a thunderbolt; ahatah--struck; yatha--just like; apasarat--was pushed back; bhinna-mukhah--having a broken mouth; saha-indrah--with King Indra; muncan--spitting; asrk--blood; sapta-dhanuh--a distance measured by seven bows (approximately fourteen yards); bhrsa--very severely; artah--aggrieved.

TRANSLATION

Struck with the club by Vrtrasura like a mountain struck by a thunderbolt, the elephant Airavata, feeling great pain and spitting blood from its broken mouth, was pushed back fourteen yards. In great distress, the elephant fell, with Indra on its back.

TEXT 12

TEXT

na sanna-vahaya visanna-cetase

prayunkta bhuyah sa gadam mahatma

indro 'mrta-syandi-karabhimarsa-

vita-vyatha-ksata-vaho 'vatasthe

SYNONYMS

na--not; sanna--fatigued; vahaya--upon him whose carrier; visanna-cetase--morose in the core of his heart; prayunkta--used; bhuyah--again; sah--he (Vrtrasura); gadam--the club; maha-atma--the great soul (who refrained from striking Indra with the club when he saw Indra morose and aggrieved); indrah--Indra; amrta-syandi-kara--of his hand, which produces nectar; abhimarsa--by the touch; vita--was relieved; vyatha--from pains; ksata--and cuts; vahah--whose carrier elephant; avatasthe--stood there.

TRANSLATION

When he saw Indra's carrier elephant thus fatigued and injured and when he saw Indra morose because his carrier had been harmed in that way, the great soul Vrtrasura, following religious principles, refrained from again striking Indra with the club. Taking this opportunity, Indra touched the elephant with his nectar-producing hand, thus relieving the animal's pain and curing its injuries. Then the elephant and Indra both stood silently.

TEXT 13

TEXT

sa tam nrpendrahava-kamyaya ripum

vajrayudham bhratr-hanam vilokya

smarams ca tat-karma nr-samsam amhah

sokena mohena hasan jagada

SYNONYMS

sah--he (Vrtrasura); tam--him (the King of heaven, Indra); nrpa-indra--O King Pariksit; ahava-kamyaya--with a desire to fight; ripum--his enemy; vajra-ayudham--whose weapon was the thunderbolt (made from the bones of Dadhici); bhratr-hanam--who was the killer of his brother; vilokya--seeing; smaran--remembering; ca--and; tat-karma--his activities; nr-samsam--cruel; amhah--a great sin; sokena--with lamentation; mohena--by bewilderment; hasan--laughing; jagada--said.

TRANSLATION

O King, when the great hero Vrtrasura saw Indra, his enemy, the killer of his brother, standing before him with a thunderbolt in his hand, desiring to fight, Vrtrasura remembered how Indra had cruelly killed his brother. Thinking of Indra's sinful activities, he became mad with lamentation and forgetfulness. Laughing sarcastically, he spoke as follows.

TEXT 14

TEXT

sri-vrtra uvaca

distya bhavan me samavasthito ripur

yo brahma-ha guru-ha bhratr-ha ca

distyanrno 'dyaham asattama tvaya

mac-chula-nirbhinna-drsad-dhrdacirat

SYNONYMS

sri-vrtrah uvaca--the great hero Vrtrasura said; distya--by good fortune; bhavan--Your Lordship; me--of me; samavasthitah--situated (in front); ripuh--my enemy; yah--who; brahma-ha--the killer of a brahmana; guru-ha--the killer of your guru; bhratr-ha--the killer of my brother; ca--also; distya--by good fortune; anrnah--free from debt (to my brother); adya--today; aham--I; asat-tama--O most abominable one; tvaya--through you; mat-sula--by my trident; nirbhinna--being pierced; drsat--like stone; hrda--whose heart; acirat--very soon.

TRANSLATION

Sri Vrtrasura said: He who has killed a brahmana, he who has killed his spiritual master--indeed, he who has killed my brother--is now, by good fortune, standing before me face to face as my enemy. O most abominable one, when I pierce your stonelike heart with my trident, I shall be freed from my debt to my brother.

TEXT 15

TEXT

yo no 'grajasyatma-vido dvijater

guror apapasya ca diksitasya

visrabhya khadgena siramsy avrscat

pasor ivakarunah svarga-kamah

SYNONYMS

yah--he who; nah--our; agra-jasya--of the elder brother; atma-vidah--who was fully self-realized; dvi-jateh--a qualified brahmana; guroh--your spiritual master; apapasya--free from all sinful activities; ca--also; diksitasya--appointed as the initiator of your yajna; visrabhya--trustfully; khadgena--by your sword; siramsi--the heads; avrscat--cut off; pasoh--of an animal; iva--like; akarunah--merciless; svarga-kamah--desiring the heavenly planets.

TRANSLATION

Only for the sake of living in the heavenly planets, you killed my elder brother--a self-realized, sinless, qualified brahmana who had been appointed your chief priest. He was your spiritual master, but although you entrusted him with the performance of your sacrifice, you later mercilessly severed his heads from his body the way one butchers an animal.

TEXT 16

TEXT

sri-hri-daya-kirtibhir ujjhitam tvam

sva-karmana purusadais ca garhyam

krcchrena mac-chula-vibhinna-deham

asprsta-vahnim samadanti grdhrah

SYNONYMS

sri--opulence or beauty; hri--shame; daya--mercy; kirtibhih--and glory; ujjhitam--bereft of; tvam--you; sva-karmana--by your own activities; purusa-adaih--by the Raksasas (man-eaters); ca--and; garhyam--condemnable; krcchrena--with great difficulty; mat-sula--by my trident; vibhinna--pierced; deham--your body; asprsta-vahnim--not even touched by fire; samadanti--will eat; grdhrah--the vultures.

TRANSLATION

Indra, you are bereft of all shame, mercy, glory and good fortune. Deprived of these good qualities by the reactions of your fruitive activities, you are to be condemned even by the man-eaters [Raksasas]. Now I shall pierce your body with my trident, and after you die with great pain, even fire will not touch you; only the vultures will eat your body.

TEXT 17

TEXT

anye 'nu ye tveha nr-samsam ajna

yad udyatastrah praharanti mahyam

tair bhuta-nathan saganan nisata-

trisula-nirbhinna-galair yajami

SYNONYMS

anye--others; anu--follow; ye--who; tva--you; iha--in this connection; nr-samsam--very cruel; ajnah--persons unaware of my prowess; yat--if; udyata-astrah--with their swords raised; praharanti--attack; mahyam--me; taih--with those; bhuta-nathan--to such leaders of the ghosts as Bhairava; sa-ganan--with their hordes; nisata--sharpened; tri-sula--by the trident; nirbhinna--separated or pierced; galaih--having their necks; yajami--I shall offer sacrifices.

TRANSLATION

You are naturally cruel. If the other demigods, unaware of my prowess, follow you by attacking me with raised weapons, I shall sever their heads with this sharp trident. With those heads I shall perform a sacrifice to Bhairava and the other leaders of the ghosts, along with their hordes.

TEXT 18

TEXT

atho hare me kulisena vira

harta pramathyaiva siro yadiha

tatranrno bhuta-balim vidhaya

manasvinam pada-rajah prapatsye

SYNONYMS

atho--otherwise; hare--O King Indra; me--of me; kulisena--by your thunderbolt; vira--O great hero; harta--you cut off; pramathya--destroying my army; eva--certainly; sirah--head; yadi--if; iha--in this battle; tatra--in that case; anrnah--relieved of all debts in this material world; bhuta-balim--a presentation for all living entities; vidhaya--arranging; manasvinam--of great sages like Narada Muni; pada-rajah--the dust of the lotus feet; prapatsye--I shall achieve.

TRANSLATION

But if in this battle you cut off my head with your thunderbolt and kill my soldiers, O Indra, O great hero, I shall take great pleasure in offering my body to other living entities [such as jackals and vultures]. I shall thus be relieved of my obligations to the reactions of my karma, and my fortune will be to receive the dust from the lotus feet of great devotees like Narada Muni.

PURPORT

Sri Narottama dasa Thakura sings:

ei chaya gosani yara, mui tara dasa

tan' sabara pada-renu mora panca-grasa

"I am the servant of the six Gosvamis, and the dust of their lotus feet provides my five kinds of food." A Vaisnava always desires the dust of the lotus feet of previous acaryas and Vaisnavas. Vrtrasura was certain that he would be killed in the battle with Indra, because this was the desire of Lord Visnu. He was prepared for death because he knew that after his death he was destined to return home, back to Godhead. This is a great destination, and it is achieved by the grace of a Vaisnava. Chadiya vaisnava-seva nistara payeche keba: no one has ever gone back to Godhead without being favored by a Vaisnava. In this verse, therefore, we find the words manasvinam pada-rajah prapatsye: "I shall receive the dust of the lotus feet of great devotees." The word manasvinam refers to great devotees who always think of Krsna. They are always peaceful, thinking of Krsna, and therefore they are called dhira. The best example of such a devotee is Narada Muni. If one receives the dust of the lotus feet of a manasvi, a great devotee, he certainly returns home, back to Godhead.

TEXT 19

TEXT

suresa kasman na hinosi vajram

purah sthite vairini mayy amogham

ma samsayistha na gadeva vajrah

syan nisphalah krpanartheva yacna

SYNONYMS

sura-isa--O King of the demigods; kasmat--why; na--not; hinosi--you hurl; vajram--the thunderbolt; purah sthite--standing in front; vairini--your enemy; mayi--at me; amogham--which is infallible (your thunderbolt); ma--do not; samsayisthah--doubt; na--not; gada iva--like the club; vajrah--the thunderbolt; syat--may be; nisphalah--with no result; krpana--from a miserly person; artha--for money; iva--like; yacna--a request.

TRANSLATION

O King of the demigods, since I, your enemy, am standing before you, why don't you hurl your thunderbolt at me? Although your attack upon me with your club was certainly useless, like a request of money from a miser, the thunderbolt you carry will not be useless. You need have no doubts about this.

PURPORT

When King Indra threw his club at Vrtrasura, Vrtrasura caught it in his left hand and retaliated by using it to strike the head of Indra's elephant. Thus Indra's attack was a disastrous failure. Indeed, Indra's elephant was injured and thrown back fourteen yards. Therefore even though Indra stood with the thunderbolt to hurl against Vrtrasura, he was doubtful, thinking that the thunderbolt might also fail. Vrtrasura, however, being a Vaisnava, assured Indra that the thunderbolt would not fail, for Vrtrasura knew that it had been prepared in accordance with the instructions of Lord Visnu. Although Indra had doubts because he could not understand that Lord Visnu's order never fails, Vrtrasura understood Lord Visnu's purpose. Vrtrasura was eager to be killed by the thunderbolt manufactured according to Lord Visnu's instructions because he was sure that he would thus return home, back to Godhead. He was simply waiting for the opportunity of the thunderbolt's being released. In effect, therefore, Vrtrasura told Indra, "If you want to kill me, since I am your enemy, take this opportunity. Kill me. You will gain victory, and I shall go back to Godhead. Your deed will be equally beneficial for both of us. Do it immediately."

TEXT 20

TEXT

nanv esa vajras tava sakra tejasa

harer dadhices tapasa ca tejitah

tenaiva satrum jahi visnu-yantrito

yato harir vijayah srir gunas tatah

SYNONYMS

nanu--certainly; esah--this; vajrah--thunderbolt; tava--of yours; sakra--O Indra; tejasa--by the prowess; hareh--of Lord Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dadhiceh--of Dadhici; tapasa--by the austerities; ca--as well as; tejitah--empowered; tena--with that; eva--certainly; satrum--your enemy; jahi--kill; visnu-yantritah--ordered by Lord Visnu; yatah--wherever; harih--Lord Visnu; vijayah--victory; srih--opulences; gunah--and other good qualities; tatah--there.

TRANSLATION

O Indra, King of heaven, the thunderbolt you carry to kill me has been empowered by the prowess of Lord Visnu and the strength of Dadhici's austerities. Since you have come here to kill me in accordance with Lord Visnu's order, there is no doubt that I shall be killed by the release of your thunderbolt. Lord Visnu has sided with you. Therefore your victory, opulence and all good qualities are assured.

PURPORT

Vrtrasura not only assured King Indra that the thunderbolt was invincible, but also encouraged Indra to use it against him as soon as possible. Vrtrasura was eager to die with the stroke of the thunderbolt sent by Lord Visnu so that he could immediately return home, back to Godhead. By hurling the thunderbolt, Indra would gain victory and enjoy the heavenly planets, remaining in the material world for repeated birth and death. Indra wanted to gain victory over Vrtrasura and thereby become happy, but that would not at all be happiness. The heavenly planets are just below Brahmaloka, but as stated by the Supreme Lord, Krsna, abrahma-bhuvanal lokah punar avartino 'rjuna: even if one achieves Brahmaloka, he must still fall to the lower planetary systems again and again. However, if one goes back to Godhead, he never returns to this material world. By killing Vrtrasura, Indra would not actually gain; he would remain in the material world. Vrtrasura, however, would go to the spiritual world. Therefore victory was destined for Vrtrasura, not for Indra.

TEXT 21

TEXT

aham samadhaya mano yathaha nah

sankarsanas tac-caranaravinde

tvad-vajra-ramho-lulita-gramya-paso

gatim muner yamy apaviddha-lokah

SYNONYMS

aham--I; samadhaya--fixing firmly; manah--the mind; yatha--just as; aha--said; nah--our; sankarsanah--Lord Sankarsana; tat-carana-aravinde--at His lotus feet; tvat-vajra--of your thunderbolt; ramhah--by the force; lulita--torn; gramya--of material attachment; pasah--the rope; gatim--the destination; muneh--of Narada Muni and other devotees; yami--I shall achieve; apaviddha--giving up; lokah--this material world (where one desires all kinds of impermanent things).

TRANSLATION

By the force of your thunderbolt, I shall be freed of material bondage and shall give up this body and this world of material desires. Fixing my mind upon the lotus feet of Lord Sankarsana, I shall attain the destination of such great sages as Narada Muni, just as Lord Sankarsana has said.

PURPORT

The words aham samadhaya manah indicate that the most important duty at the time of death is to concentrate one's mind. If one can fix his mind on the lotus feet of Krsna, Visnu, Sankarsana or any Visnu murti, his life will be successful. To be killed while fixing his mind at the lotus feet of Sankarsana, Vrtrasura asked Indra to release his vajra, or thunderbolt. He was destined to be killed by the thunderbolt given by Lord Visnu; there was no question of its being baffled. Therefore Vrtrasura requested Indra to release the thunderbolt immediately, and he prepared himself by fixing his mind at the lotus feet of Krsna. A devotee is always ready to give up his material body, which is described herein as gramya-pasa, the rope of material attachment. The body is not at all good; it is simply a cause of bondage to the material world. Unfortunately, even though the body is destined for destruction, fools and rascals invest all their faith in the body and are never eager to return home, back to Godhead.

TEXT 22

TEXT

pumsam kilaikanta-dhiyam svakanam

yah sampado divi bhumau rasayam

na rati yad dvesa udvega adhir

madah kalir vyasanam samprayasah

SYNONYMS

pumsam--unto persons; kila--certainly; ekanta-dhiyam--who are advanced in spiritual consciousness; svakanam--who are recognized by the Supreme Personality of Godhead as His own; yah--which; sampadah--opulences; divi--in the upper planetary systems; bhumau--in the middle planetary systems; rasayam--and in the lower planetary systems; na--not; rati--bestows; yat--from which; dvesah--envy; udvegah--anxiety; adhih--mental agitation; madah--pride; kalih--quarrel; vyasanam--distress due to loss; samprayasah--great endeavor.

TRANSLATION

Persons who fully surrender at the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and always think of His lotus feet are accepted and recognized by the Lord as His own personal assistants or servants. The Lord never bestows upon such servants the brilliant opulences of the upper, lower and middle planetary systems of this material world. When one possesses material opulence in any of these three divisions of the universe, his possessions naturally increase his enmity, anxiety, mental agitation, pride and belligerence. Thus one goes through much endeavor to increase and maintain his possessions, and he suffers great unhappiness when he loses them.

PURPORT

In Bhagavad-gita (4.11) the Lord says:

ye yatha mam prapadyante

tams tathaiva bhajamy aham

mama vartmanuvartante

manusyah partha sarvasah

"As devotees surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Prtha." Both Indra and Vrtrasura were certainly devotees of the Lord, although Indra took instructions from Visnu to kill Vrtrasura. The Lord was actually more favorable to Vrtrasura because after being killed by Indra's thunderbolt, Vrtrasura would go back to Godhead, whereas the victorious Indra would rot in this material world. Because both of them were devotees, the Lord awarded them the respective benedictions they wanted. Vrtrasura never wanted material possessions, for he knew very well the nature of such possessions. To accumulate material possessions, one must labor very hard, and when he gets them he creates many enemies because this material world is always full of rivalry. If one becomes rich, his friends or relatives are envious. For ekanta-bhaktas, unalloyed devotees, Krsna therefore never provides material possessions. A devotee sometimes needs some material possessions for preaching, but the possessions of a preacher are not like those of a karmi. A karmi's possessions are achieved as a result of karma, but those of a devotee are arranged by the Supreme Personality of Godhead just to facilitate his devotional activities. Because a devotee never uses material possessions for any purpose other than the service of the Lord, the possessions of a devotee are not to be compared to those of a karmi.

TEXT 23

TEXT

trai-vargikayasa-vighatam asmat-

patir vidhatte purusasya sakra

tato 'numeyo bhagavat-prasado

yo durlabho 'kincana-gocaro 'nyaih

SYNONYMS

trai-vargika--for the three objectives, namely religiosity, economic development, and satisfaction of the senses; ayasa--of endeavor; vighatam--the ruin; asmat--our; patih--Lord; vidhatte--performs; purusasya--of a devotee; sakra--O Indra; tatah--whereby; anumeyah--to be inferred; bhagavat-prasadah--the special mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yah--which; durlabhah--very difficult to obtain; akincana-gocarah--within the reach of the unalloyed devotees; anyaih--by others, who aspire for material happiness.

TRANSLATION

Our Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, forbids His devotees to endeavor uselessly for religion, economic development and sense gratification. O Indra, one can thus infer how kind the Lord is. Such mercy is obtainable only by unalloyed devotees, not by persons who aspire for material gains.

PURPORT

There are four objectives in human life--namely, religiosity (dharma), economic development (artha), sense gratification (kama), and liberation (moksa) from the bondage of material existence. People generally aspire for religiosity, economic development and sense gratification, but a devotee has no other desire than to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead both in this life and in the next. The special mercy for the unalloyed devotee is that the Lord saves him from hard labor to achieve the results of religion, economic development and sense gratification. Of course, if one wants such benefits, the Lord certainly awards them. Indra, for example, although a devotee, was not much interested in release from material bondage; instead, he desired sense gratification and a high standard of material happiness in the heavenly planets. Vrtrasura, however, being an unalloyed devotee, aspired only to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore the Lord arranged for him to go back to Godhead after his bodily bondage was destroyed by Indra. Vrtrasura requested Indra to release his thunderbolt against him as soon as possible so that both he and Indra would benefit according to their proportionate advancement in devotional service.

TEXT 24

TEXT

aham hare tava padaika-mula-

dasanudaso bhavitasmi bhuyah

manah smaretasu-pater gunams te

grnita vak karma karotu kayah

SYNONYMS

aham--I; hare--O my Lord; tava--of Your Lordship; pada-eka-mula--whose only shelter is the lotus feet; dasa-anudasah--the servant of Your servant; bhavitasmi--shall I become; bhuyah--again; manah--my mind; smareta--may remember; asu-pateh--of the Lord of my life; gunan--the attributes; te--of Your Lordship; grnita--may chant; vak--my words; karma--activities of service to You; karotu--may perform; kayah--my body.

TRANSLATION

O my Lord, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, will I again be; able to be a servant of Your eternal servants who find shelter only at Your lotus feet? O Lord of my life, may I again become their servant so that my mind may always think of Your transcendental attributes, my words always glorify those attributes, and my body always engage in the loving service of Your Lordship?

PURPORT

This verse gives the sum and substance of devotional life. One must first become a servant of the servant of the servant of the Lord (dasanudasa). Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu advised, and He also showed by His own example, that a living entity should always desire to be a servant of the servant of the servant of Krsna, the maintainer of the gopis (gopi-bhartuh pada-kamalayor dasa-dasanudasah). This means that one must accept a spiritual master who comes in the disciplic succession and is a servant of the servant of the Lord. Under his direction, one must then engage one's three properties, namely his body, mind and words. The body should be engaged in physical activity under the order of the master, the mind should think of Krsna incessantly, and one's words should be engaged in preaching the glories of the Lord. If one is thus engaged in the loving service of the Lord, one's life is successful.

TEXT 25

TEXT

na naka-prstham na ca paramesthyam

na sarva-bhaumam na rasadhipatyam

na yoga-siddhir apunar-bhavam va

samanjasa tva virahayya kankse

SYNONYMS

na--not; naka-prstham--the heavenly planets or Dhruvaloka; na--nor; ca--also; paramesthyam--the planet on which Lord Brahma resides; na--nor; sarva-bhaumam--sovereignty of the whole earthly planetary system; na--nor; rasa-adhipatyam--sovereignty of the lower planetary systems; na--nor; yoga-siddhih--eight kinds of mystic yogic power (anima, laghima, mahima, etc.); apunah-bhavam--liberation from rebirth in a material body; va--or; samanjasa--O source of all opportunities; tva--You; virahayya--being separated from; kankse--I desire.

TRANSLATION

O my Lord, source of all opportunities, I do not desire to enjoy in Dhruvaloka, the heavenly planets or the planet where Lord Brahma resides, nor do I want to be the supreme ruler of all the earthly planets or the lower planetary systems. I do not desire to be master of the powers of mystic yoga, nor do I want liberation if I have to give up Your lotus feet.

PURPORT

A pure devotee never desires to gain material opportunities by rendering transcendental loving service to the Lord. A pure devotee desires only to engage in loving service to the Lord in the constant association of the Lord and His eternal associates, as stated in the previous verse (dasanudaso bhavitasmi). As confirmed by Narottama dasa Thakura:

tandera carana sevi bhakta-sane vasa

janame janame haya, ei abhilasa

To serve the Lord and the servants of His servants, in the association of devotees, is the only objective of a pure, unalloyed devotee.

TEXT 26

TEXT

ajata-paksa iva mataram khagah

stanyam yatha vatsatarah ksudh-artah

priyam priyeva vyusitam visanna

mano 'ravindaksa didrksate tvam

SYNONYMS

ajata-paksah--who have not yet grown wings; iva--like; mataram--the mother; khagah--small birds; stanyam--the milk from the udder; yatha--just as; vatsatarah--the young calves; ksudh-artah--distressed by hunger; priyam--the beloved or husband; priya--the wife or lover; iva--like; vyusitam--who is away from home; visanna--morose; manah--my mind; aravinda-aksa--O lotus-eyed one; didrksate--wants to see; tvam--You.

TRANSLATION

O lotus-eyed Lord, as baby birds that have not yet developed their wings always look for their mother to return and feed them, as small calves tied with ropes await anxiously the time of milking, when they will be allowed to drink the milk of their mothers, or as a morose wife whose husband is away from home always longs for him to return and satisfy her in all respects, I always yearn for the opportunity to render direct service unto You.

PURPORT

A pure devotee always yearns to associate personally with the Lord and render service unto Him. The examples given in this regard are most appropriate. A small baby bird is practically never satisfied except when the mother bird comes to feed it, a small calf is not satisfied unless allowed to suck the milk from the mother's udder, and a chaste, devoted wife whose husband is away from home is never satisfied until she has the association of her beloved husband.

TEXT 27

TEXT

mamottamasloka-janesu sakhyam

samsara-cakre bhramatah sva-karmabhih

tvan-mayayatmatmaja-dara-gehesv

asakta-cittasya na natha bhuyat

SYNONYMS

mama--my; uttama-sloka-janesu--among devotees who are simply attached to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sakhyam--friendship; samsara-cakre--in the cycle of birth and death; bhramatah--who am wandering; sva-karmabhih--by the results of my own fruitive activities; tvat-mayaya--by Your external energy; atma--to the body; atma-ja--children; dara--wife; gehesu--and home; asakta--attached; cittasya--whose mind; na--not; natha--O my Lord; bhuyat--may there be.

TRANSLATION

O my Lord, my master, I am wandering throughout this material world as a result of my fruitive activities. Therefore I simply seek friendship in the association of Your pious and enlightened devotees. My attachment to my body, wife, children and home is continuing by the spell of Your external energy, but I wish to be attached to them no longer. Let my mind, my consciousness and everything I have be attached only to You.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to the Sixth Canto, Eleventh Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "The Transcendental Qualities of Vrtrasura."

Chapter Twelve

Vrtrasura's Glorious Death

This chapter describes how Indra, the King of heaven, killed Vrtrasura despite great reluctance.

After Vrtrasura finished speaking, he released his trident against King Indra with great anger, but Indra, using his thunderbolt, which was many times more powerful than the trident, broke the trident to pieces and cut off one of Vrtrasura's arms. Nevertheless, Vrtrasura used his remaining arm to strike Indra with an iron mace, making the thunderbolt fall from Indra's hand. Indra, being very ashamed of this, did not pick up the thunderbolt from the ground, but Vrtrasura encouraged King Indra to pick it up and fight. Vrtrasura then spoke to King Indra as follows, instructing him very well.

"The Supreme Personality of Godhead," he said, "is the cause of victory and defeat. Not knowing that the Supreme Lord is the cause of all causes, fools and rascals try to take credit for victory or defeat themselves, but everything is actually under the control of the Lord. No one but Him has any independence. The purusa (the enjoyer) and prakrti (the enjoyed) are under the control of the Lord, for it is by His supervision that everything works systematically. Not seeing the hand of the Supreme in every action, a fool considers himself the ruler and controller of everything. When one understands, however, that the real controller is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he is freed from the relativities of the world, such as distress, happiness, fear and impurity." Thus Indra and Vrtrasura not only fought, but also engaged in philosophical discourses. Then they began to fight again.

This time Indra was more powerful, and he severed Vrtrasura's remaining arm. Vrtrasura then assumed a gigantic form and swallowed King Indra, but Indra, being protected by the talisman known as Narayana-kavaca, was able to protect himself even within Vrtrasura's body. Thus he emerged from Vrtrasura's abdomen and severed the demon's head from his body with his powerful thunderbolt. Severing the demon's head took one complete year to accomplish.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-rsir uvaca

evam jihasur nrpa deham ajau

mrtyum varam vijayan manyamanah

sulam pragrhyabhyapatat surendram

yatha maha-purusam kaitabho 'psu

SYNONYMS

sri-rsih uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; evam--thus; jihasuh--very eager to give up; nrpa--O King Pariksit; deham--the body; ajau--in battle; mrtyum--death; varam--better; vijayat--than victory; manyamanah--thinking; sulam--trident; pragrhya--taking up; abhyapatat--attacked; sura-indram--the King of heaven, Indra; yatha--just as; maha-purusam--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kaitabhah--the demon Kaitabha; apsu--when the whole universe was inundated.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami said: Desiring to give up his body, Vrtrasura considered death in the battle preferable to victory. O King Pariksit, he vigorously took up his trident and with great force attacked Lord Indra, the King of heaven, just as Kaitabha had forcefully attacked the Supreme Personality of Godhead when the universe was inundated.

PURPORT

Although Vrtrasura repeatedly encouraged Indra to kill him with the thunderbolt, King Indra was morose at having to kill such a great devotee and was hesitant to throw it. Vrtrasura, disappointed that King Indra was reluctant despite his encouragement, took the initiative very forcefully by throwing his trident at Indra. Vrtrasura was not at all interested in victory; he was interested in being killed so that he could immediately return home, back to Godhead. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (4.9), tyaktva deham punar janma naiti: after giving up his body, a devotee immediately returns to Lord Krsna and never returns to accept another body. This was Vrtrasura's interest.

TEXT 2

TEXT

tato yugantagni-kathora-jihvam

avidhya sulam tarasasurendrah

ksiptva mahendraya vinadya viro

hato 'si papeti rusa jagada

SYNONYMS

tatah--thereafter; yuga-anta-agni--like the fire at the end of every millennium; kathora--sharp; jihvam--possessing points; avidhya--twirling; sulam--the trident; tarasa--with great force; asura-indrah--the great hero of the demons, Vrtrasura; ksiptva--throwing; maha-indraya--unto King Indra; vinadya--roaring; virah--the great hero (Vrtrasura); hatah--killed; asi--you are; papa--O sinful one; iti--thus; rusa--with great anger; jagada--be cried out.

TRANSLATION

Then Vrtrasura, the great hero of the demons, whirled his trident, which had points like the flames of the blazing fire at the end of the millennium. With great force and anger he threw it at Indra, roaring and exclaiming loudly, "O sinful one, thus shall I kill you!"

TEXT 3

TEXT

kha apatat tad vicalad graholkavan

niriksya duspreksyam ajata-viklavah

vajrena vajri sata-parvanacchinad

bhujam ca tasyoraga-raja-bhogam

SYNONYMS

khe--in the sky; apatat--flying toward him; tat--that trident; vicalat--rotating; graha-ulka-vat--like a falling star; niriksya--observing; duspreksyam--unbearable to see; ajata-viklavah--not afraid; vajrena--with the thunderbolt; vajri--Indra, the holder of the thunderbolt; sata-parvana--possessing one hundred joints; acchinat--cut; bhujam--the arm; ca--and; tasya--of him (Vrtrasura); uraga-raja--of the great serpent Vasuki; bhogam--like the body.

TRANSLATION

Flying in the sky, Vrtrasura's trident resembled a brilliant meteor. Although the blazing weapon was difficult to look upon, King Indra, unafraid, cut it to pieces with his thunderbolt. Simultaneously, he cut off one of Vrtrasura's arms, which was as thick as the body of Vasuki, the King of the serpents.

TEXT 4

TEXT

chinnaika-bahuh parighena vrtrah

samrabdha asadya grhita-vajram

hanau tatadendram athamarebham

vajram ca hastan nyapatan maghonah

SYNONYMS

chinna--cut off; eka--one; bahuh--whose arm; parighena--with a mace of iron; vrtrah--Vrtrasura; samrabdhah--being very angry; asadya--reaching; grhita--taking up; vajram--the thunderbolt; hanau--on the jaw; tatada--struck; indram--Lord Indra; atha--also; amara-ibham--his elephant; vajram--the thunderbolt; ca--and; hastat--from the hand; nyapatat--fell; maghonah--of King Indra.

TRANSLATION

Although one of his arms was severed from his body, Vrtrasura angrily approached King Indra and struck him on the jaw with an iron mace. He also struck the elephant that carried Indra. Thus Indra dropped the thunderbolt from his hand.

TEXT 5

TEXT

vrtrasya karmati-mahadbhutam tat

surasuras carana-siddha-sanghah

apujayams tat puruhuta-sankatam

niriksya ha heti vicukrusur bhrsam

SYNONYMS

vrtrasya--of Vrtrasura; karma--the accomplishment; ati--very; maha--greatly; adbhutam--wonderful; tat--that; sura--the demigods; asurah--and the demons; carana--the Caranas; siddha-sanghah--and the society of Siddhas; apujayan--glorified; tat--that; puruhuta-sankatam--the dangerous position of Indra; niriksya--seeing; ha ha--alas, alas; iti--thus; vicukrusuh--lamented; bhrsam--very much.

TRANSLATION

The denizens of various planets, like the demigods, demons, Caranas and Siddhas, praised Vrtrasura's deed, but when they observed that Indra was in great danger, they lamented, "Alas! Alas!"

TEXT 6

TEXT

indro na vajram jagrhe vilajjitas

cyutam sva-hastad ari-sannidhau punah

tam aha vrtro hara atta-vajro

jahi sva-satrum na visada-kalah

SYNONYMS

indrah--King Indra; na--not; vajram--the thunderbolt; jagrhe--took up; vilajjitah--being ashamed; cyutam--fallen; sva-hastat--from his own hand; ari-sannidhau--in front of his enemy; punah--again; tam--unto him; aha--said; vrtrah--Vrtrasura; hare--O Indra; atta-vajrah--taking up your thunderbolt; jahi--kill; sva-satrum--your enemy; na--not; visada-kalah--the time for lamentation.

TRANSLATION

Having dropped the thunderbolt from his hand in the presence of his enemy, Indra was practically defeated and was very much ashamed. He dared not pick up his weapon again. Vrtrasura, however, encouraged him, saying, "Take up your thunderbolt and kill your enemy. This is not the time to lament your fate."

TEXT 7

TEXT

yuyutsatam kutracid atatayinam

jayah sadaikatra na vai paratmanam

vinaikam utpatti-laya-sthitisvaram

sarvajnam adyam purusam sanatanam

SYNONYMS

yuyutsatam--of those who are belligerent; kutracit--sometimes; atatayinam--armed with weapons; jayah--victory; sada--always; ekatra--in one place; na--not; vai--indeed; para-atmanam--of the subordinate living entities, who work only under the direction of the Supersoul; vina--except; ekam--one; utpatti--of the creation; laya--annihilation; sthiti--and maintenance; isvaram--the controller; sarva-jnam--who knows everything (past, present and future); adyam--the original; purusam--enjoyer; sanatanam--eternal.

TRANSLATION

Vrtrasura continued: O Indra, no one is guaranteed of being always victorious but the original enjoyer, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Bhagavan. He is the cause of creation, maintenance and annihilation, and He knows everything. Being dependent and being obliged to accept material bodies, belligerent subordinates are sometimes victorious and sometimes defeated.

PURPORT

The Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (15.15):

sarvasya caham hrdi sannivisto

mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca

"I am seated in everyone's heart, and from Me come remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness." When two parties fight, the fighting actually goes on under the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is Paramatma, the Supersoul. Elsewhere in the Gita (3.27) the Lord says:

prakrteh kriyamanani

gunaih karmani sarvasah

ahankara-vimudhatma

kartaham iti manyate

"The bewildered spirit soul, under the influence of the three modes of material nature, thinks himself the doer of activities that are in actuality carried out by nature." The living entities work only under the direction of the Supreme Lord. The Lord gives orders to material nature, and she arranges facilities for the living entities. The living entities are not independent, although they foolishly think themselves the doers (karta).

Victory is always with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As for the subordinate living entities, they fight under the arrangement of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Victory or defeat is not actually theirs; it is an arrangement by the Lord through the agency of material nature. Pride in victory, or moroseness in defeat, is useless. One should fully depend on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is responsible for the victory and defeat of all living entities. The Lord advises, niyatam kuru karma tvam karma jyayo hy akarmanah: "Perform your prescribed duty, for action is better than inaction." The living entity is ordered to act according to his position. Victory or defeat depends on the Supreme Lord. Karmany evadhikaras te ma phalesu kadacana: "You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of actions." One must act sincerely, according to his position. Victory or defeat depends on the Lord.

Vrtrasura encouraged Indra, saying, "Don't be morose because of my victory. There is no need to stop fighting. Instead, you should go on with your duty. When Krsna desires, you will certainly be victorious." This verse is very instructive for sincere workers in the Krsna consciousness movement. We should not be jubilant in victory or morose in defeat. We should make a sincere effort to implement the will of Krsna, or Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and we should not be concerned with victory and defeat. Our only duty is to work sincerely, so that our activities may be recognized by Krsna.

TEXT 8

TEXT

lokah sapala yasyeme

svasanti vivasa vase

dvija iva sica baddhah

sa kala iha karanam

SYNONYMS

lokah--the worlds; sa-palah--with their chief deities or controllers; yasya--of whom; ime--all these; svasanti--live; vivasah--fully dependent; vase--under the control; dvijah--birds; iva--like; sica--by a net; baddhah--bound; sah--that; kalah--time factor; iha--in this; karanam--the cause.

TRANSLATION

All living beings in all the planets of this universe, including the presiding deities of all the planets, are fully under the control of the Lord. They work like birds caught in a net, who cannot move independently.

PURPORT

The difference between the suras and the asuras is that the suras know that nothing can happen without the desire of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whereas the asuras cannot understand the supreme will of the Lord. In this fight, Vrtrasura is actually the sura, whereas Indra is the asura. No one can act independently; rather, everyone acts under the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore victory and defeat come according to the results of one's karma, and the judgment is given by the Supreme Lord (karmana-daiva-netrena). Since we act under the control of the Supreme according to our karma, no one is independent, from Brahma down to the insignificant ant. Whether we are defeated or victorious, the Supreme Lord is always victorious because everyone acts under His directions.

TEXT 9

TEXT

ojah saho balam pranam

amrtam mrtyum eva ca

tam ajnaya jano hetum

atmanam manyate jadam

SYNONYMS

ojah--the strength of the senses; sahah--the strength of the mind; balam--the strength of the body; pranam--the living condition; amrtam--immortality; mrtyum--death; eva--indeed; ca--also; tam--Him (the Supreme Lord); ajnaya--without knowing; janah--a foolish person; hetum--the cause; atmanam--the body; manyate--considers; jadam--although as good as stone.

TRANSLATION

Our sensory prowess, mental power, bodily strength, living force, immortality and mortality are all subject to the superintendence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Not knowing this, foolish people think the dull material body to be the cause of their activities.

TEXT 10

TEXT

yatha darumayi nari

yatha patramayo mrgah

evam bhutani maghavann

isa-tantrani viddhi bhoh

SYNONYMS

yatha--just as; daru-mayi--made of wood; nari--a woman; yatha--just as; patra-mayah--made of leaves; mrgah--an animal; evam--thus; bhutani--all things; maghavan--O King Indra; isa--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tantrani--depending upon; viddhi--please know; bhoh--O sir.

TRANSLATION

O King Indra, as a wooden doll that looks like a woman or as an animal made of grass and leaves cannot move or dance independently, but depends fully on the person who handles it, all of us dance according to the desire of the supreme controller, the Personality of Godhead. No one is independent.

PURPORT

This is confirmed in Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi 5.142):

ekale isvara krsna, ara saba bhrtya

yare yaiche nacaya, se taiche kare nrtya

"Lord Krsna alone is the supreme controller, and all others are His servants. They dance as He makes them do so." We are all servants of Krsna; we have no independence. We are dancing according to the desire of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but out of ignorance and illusion we think we are independent of the supreme will. Therefore it is said:

isvarah paramah krsnah

sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah

anadir adir govindah

sarva-karana-karanam

"Krsna, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes." (Brahma-samhita 5.1)

TEXT 11

TEXT

purusah prakrtir vyaktam

atma bhutendriyasayah

saknuvanty asya sargadau

na vina yad-anugrahat

SYNONYMS

purusah--the generator of the total material energy; prakrtih--the material energy or material nature; vyaktam--the principles of manifestation (mahat-tattva); atma--the false ego; bhuta--the five material elements; indriya--the ten senses; asayah--the mind, intelligence and consciousness; saknuvanti--are able; asya--of this universe; sarga-adau--in the creation, etc.; na--not; vina--without; yat--of whom; anugrahat--the mercy.

TRANSLATION

The three purusas--Karanodakasayi Visnu, Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Ksirodakasayi-Visnu--the material nature, the total material energy, the false ego, the five material elements, the material senses, the mind, the intelligence and consciousness cannot create the material manifestation without the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

PURPORT

As confirmed in the Visnu Purana, parasya brahmanah saktis tathedam akhilam jagat: whatever manifestations we experience are nothing but various energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. These energies cannot create anything independently. This is also confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (9.10): mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sa-caracaram. "This material nature is working under My direction, O son of Kunti, and it is producing all moving and unmoving living beings." Only under the direction of the Lord, the Supreme Person, can prakrti, which is manifested in twenty-four elements, create different situations for the living entity. In the Vedas the Lord says:

madiyam mahimanam ca

parabrahmeti sabditam

vetsyasy anugrhitam me

samprasnair vivrtam hrdi

"Since everything is a manifestation of My energy, I am known as Parabrahman. Therefore everyone should hear from Me about My glorious activities." The Lord also says in Bhagavad-gita (10.2), aham adir hi devanam: "I am the origin of all the demigods." Therefore the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the origin of everything, and no one is independent of Him. Srila Madhvacarya also says, anisa jiva-rupena: the living entity is anisa, never the controller, but is always controlled. Therefore when a living entity becomes proud of being an independent isvara, or god, that is his foolishness. Such foolishness is described in the following verse.

TEXT 12

TEXT

avidvan evam atmanam

manyate 'nisam isvaram

bhutaih srjati bhutani

grasate tani taih svayam

SYNONYMS

avidvan--one who is foolish, without knowledge; evam--thus; atmanam--himself; manyate--considers; anisam--although totally dependent on others; isvaram--as the supreme controller, independent; bhutaih--by the living entities; srjati--He (the Lord) creates; bhutani--other living entities; grasate--He devours; tani--them; taih--by other living beings; svayam--Himself.

TRANSLATION

A foolish, senseless person cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although always dependent, he falsely thinks himself the Supreme. If one thinks, "According to one's previous fruitive actions, one's material body is created by the father and mother, and the same body is annihilated by another agent, as another animal is devoured by a tiger," this is not proper understanding. The Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself creates and devours the living beings through other living beings.

PURPORT

According to the conclusion of the philosophy known as karma-mimamsa, one's karma, or previous fruitive activity, is the cause of everything, and therefore there is no need to work. Those who arrive at this conclusion are foolish. When a father creates a child, he does not do so independently; he is induced to do so by the Supreme Lord. As the Lord Himself says in Bhagavad-gita (15.15), sarvasya caham hrdi sannivisto mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca: "I am in everyone's heart, and from Me come remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness." Unless one receives dictation from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who sits within everyone's heart, one cannot be induced to create anything. Therefore the father and mother are not the creators of the living entity. According to the living entity's karma, fruitive activities, he is put into the semen of the father, who injects the living entity into the womb of the mother. Then according to the body of the mother and father (yatha-yoni yatha-bijam), the living entity accepts a body and takes birth to suffer or enjoy. Therefore the Supreme Lord is the original cause of one's birth. Similarly, the Supreme Lord is the cause of one's being killed. No one is independent; everyone is dependent. The true conclusion is that the only independent person is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TEXT 13

TEXT

ayuh srih kirtir aisvaryam

asisah purusasya yah

bhavanty eva hi tat-kale

yathanicchor viparyayah

SYNONYMS

ayuh--longevity; srih--opulence; kirtih--fame; aisvaryam--power; asisah--benedictions; purusasya--of the living entity; yah--which; bhavanti--arise; eva--indeed; hi--certainly; tat-kale--at that proper time; yatha--just as; anicchoh--of one not desiring; viparyayah--reverse conditions.

TRANSLATION

Just as a person not inclined to die must nonetheless give up his longevity, opulence, fame and everything else at the time of death, so, at the appointed time of victory, one can gain all these when the Supreme Lord awards them by His mercy.

PURPORT

It is not good to be falsely puffed up, saying that by one's own effort one has become opulent, learned, beautiful and so on. All such good fortune is achieved through the mercy of the Lord. From another point of view, no one wants to die, and no one wants to be poor or ugly. Therefore, why does the living entity, against his will, receive such unwanted troubles? It is due to the mercy or chastisement of the Supreme Personality of Godhead that one gains or loses everything material. No one is independent; everyone is dependent on the mercy or chastisement of the Supreme Lord. There is a common saying in Bengal that the Lord has ten hands. This means that He has control everywhere--in the eight directions and up and down. If He wants to take everything away from us with His ten hands, we cannot protect anything with our two hands. Similarly, if He wants to bestow benedictions upon us with His ten hands, we cannot factually receive them all with our two hands; in other words, the benedictions exceed our ambitions. The conclusion is that even though we do not wish to be separated from our possessions, sometimes the Lord forcibly takes them from us; and sometimes He showers such benedictions upon us that we are unable to receive them all. Therefore either in opulence or in distress we are not independent; everything is dependent on the sweet will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TEXT 14

TEXT

tasmad akirti-yasasor

jayapajayayor api

samah syat sukha-duhkhabhyam

mrtyu-jivitayos tatha

SYNONYMS

tasmat--therefore (because of being fully dependent on the pleasure of the Supreme Personality of Godhead); akirti--of defamation; yasasoh--and fame; jaya--of victory; apajayayoh--and defeat; api--even; samah--equal; syat--one should be; sukha-duhkhabhyam--with the distress and happiness; mrtyu--of death; jivitayoh--or of living; tatha--as well as.

TRANSLATION

Since everything is dependent on the supreme will of the Personality of Godhead, one should be equipoised in fame and defamation, victory and defeat, life and death. In their effects, represented as happiness and distress, one should maintain oneself in equilibrium, without anxiety.

TEXT 15

TEXT

sattvam rajas tama iti

prakrter natmano gunah

tatra saksinam atmanam

yo veda sa na badhyate

SYNONYMS

sattvam--the mode of goodness; rajah--the mode of passion; tamah--the mode of ignorance; iti--thus; prakrteh--of the material nature; na--not; atmanah--of the spirit soul; gunah--the qualities; tatra--in such a position; saksinam--an observer; atmanam--the self; yah--anyone who; veda--knows; sah--he; na--not; badhyate--is bound.

TRANSLATION

One who knows that the three qualities--goodness, passion and ignorance--are not qualities of the soul but qualities of material nature, and who knows that the pure soul is simply an observer of the actions and reactions of these qualities, should be understood to be a liberated person. He is not bound by these qualities.

PURPORT

As the Lord explains in Bhagavad-gita (18.54):

brahma-bhutah prasannatma

na socati na kanksati

samah sarvesu bhutesu

mad-bhaktim labhate param

"One who is transcendentally situated at once realizes the Supreme Brahman and becomes fully joyful. He never laments or desires to have anything; he is equally disposed to every living entity. In that state he attains pure devotional service unto Me." When one attains self-realization, the brahma-bhuta stage, one knows that whatever happens during his life is due to the contamination of the modes of material nature. The living being, the pure soul, has nothing to do with these modes. In the midst of the hurricane of the material world, everything changes very quickly, but if one remains silent and simply observes the actions and reactions of the hurricane, he is understood to be liberated. The real qualification of the liberated soul is that he remains Krsna conscious, undisturbed by the actions and reactions of the material energy. Such a liberated person is always jubilant. He never laments or aspires for anything. Since everything is supplied by the Supreme Lord, the living entity, being fully dependent on Him, should not protest or accept anything in terms of his personal sense gratification; rather, he should receive everything as the mercy of the Lord and remain steady in all circumstances.

TEXT 16

TEXT

pasya mam nirjitam satru

vrknayudha-bhujam mrdhe

ghatamanam yatha-sakti

tava prana-jihirsaya

SYNONYMS

pasya--look; mam--at me; nirjitam--already defeated; satru--O enemy; vrkna--cut off; ayudha--my weapon; bhujam--and my arm; mrdhe--in this fight; ghatamanam--still trying; yatha-sakti--according to my ability; tava--of you; prana--the life; jihirsaya--with the desire to take away.

TRANSLATION

O my enemy, just look at me. I have already been defeated, for my weapon and arm have been cut to pieces. You have already overwhelmed me, but nonetheless, with a desire to kill you, I am trying my best to fight. I am not at all morose, even under such adverse conditions. Therefore you should give up your moroseness and continue fighting.

PURPORT

Vrtrasura was so great and powerful that in effect he was acting as the spiritual master of Indra. Although Vrtrasura was on the verge of defeat, he was not at all affected. He knew that he was going to be defeated by Indra, and he voluntarily accepted that, but since he was supposed to be Indra's enemy, he tried his best to kill Indra. Thus he performed his duty. One should perform his duty under all circumstances, even though one may know what the result will be.

TEXT 17

TEXT

prana-glaho 'yam samara

isv-akso vahanasanah

atra na jnayate 'musya

jayo 'musya parajayah

SYNONYMS

prana-glahah--life is the stake; ayam--this; samarah--battle; isu-aksah--the arrows are the dice; vahana-asanah--the carriers such as the horses and elephants are the game board; atra--here (in this gambling match); na--not; jnayate--is known; amusya--of that one; jayah--victory; amusya--of that one; parajayah--defeat.

TRANSLATION

O my enemy, consider this battle a gambling match in which our lives are the stakes, the arrows are the dice, and the animals acting as carriers are the game board. No one can understand who will be defeated and who will be victorious. It all depends on providence.

TEXT 18

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

indro vrtra-vacah srutva

gatalikam apujayat

grhita-vajrah prahasams

tam aha gata-vismayah

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; indrah--King Indra; vrtra-vacah--the words of Vrtrasura; srutva--hearing; gata-alikam--without duplicity; apujayat--worshiped; grhita-vajrah--taking up the thunderbolt; prahasan--smiling; tam--unto Vrtrasura; aha--said; gata-vismayah--giving up his wonder.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami said: Hearing the straightforward, instructive words of Vrtrasura, King Indra praised him and again took the thunderbolt in his hand. Without bewilderment or duplicity, he then smiled and spoke to Vrtrasura as follows.

PURPORT

King Indra, the greatest of the demigods, was astonished to hear the instructions of Vrtrasura, who was supposed to be a demon. He was struck with wonder that a demon could speak so intelligently. Then he remembered great devotees like Prahlada Maharaja and Bali Maharaja, who had been born in the families of demons, and thus he came to his senses. Even so-called demons sometimes have exalted devotion for the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore Indra smiled reassuringly at Vrtrasura.

TEXT 19

TEXT

indra uvaca

aho danava siddho 'si

yasya te matir idrsi

bhaktah sarvatmanatmanam

suhrdam jagad-isvaram

SYNONYMS

indrah uvaca--Indra said; aho--hello; danava--O demon; siddhah asi--you are now perfect; yasya--whose; te--your; matih--consciousness; idrsi--such as this; bhaktah--a great devotee; sarva-atmana--without diversion; atmanam--to the Supersoul; suhrdam--the greatest friend; jagat-isvaram--to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

Indra said: O great demon, I see by your discrimination and endurance in devotional service, despite your dangerous position, that you are a perfect devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul and friend of everyone.

PURPORT

As stated in Bhagavad-gita (6.22):

yam labdhva caparam labham

manyate nadhikam tatah

yasmin sthito na duhkhena

gurunapi vicalyate

"Established in Krsna consciousness, one never departs from the truth, and upon gaining this he thinks there is no greater gain. Being situated in such a position, one is never shaken, even in the midst of the greatest difficulty." An unalloyed devotee is never disturbed by any kind of trying circumstance. Indra was surprised to see that Vrtrasura, undisturbed, was fixed in devotional service to the Lord, for such a mentality is impossible for a demon. However, by the grace of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, anyone can become an exalted devotee (striyo vaisyas tatha sudras te 'pi yanti param gatim). An unalloyed devotee is sure to return home, back to Godhead.

TEXT 20

TEXT

bhavan atarsin mayam vai

vaisnavim jana-mohinim

yad vihayasuram bhavam

maha-purusatam gatah

SYNONYMS

bhavan--your good self; atarsit--has surmounted; mayam--the illusory energy; vai--indeed; vaisnavim--of Lord Visnu; jana-mohinim--which deludes the mass of people; yat--since; vihaya--giving up; asuram--of the demons; bhavam--the mentality; maha-purusatam--the position of an exalted devotee; gatah--obtained.

TRANSLATION

You have surmounted the illusory energy of Lord Visnu, and because of this liberation, you have given up the demoniac mentality and have attained the position of an exalted devotee.

PURPORT

Lord Visnu is the maha-purusa. Therefore one who becomes a Vaisnava attains the position of a maha-paurusya. This position was attained by Maharaja Pariksit. It is said in the Padma Purana that the distinction between a demigod and a demon is that a demigod is a devotee of Lord Visnu whereas a demon is just the opposite: visnu-bhaktah smrto daiva asuras tad-viparyayah. Vrtrasura was considered a demon, but actually he was more than qualified as a devotee, or maha-paurusya. If one somehow becomes a devotee of the Supreme Lord, whatever his position, he can be brought to the position of a perfect person. This is possible if an unalloyed devotee tries to serve the Lord by delivering him in this way. Therefore Sukadeva Gosvami says in Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.4.18):

kirata-hunandhra-pulinda-pulkasa

abhira-sumbha yavanah khasadayah

ye 'nye ca papa yad-apasrayasrayah

sudhyanti tasmai prabhavisnave namah

"Kiratas, Hunas, Andhras, Pulindas, Pulkasas, Abhiras, Sumbhas, Yavanas and members of the Khasa races, and even others addicted to sinful acts can be purified by taking shelter of the devotees of the Lord, for He is the supreme power. I beg to offer my respectful obeisances unto Him." Anyone can be purified if he takes shelter of a pure devotee and molds his character according to the pure devotee's direction. Then, even if one is a Kirata, Andhra, Pulinda or whatever, he can be purified and elevated to the position of a maha-paurusya.

TEXT 21

TEXT

khalv idam mahad ascaryam

yad rajah-prakrtes tava

vasudeve bhagavati

sattvatmani drdha matih

SYNONYMS

khalu--indeed; idam--this; mahat ascaryam--great wonder; yat--which; rajah--influenced by the mode of passion; prakrteh--whose nature; tava--of you; vasudeve--in Lord Krsna; bhagavati--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sattva-atmani--who is situated in pure goodness; drdha--firm; matih--consciousness.

TRANSLATION

O Vrtrasura, demons are generally conducted by the mode of passion. Therefore, what a great wonder it is that although you are a demon, you have adopted the mentality of a devotee and have fixed your mind on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva, who is always situated in pure goodness.

PURPORT

King Indra wondered how Vrtrasura could have been elevated to the position of an exalted devotee. As for Prahlada Maharaja, he was initiated by Narada Muni, and therefore it was possible for him to become a great devotee, although he was born in a family of demons. For Vrtrasura, however, Indra could not detect such causes. Therefore he was struck with wonder that Vrtrasura was such an exalted devotee that he could fix his mind without deviation upon the lotus feet of Lord Krsna, Vasudeva.

TEXT 22

TEXT

yasya bhaktir bhagavati

harau nihsreyasesvare

vikridato 'mrtambhodhau

kim ksudraih khatakodakaih

SYNONYMS

yasya--of whom; bhaktih--devotional service; bhagavati--to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; harau--Lord Hari; nihsreyasa-isvare--the controller of the supreme perfection of life, or supreme liberation; vikridatah--swimming or playing; amrta-ambhodhau--in the ocean of nectar; kim--what is the use; ksudraih--with small; khataka-udakaih--ditches of water.

TRANSLATION

A person fixed in the devotional service of the Supreme Lord, Hari, the Lord of the highest auspiciousness, swims in the ocean of nectar. For him what is the use of the water in small ditches?

PURPORT

Vrtrasura has formerly prayed (Bhag. 6.11.25), na naka-prstham na ca paramesthyam na sama-bhaumam na rasadhipatyam. "I do not want the facilities for happiness on Brahmaloka, Svargaloka or even Dhruvaloka, not to speak of this earth or the lower planets. I simply want to return home, back to Godhead." This is the determination of a pure devotee. A pure devotee is never attracted to any exalted position within this material world. He simply wants to associate with the Supreme Personality of Godhead like the inhabitants of Vrndavana--Srimati Radharani, the gopis, Krsna's father and mother (Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda), Krsna's friends and Krsna's servants. He wants to associate with Krsna's atmosphere of Vrndavana's beauty. These are the highest ambitions of a devotee of Krsna. Devotees of Lord Visnu may aspire for a position in Vaikunthaloka, but a devotee of Krsna never aspires even for the facilities of Vaikuntha; he wants to return to Goloka Vrndavana and associate with Lord Krsna in His eternal pastimes. Any material happiness is like water in a ditch, whereas the spiritual happiness eternally enjoyed in the spiritual world is like an ocean of nectar in which a devotee wants to swim.

TEXT 23

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

iti bruvanav anyonyam

dharma-jijnasaya nrpa

yuyudhate maha-viryav

indra-vrtrau yudham pati

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; iti--thus; bruvanau--speaking; anyonyam--to one another; dharma-jijnasaya--with a desire to know the supreme, ultimate religious principle (devotional service); nrpa--O King; yuyudhate--fought; maha-viryau--both very powerful; indra--King Indra; vrtrau--and Vrtrasura; yudham pati--both great military commanders.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: Vrtrasura and King Indra spoke about devotional service even on the battlefield, and then as a matter of duty they again began fighting. My dear King, both of them were great fighters and were equally powerful.

TEXT 24

TEXT

avidhya parigham vrtrah

karsnayasam arindamah

indraya prahinod ghoram

vama-hastena marisa

SYNONYMS

avidhya--whirling; parigham--the club; vrtrah--Vrtrasura; karsna-ayasam--made of iron; arim-damah--who was competent to subdue his enemy; indraya--at Indra; prahinot--threw; ghoram--very fearful; vama-hastena--with his left hand; marisa--O best of kings, Maharaja Pariksit.

TRANSLATION

O Maharaja Pariksit, Vrtrasura, who was completely able to subdue his enemy, took his iron club, whirled it around, aimed it at Indra and then threw it at him with his left hand.

TEXT 25

TEXT

sa tu vrtrasya parigham

karam ca karabhopamam

ciccheda yugapad devo

vajrena sata-parvana

SYNONYMS

sah--he (King Indra); tu--however; vrtrasya--of Vrtrasura; parigham--the iron club; karam--his hand; ca--and; karabha-upamam--as strong as the trunk of an elephant; ciccheda--cut to pieces; yugapat--simultaneously; devah--Lord Indra; vajrena--with the thunderbolt; sata-parvana--having one hundred joints.

TRANSLATION

With his thunderbolt named Sataparvan, Indra simultaneously cut to pieces Vrtrasura's club and his remaining hand.

TEXT 26

TEXT

dorbhyam utkrtta-mulabhyam

babhau rakta-sravo 'surah

chinna-pakso yatha gotrah

khad bhrasto vajrina hatah

SYNONYMS

dorbhyam--from the two arms; utkrtta-mulabhyam--cut from the very root; babhau--was; rakta-sravah--profusely discharging blood; asurah--Vrtrasura; chinna-paksah--whose wings are cut; yatha--just as; gotrah--a mountain; khat--from the sky; bhrastah--falling; vajrina--by Indra, the carrier of the thunderbolt; hatah--struck.

TRANSLATION

Vrtrasura, bleeding profusely, his two arms cut off at their roots, looked very beautiful, like a flying mountain whose wings have been cut to pieces by Indra.

PURPORT

It appears from the statement of this verse that sometimes there are flying mountains and that their wings are cut by the thunderbolt of Indra. Vrtrasura's huge body resembled such a mountain.

TEXTS 27-29

TEXT

maha-prano maha-viryo

maha-sarpa iva dvipam

krtvadharam hanum bhumau

daityo divy uttaram hanum

nabho-gambhira-vaktrena

leliholbana-jihvaya

damstrabhih kala-kalpabhir

grasann iva jagat-trayam

atimatra-maha-kaya

aksipams tarasa girin

giri-rat pada-cariva

padbhyam nirjarayan mahim

jagrasa sa samasadya

vajrinam saha-vahanam

SYNONYMS

maha-pranah--very great in bodily strength; maha-viryah--showing uncommon prowess; maha-sarpah--the biggest snake; iva--like; dvipam--an elephant; krtva--placing; adharam--the lower; hanum--jaw; bhumau--on the ground; daityah--the demon; divi--in the sky; uttaram hanum--the upper jaw; nabhah--like the sky; gambhira--deep; vaktrena--with his mouth; leliha--like a snake; ulbana--fearful; jihvaya--with a tongue; damstrabhih--with teeth; kala-kalpabhih--exactly like the time factor, or death; grasan--devouring; iva--as if; jagat-trayam--the three worlds; ati-matra--very high; maha-kayah--whose great body; aksipan--shaking; tarasa--with great force; girin--the mountains; giri-rat--the Himalaya Mountains; pada-cari--moving on foot; iva--as if; padbhyam--by his feet; nirjarayan--crushing; mahim--the surface of the world; jagrasa--swallowed; sah--he; samasadya--reaching; vajrinam--Indra, who carries the thunderbolt; saha-vahanam--with his carrier, the elephant.

TRANSLATION

Vrtrasura was very powerful in physical strength and influence. He placed his lower jaw on the ground and his upper jaw in the sky. His mouth became very deep, like the sky itself, and his tongue resembled a large serpent. With his fearful, deathlike teeth, he seemed to be trying to devour the entire universe. Thus assuming a gigantic body, the great demon Vrtrasura shook even the mountains and began crushing the surface of the earth with his legs, as if he were the Himalayas walking about. He came before Indra and swallowed him and Airavata, his carrier, just as a big python might swallow an elephant.

TEXT 30

TEXT

vrtra-grastam tam alokya

saprajapatayah surah

ha kastam iti nirvinnas

cukrusuh samaharsayah

SYNONYMS

vrtra-grastam--swallowed by Vrtrasura; tam--him (Indra); alokya--seeing; sa-prajapatayah--with Lord Brahma and other prajapatis; surah--all the demigods; ha--alas; kastam--what a tribulation; iti--thus; nirvinnah--being very morose; cukrusuh--lamented; sa-maha-rsayah--with the great sages.

TRANSLATION

When the demigods, along with Brahma, other prajapatis and other great saintly persons, saw that Indra had been swallowed by the demon, they became very morose. "Alas," they lamented. "What a calamity ! What a calamity !"

TEXT 31

TEXT

nigirno 'py asurendrena

na mamarodaram gatah

mahapurusa-sannaddho

yogamaya-balena ca

SYNONYMS

nigirnah--swallowed; api--although; asura-indrena--by the best of the demons, Vrtrasura; na--not; mamara--died; udaram--the abdomen; gatah--reaching; maha-purusa--by the armor of the Supreme Lord, Narayana; sannaddhah--being protected; yoga-maya-balena--by the mystic power that Indra himself possessed; ca--also.

TRANSLATION

The protective armor of Narayana, which Indra possessed, was identical with Narayana Himself, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Protected by that armor and by his own mystic power, King Indra, although swallowed by Vrtrasura, did not die within the demon's belly.

TEXT 32

TEXT

bhittva vajrena tat-kuksim

niskramya bala-bhid vibhuh

uccakarta sirah satror

giri-srngam ivaujasa

SYNONYMS

bhittva--piercing; vajrena--by the thunderbolt; tat-kuksim--the abdomen of Vrtrasura; niskramya--getting out; bala-bhit--the slayer of the demon Bala; vibhuh--the powerful Lord Indra; uccakarta--cut off; sirah--the head; satroh--of the enemy; giri-srngam--the peak of a mountain; iva--like; ojasa--with great force.

TRANSLATION

With his thunderbolt, King Indra, who was also extremely powerful, pierced through Vrtrasura's abdomen and came out. Indra, the killer of the demon Bala, then immediately cut off Vrtrasura's head, which was as high as the peak of a mountain.

TEXT 33

TEXT

vajras tu tat-kandharam asu-vegah

krntan samantat parivartamanah

nyapatayat tavad ahar-ganena

yo jyotisam ayane vartra-hatye

SYNONYMS

vajrah--the thunderbolt; tu--but; tat-kandharam--his neck; asu-vegah--although very fast; krntan--cutting; samantat--all around; parivartamanah--revolving; nyapatayat--caused to fall; tavat--so many; ahah-ganena--by days; yah--which; jyotisam--of the luminaries like the sun and moon; ayane--in moving to both sides of the equator; vartra-hatye--at the time suitable for killing Vrtrasura.

TRANSLATION

Although the thunderbolt revolved around Vrtrasura's neck with great speed, separating his head from his body took one complete year--360 days, the time in which the sun, moon and other luminaries complete a northern and southern journey. Then, at the suitable time for Vrtrasura to be killed, his head fell to the ground.

TEXT 34

TEXT

tada ca khe dundubhayo vinedur

gandharva-siddhah samaharsi-sanghah

vartra-ghna-lingais tam abhistuvana

mantrair muda kusumair abhyavarsan

SYNONYMS

tada--at that time; ca--also; khe--in the higher planetary systems in the sky; dundubhayah--the kettledrums; vineduh--sounded; gandharva--the Gandharvas; siddhah--and the Siddhas; sa-maharsi-sanghah--with the assembly of saintly persons; vartra-ghna-lingaih--celebrating the prowess of the killer of Vrtrasura; tam--him (Indra); abhistuvanah--praising; mantraih--by various mantras; muda--with great pleasure; kusumaih--with flowers; abhyavarsan--showered.

TRANSLATION

When Vrtrasura was killed, the Gandharvas and Siddhas in the heavenly planets beat kettledrums in jubilation. With Vedic hymns they celebrated the prowess of Indra, the killer of Vrtrasura, praising Indra and showering flowers upon him with great pleasure.

TEXT 35

TEXT

vrtrasya dehan niskrantam

atma-jyotir arindama

pasyatam sarva-devanam

alokam samapadyata

SYNONYMS

vrtrasya--of Vrtrasura; dehat--from the body; niskrantam--coming out; atma-jyotih--the spirit soul, which was as brilliant as the effulgence of Brahman; arim-dama--O King Pariksit, subduer of enemies; pasyatam--were watching; sarva-devanam--while all the demigods; alokam--the supreme abode, filled with the Brahman effulgence; samapadyata--achieved.

TRANSLATION

O King Pariksit, subduer of enemies, the living spark then came forth from Vrtrasura's body and returned home, back to Godhead. While all the demigods looked on, he entered the transcendental world to become an associate of Lord Sankarsana.

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura explains that Indra, not Vrtrasura, was actually killed. He says that when Vrtrasura swallowed King Indra and his carrier, the elephant, he thought, "Now I have killed Indra, and therefore there is no more need of fighting. Now let me return home, back to Godhead." Thus he stopped all his bodily activities and became situated in trance. Taking advantage of the silence of Vrtrasura's body, Indra pierced the demon's abdomen, and because of Vrtrasura's trance, Indra was able to come out. Now, Vrtrasura was in yoga-samadhi, and therefore although King Indra wanted to cut his days to cut it to pieces. Actually it was the body left by Vrtrasura that was cut to pieces by Indra; Vrtrasura himself was not killed. In his original consciousness, Vrtrasura returned home, back to Godhead, to become an associate of Lord Sankarsana. Here the word alokam means the transcendental world, Vaikunthaloka, where Sankarsana eternally resides.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Twelfth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "Vrtrasura's Glorious Death."

Chapter Thirteen

King Indra Afflicted by Sinful Reaction

This chapter describes Indra's fear at having killed a brahmana (Vrtrasura), and it also describes how he fled and was saved by the grace of Lord Visnu.

When all the demigods requested Indra to kill Vrtrasura, he refused because Vrtrasura was a brahmana. The demigods, however, encouraged Indra not to fear killing him because Indra was protected by the Narayana-kavaca, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, Lord Narayana. Even by a glimpse of the chanting of Narayana's name, one becomes free from all the sinful reactions of killing a woman, a cow or a brahmana. The demigods advised Indra to perform an asvamedha sacrifice, by which Narayana would be pleased, for the performer of such a sacrifice is not implicated in sinful reactions even if he kills the entire universe.

Following this instruction from the demigods, King Indra fought Vrtrasura, but when Vrtrasura was killed, everyone was satisfied but King Indra, who knew Vrtrasura's position. This is the nature of a great personality. Even if a great personality acquires some opulence, he is always ashamed and regretful if he acquires it illegally. Indra could understand that he was certainly entangled by sinful reactions for killing a brahmana. Indeed, he could see sinful reaction personified following him, and thus he fled here and there in fear, thinking of how to rid himself of his sins. He went to Manasa-sarovara, and there, under the protection of the goddess of fortune, he meditated for one thousand years. During this time, Nahusa reigned over the heavenly planets as the representative of Indra. Unfortunately, however, he was attracted by the beauty of Indra's wife, Sacidevi, and because of his sinful desire he had to accept the body of a serpent in his next life. Indra later performed a great sacrifice with the help of exalted brahmanas and saints. In this way he was released from the reactions of his sinful killing of a brahmana.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

vrtre hate trayo loka

vina sakrena bhurida

sapala hy abhavan sadyo

vijvara nirvrtendriyah

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; vrtre hate--when Vrtrasura was killed; trayah lokah--the three planetary systems (upper, middle and lower); vina--except; sakrena--Indra, who is also called Sakra; bhuri-da--O Maharaja Pariksit, giver of great charity; sa-palah--with the rulers of the various planets; hi--indeed; abhavan--became; sadyah--immediately; vijvarah--without fear of death; nirvrta--very much pleased; indriyah--whose senses.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King Pariksit, who are so charitably disposed, when Vrtrasura was killed, all the presiding deities and everyone else in the three planetary systems was immediately pleased and free from trouble--everyone, that is, except Indra.

TEXT 2

TEXT

devarsi-pitr-bhutani

daitya devanugah svayam

pratijagmuh sva-dhisnyani

brahmesendradayas tatah

SYNONYMS

deva--demigods; rsi--great saintly persons; pitr--the inhabitants of Pitrloka; bhutani--and the other living entities; daityah--demons; deva-anugah--the inhabitants of other planets following the principles of the demigods; svayam--independently (without asking permission from Indra); pratijagmuh--returned; sva-dhisnyani--to their respective planets and homes; brahma--Lord Brahma; isa--Lord Siva; indra-adayah--and the demigods headed by Indra; tatah--thereafter.

TRANSLATION

Thereafter, the demigods, the great saintly persons, the inhabitants of Pitrloka and Bhutaloka, the demons, the followers of the demigods, and also Lord Brahma, Lord Siva and the demigods subordinate to Indra all returned to their respective homes. While departing, however, no one spoke to Indra.

PURPORT

In this connection Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura comments:

brahmesendradaya iti; indrasya sva-dhisnya-gamanam nopapadyate vrtra-vadha-ksana eva brahma-hatyopadrava-prapteh; tasmat tata ity anena manasa-sarovarad agatya pravartitad asvamedhat parata iti vyakhyeyam.

Lord Brahma, Lord Siva and the other demigods returned to their respective abodes, but Indra did not, for he was disturbed at having killed Vrtrasura, who was actually a brahmana. After killing Vrtrasura, Indra went to the Manasa-sarovara Lake to become free from sinful reactions. When he left the lake, he performed an asvamedha-yajna and then returned to his own abode.

TEXT 3

TEXT

sri-rajovaca

indrasyanirvrter hetum

srotum icchami bho mune

yenasan sukhino deva

harer duhkham kuto 'bhavat

SYNONYMS

sri-raja uvaca--King Pariksit inquired; indrasya--of King Indra; anirvrteh--of the moroseness; hetum--the reason; srotum--to hear; icchami--I wish; bhoh--O my lord; mune--O great sage, Sukadeva Gosvami; yena--by which; asan--were; sukhinah--very happy; devah--all the demigods; hareh--of Indra; duhkham--moroseness; kutah--from where; abhavat--was.

TRANSLATION

Maharaja Pariksit inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami: O great sage, what was the reason for Indra's unhappiness? I wish to hear about this. When he killed Vrtrasura, all the demigods were extremely happy. Why, then, was Indra himself unhappy?

PURPORT

This, of course, is a very intelligent question. When a demon is killed, certainly all the demigods are happy. In this case, however, when all the demigods were happy because of Vrtrasura's having been killed, Indra was unhappy. Why? It may be suggested that Indra was unhappy because he knew that he had killed a great devotee and brahmana. Vrtrasura outwardly appeared to be a demon, but inwardly he was a great devotee and therefore a great brahmana.

Herein it is clearly indicated that a person who is not at all demoniac, such as Prahlada Maharaja and Bali Maharaja, may outwardly be a demon or be born in a family of demons. Therefore in terms of real culture one should not be considered a demigod or demon simply according to birth. In his dealings while fighting with Indra, Vrtrasura proved himself a great devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Furthermore, as soon as he finished fighting with Indra and was apparently killed, Vrtrasura was transferred to Vaikunthaloka to become an associate of Sankarsana. Indra knew this, and therefore he was morose at having killed such a demon, who was actually a Vaisnava or brahmana.

A Vaisnava is already a brahmana, although a brahmana may not be a Vaisnava. The Padma Purana says:

sat-karma-nipuno vipro

mantra-tantra-visaradah

avaisnavo gurur na syad

vaisnavah sva-paco guruh

One may be a brahmana in terms of his culture and family and may be expert in Vedic knowledge (mantra-tantra-visaradah), but if he is not a Vaisnava, he cannot be a guru. This means that an expert brahmana may not be a Vaisnava, but a Vaisnava is already a brahmana. A millionaire may very easily possess hundreds and thousands of dollars, but a person with hundreds and thousands of dollars is not necessarily a millionaire. Vrtrasura was a perfect Vaisnava, and therefore he was also a brahmana.

TEXT 4

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

vrtra-vikrama-samvignah

sarve devah saharsibhih

tad-vadhayarthayann indram

naicchad bhito brhad-vadhat

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; vrtra--of Vrtrasura; vikrama--by the powerful activities; samvignah--being full of anxieties; sarve--all; devah--the demigods; saha rsibhih--with the great sages; tat-vadhaya--for the killing of him; arthayan--requested; indram--Indra; na aicchat--declined; bhitah--being afraid; brhat-vadhat--due to killing a brahmana.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami answered: When all the great sages and demigods were disturbed by the extraordinary power of Vrtrasura, they had assembled to ask Indra to kill him. Indra, however, being afraid of killing a brahmana, declined their request.

TEXT 5

TEXT

indra uvaca

stri-bhu-druma-jalair eno

visvarupa-vadhodbhavam

vibhaktam anugrhnadbhir

vrtra-hatyam kva marjmy aham

SYNONYMS

indrah uvaca--King Indra replied; stri--by women; bhu--the earth; druma--the trees; jalaih--and water; enah--this (sin); visvarupa--of Visvarupa; vadha--from the killing; udbhavam--produced; vibhaktam--divided; anugrhnadbhih--showing their favor (to me); vrtra-hatyam--the killing of Vrtra; kva--how; marjmi--shall become free from; aham--I.

TRANSLATION

King Indra replied: When I killed Visvarupa, I received extensive sinful reactions, but I was favored by the women, land, trees and water, and therefore I was able to divide the sin among them. But now if I kill Vrtrasura, another brahmana, how shall I free myself from the sinful reactions?

TEXT 6

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

rsayas tad upakarnya

mahendram idam abruvan

yajayisyama bhadram te

hayamedhena ma sma bhaih

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; rsayah--the great sages; tat--that; upakarnya--hearing; maha-indram--unto King Indra; idam--this; abruvan--spoke; yajayisyamah--we shall perform a great sacrifice; bhadram--good fortune; te--unto you; hayamedhena--by the horse sacrifice; ma sma bhaih--do not be afraid.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: Hearing this, the great sages replied to King Indra, "O King of heaven, all good fortune unto you. Do not fear. We shall perform an asvamedha sacrifice to release you from any sin you may accrue by killing the brahmana."

TEXT 7

TEXT

hayamedhena purusam

paramatmanam isvaram

istva narayanam devam

moksyase 'pi jagad-vadhat

SYNONYMS

hayamedhena--by the sacrifice known as asvamedha; purusam--the Supreme Person; paramatmanam--the Supersoul; isvaram--the supreme controller; istva--worshiping; narayanam--Lord Narayana; devam--the Supreme Lord; moksyase--you will be liberated; api--even; jagat-vadhat--from the sin for killing the whole world.

TRANSLATION

The rsis continued: O King Indra, by performing an asvamedha sacrifice and thereby pleasing the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the Supersoul, Lord Narayana, the supreme controller, one can be relieved even of the sinful reactions for killing the entire world, not to speak of killing a demon like Vrtrasura.

TEXTS 8-9

TEXT

brahma-ha pitr-ha go-ghno

matr-hacarya-haghavan

svadah pulkasako vapi

suddhyeran yasya kirtanat

tam asvamedhena maha-makhena

sraddhanvito 'smabhir anusthitena

hatvapi sabrahma-caracaram tvam

na lipyase kim khala-nigrahena

SYNONYMS

brahma-ha--a person who has killed a brahmana; pitr-ha--a person who has killed his father; go-ghnah--a person who has killed a cow; matr-ha--a person who has killed his mother; acarya-ha--a person who has killed his spiritual master; agha-van--such a sinful person; sva-adah--a dog-eater; pulkasakah--a candala, one who is less than a sudra; va--or; api--even; suddhyeran--may be purified; yasya--of whom (Lord Narayana); kirtanat--from chanting the holy name; tam--Him; asvamedhena--by the asvamedha sacrifice; maha-makhena--the topmost of all sacrifices; sraddha-anvitah--endowed with faith; asmabhih--by us; anusthitena--conducted or managed; hatva--killing; api--even; sa-brahma-cara-acaram--all the living entities, including the brahmanas; tvam--you; na--not; lipyase--are contaminated; kim--what then; khala-nigrahena--by killing one disturbing demon.

TRANSLATION

One who has killed a brahmana, one who has killed a cow or one who has killed his father, mother or spiritual master can be immediately freed from all sinful reactions simply by chanting the holy name of Lord Narayana. Other sinful persons, such as dog-eaters and candalas, who are less than sudras, can also be freed in this way. But you are a devotee, and we shall help you by performing the great horse sacrifice. If you please Lord Narayana in that way, why should you be afraid? You will be freed even if you kill the entire universe, including the brahmanas, not to speak of killing a disturbing demon like Vrtrasura.

PURPORT

It is said in the Brhad-visnu Purana:

namno hi yavati saktih

papa-nirharane hareh

tavat kartum na saknoti

patakam pataki narah

Also, in the prema-vivarta by Jagadananda Pandita it is said:

eka krsna-name papira yata papa-ksaya

bahu janme sei papi karite naraya

This means that by once chanting the holy name of the Lord, one can be freed from the reactions of more sins that he can even imagine performing. The holy name is so spiritually potent that simply by chanting the holy name one can be freed from the reactions to all sinful activities. What, then, is to be said of those who chant the holy name regularly or worship the Deity regularly? For such purified devotees, freedom from sinful reaction is certainly assured. This does not mean, however, that one should intentionally commit sinful acts and think himself free from the reactions because he is chanting the holy name. Such a mentality is a most abominable offense at the lotus feet of the holy name. Namno balad yasya hi papa-buddhih: the Lord's holy name certainly has the potency to neutralize all sinful activities, but if one repeatedly and intentionally commits sins while chanting the holy name, he is most condemned.

These verses name the performers of various sinful deeds. In the Manu-samhita the following names are given. A son begotten by a brahmana and born from the womb of a sudra mother is called a parasava or nisada, a hunter accustomed to stealing. A son begotten by a nisada in the womb of a sudra woman is called a pukkasa. A child begotten by a ksatriya in the womb of the daughter of a sudra is called an ugra. A child begotten by a sudra in the womb of the daughter of a ksatriya is called a ksatta. A child begotten by a ksatriya in the womb of a lower-class woman is called a svada, or dog-eater. All such offspring are considered extremely sinful, but the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is so strong that all of them can be purified simply by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra.

The Hare Krsna movement offers everyone a chance to be purified, regardless of birth or family. As confirmed in Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.4.18):

kirata-hunandhra-pulinda-pulkasa

abhira-sumbha yavanah khasadayah

ye 'nye ca papa yad-apasrayasrayah

sudhyanti tasmai prabhavisnave namah

"Kiratas, Hunas, Andhras, Pulindas, Pulkasas, Abhiras, Sumbhas, Yavanas, members of the Khasa races, and even others addicted to sinful acts can be purified by taking shelter of devotees of the Lord, for He is the supreme power. I beg to offer my respectful obeisances unto Him." Even such sinful persons can certainly all be purified if they chant the holy name of the Lord under the direction of a pure devotee.

Herein the sages encourage King Indra to kill Vrtrasura even at the risk of brahma-hatya, the killing of a brahmana, and they guarantee to release him from sinful reactions by performing an asvamedha-yajna. Such purposefully devised atonement, however, cannot relieve the performer of sinful acts. This will be seen from the following verse.

TEXT 10

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

evam sancodito viprair

marutvan ahanad ripum

brahma-hatya hate tasminn

asasada vrsakapim

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; evam--thus; sancoditah--being encouraged; vipraih--by the brahmanas; marutvan--Indra; ahanat--killed; ripum--his enemy, Vrtrasura; brahma-hatya--the sinful reaction for killing a brahmana; hate--was killed; tasmin--when he (Vrtrasura); asasada--approached; vrsakapim--Indra, who is also named Vrsakapi.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: Encouraged by the words of the sages, Indra killed Vrtrasura, and when he was killed the sinful reaction for killing a brahmana [brahma-hatya] certainly took shelter of Indra.

PURPORT

After killing Vrtrasura, Indra could not surpass the brahma-hatya, the sinful reactions for killing a brahmana. Formerly he had killed one brahmana, Visvarupa, out of circumstantial anger, but this time, following the advice of the sages, he killed another brahmana purposely. Therefore the sinful reaction was greater than before. Indra could not be relieved from the reaction simply by performing sacrifices for atonement. He had to undergo a severe series of sinful reactions, and when he was freed by such suffering, the brahmanas allowed him to perform the horse sacrifice. The planned execution of sinful deeds on the strength of chanting the holy name of the Lord or undergoing prayascitta, atonement, cannot give relief to anyone, even to Indra or Nahusa. Nahusa was officiating for Indra while Indra, absent from heaven, was going here and there to gain release from his sinful reactions.

TEXT 11

TEXT

tayendrah smasahat tapam

nirvrtir namum avisat

hrimantam vacyatam praptam

sukhayanty api no gunah

SYNONYMS

taya--by that action; indrah--King Indra; sma--indeed; asahat--suffered; tapam--misery; nirvrtih--happiness; na--not; amum--him; avisat--entered; hrimantam--one who is shameful; vacyatam--ill fame; praptam--obtaining; sukhayanti--give pleasure; api--although; no--not; gunah--good qualifications like possessing opulence.

TRANSLATION

Following the advice of the demigods, Indra killed Vrtrasura, and he suffered because of this sinful killing. Although the other demigods were happy, he could not derive happiness from the killing of Vrtrasura. Indra's other good qualities, such as tolerance and opulence, could not help him in his grief.

PURPORT

One cannot be happy by committing sinful acts, even if one is endowed with material opulence. Indra found this to be true. People began to blaspheme him, saying, "This person has killed a brahmana for the sake of enjoying heavenly material happiness." Therefore in spite of being King of heaven and enjoying material opulence, Indra was always unhappy because of the accusations of the populace.

TEXTS 12-13

TEXT

tam dadarsanudhavantim

candalim iva rupinim

jaraya vepamanangim

yaksma-grastam asrk-patam

vikirya palitan kesams

tistha tistheti bhasinim

mina-gandhy-asu-gandhena

kurvatim marga-dusanam

SYNONYMS

tam--the sinful reaction; dadarsa--he saw; anudhavantim--chasing; candalim--a woman of the lowest class; iva--like; rupinim--taking a form; jaraya--because of old age; vepamana-angim--whose bodily limbs were trembling; yaksma-grastam--infected with tuberculosis; asrk-patam--whose clothes were covered with blood; vikirya--scattering; palitan--grayed; kesan--hair; tistha tistha--wait, wait; iti--thus; bhasinim--calling; mina-gandhi--the smell of fish; asu--whose breath; gandhena--by the odor; kurvatim--bringing about; marga-dusanam--the pollution of the whole street.

TRANSLATION

Indra saw personified sinful reaction chasing him, appearing like a candala woman, a woman of the lowest class. She seemed very old, and all the limbs of her body trembled. Because she was afflicted with tuberculosis, her body and garments were covered with blood. Breathing an unbearable fishy odor that polluted the entire street, she called to Indra, "Wait! Wait!"

PURPORT

When a person is afflicted with tuberculosis, he often vomits blood, which makes his garments bloody.

TEXT 14

TEXT

nabho gato disah sarvah

sahasrakso visampate

prag-udicim disam turnam

pravisto nrpa manasam

SYNONYMS

nabhah--to the sky; gatah--going; disah--to the directions; sarvah--all; sahasra-aksah--Indra, who is endowed with one thousand eyes; visampate--O King; prak-udicim--to the northeast; disam--direction; turnam--very speedily; pravistah--entered; nrpa--O King; manasam--the lake known as Manasa-sarovara.

TRANSLATION

O King, Indra first fled to the sky, but there also he saw the woman of personified sin chasing him. This witch followed him wherever he went. At last he very quickly went to the northeast and entered the Manasa-sarovara Lake.

TEXT 15

TEXT

sa avasat puskara-nala-tantun

alabdha-bhogo yad ihagni-dutah

varsani sahasram alaksito 'ntah

sancintayan brahma-vadhad vimoksam

SYNONYMS

sah--he (Indra); avasat--lived; puskara-nala-tantun--in the network of the fibers of a lotus stem; alabdha-bhogah--not getting any material comfort (practically starving for all material needs); yat--which; iha--here; agni-dutah--the fire-god messenger; varsani--celestial years; sahasram--one thousand; alaksitah--invisible; antah--within his heart; sancintayan--always thinking of; brahma-vadhat--from the killing of a brahmana; vimoksam--liberation.

TRANSLATION

Always thinking of how he could be relieved from the sinful reaction for killing a brahmana, King Indra, invisible to everyone, lived in the lake for one thousand years in the subtle fibers of the stem of a lotus. The fire-god used to bring him his share of all yajnas, but because the fire-god was afraid to enter the water, Indra was practically starving.

TEXT 16

TEXT

tavat trinakam nahusah sasasa

vidya-tapo-yoga-balanubhavah

sa sampad-aisvarya-madandha-buddhir

nitas tirascam gatim indra-patnya

SYNONYMS

tavat--for so long; trinakam--the heavenly planet; nahusah--Nahusa; sasasa--ruled; vidya--by education; tapah--austerities; yoga--mystic power; bala--and strength; anubhavah--being equipped; sah--he (Nahusa); sampat--of so much wealth; aisvarya--and opulence; mada--by the madness; andha--blinded; buddhih--his intelligence; nitah--was brought; tirascam--of a snake; gatim--to the destination; indra-patnya--by Indra's wife Sacidevi.

TRANSLATION

As long as King Indra lived in the water, wrapped in the stem of the lotus, Nahusa was equipped with the ability to rule the heavenly kingdom, due to his knowledge, austerity and mystic power. Nahusa, however, blinded and maddened by power and opulence, made undesirable proposals to Indra's wife with a desire to enjoy her. Thus Nahusa was cursed by a brahmana and later became a snake.

TEXT 17

TEXT

tato gato brahma-giropahuta

rtambhara-dhyana-nivaritaghah

papas tu digdevataya hataujas

tam nabhyabhud avitam visnu-patnya

SYNONYMS

tatah--thereafter; gatah--gone; brahma--of the brahmanas; gira--by the words; upahutah--being invited; rtambhara--on the Supreme Lord, who maintains truth; dhyana--by meditation; nivarita--impeded; aghah--whose sin; papah--the sinful activity; tu--then; dik-devataya--by the demigod Rudra; hata-ojah--with all prowess diminished; tam--him (Indra); na abhyabhut--could not overcome; avitam--being protected; visnu-patnya--by Lord Visnu's wife, the goddess of fortune.

TRANSLATION

Indra's sins were diminished by the influence of Rudra, the demigod of all directions. Because Indra was protected by the goddess of fortune, Lord Visnu's wife, who resides in the lotus clusters of Manasa-sarovara Lake, Indra's sins could not affect him. Indra was ultimately relieved of all the reactions of his sinful deeds by strictly worshiping Lord Visnu. Then he was called back to the heavenly planets by the brahmanas and reinstated in his position.

TEXT 18

TEXT

tam ca brahmarsayo 'bhyetya

hayamedhena bharata

yathavad diksayam cakruh

purusaradhanena ha

SYNONYMS

tam--him (Lord Indra); ca--and; brahma-rsayah--the great saints and brahmanas; abhyetya--approaching; hayamedhena--with an asvamedha sacrifice; bharata--O King Pariksit; yathavat--according to the rules and regulations; diksayam cakruh--initiated; purusa-aradhanena--which consists of worship of the Supreme Person, Hari; ha--indeed.

TRANSLATION

O King, when Lord Indra reached the heavenly planets, the saintly brahmanas approached him and properly initiated him into a horse sacrifice [asvamedha-yajna] meant to please the Supreme Lord.

TEXTS 19-20

TEXT

athejyamane puruse

sarva-devamayatmani

asvamedhe mahendrena

vitate brahma-vadibhih

sa vai tvastra-vadho bhuyan

api papa-cayo nrpa

nitas tenaiva sunyaya

nihara iva bhanuna

SYNONYMS

atha--therefore; ijyamane--when worshiped; puruse--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarva--all; deva-maya-atmani--the Supersoul and maintainer of the demigods; asvamedhe--through the asvamedha-yajna; maha-indrena--by King Indra; vitate--being administered; brahma-vadibhih--by the saints and brahmanas expert in Vedic knowledge; sah--that; vai--indeed; tvastra-vadhah--the killing of Vrtrasura, the son of Tvasta; bhuyat--may be; api--although; papacayah--mass of sin; nrpa--O King; nitah--was brought; tena--by that (the horse sacrifice); eva--certainly; sunyaya--to nothing; niharah--fog; iva--like; bhanuna--by the brilliant sun.

TRANSLATION

The horse sacrifice performed by the saintly brahmanas relieved Indra of the reactions to all his sins because he worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead in that sacrifice. O King, although he had committed a gravely sinful act, it was nullified at once by that sacrifice, just as fog is vanquished by the brilliant sunrise.

TEXT 21

TEXT

sa vajimedhena yathoditena

vitayamanena marici-misraih

istvadhiyajnam purusam puranam

indro mahan asa vidhuta-papah

SYNONYMS

sah--he (Indra); vajimedhena--by the asvamedha sacrifice; yatha--just as; uditena--described; vitayamanena--being performed; marici-misraih--by the priests, headed by Marici; istva--worshiping; adhiyajnam--the Supreme Supersoul; purusam puranam--the original Personality of Godhead; indrah--King Indra; mahan--worshipable; asa--became; vidhuta-papah--being cleansed of all sinful reactions.

TRANSLATION

King Indra was favored by Marici and the other great sages. They performed the sacrifice just according to the rules and regulations, worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul, the original person. Thus Indra regained his exalted position and was again honored by everyone.

TEXTS 22-23

TEXT

idam mahakhyanam asesa-papmanam

praksalanam tirthapadanukirtanam

bhakty-ucchrayam bhakta-jananuvarnanam

mahendra-moksam vijayam marutvatah

patheyur akhyanam idam sada budhah

srnvanty atho parvani parvanindriyam

dhanyam yasasyam nikhilagha-mocanam

ripunjayam svasty-ayanam tathayusam

SYNONYMS

idam--this; maha-akhyanam--great historical incident; asesa-papmanam--of unlimited numbers of sinful acts; praksalanam--cleansing; tirthapada-anukirtanam--glorifying the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is known as Tirthapada; bhakti--of devotional service; ucchrayam--in which there is an increase; bhakta-jana--the devotees; anuvarnanam--describing; maha-indra-moksam--the liberation of the King of heaven; vijayam--the victory; marutvatah--of King Indra; patheyuh--should read; akhyanam--narration; idam--this; sada--always; budhah--learned scholars; srnvanti--continue to hear; atho--as well; parvani parvani--on the occasion of great festivals; indriyam--which makes the senses sharp; dhanyam--brings wealth; yasasyam--brings fame; nikhila--all; agha-mocanam--releasing from sins; ripum-jayam--makes one victorious over his enemies; svasti-ayanam--brings good fortune for all; tatha--so also; ayusam--longevity.

TRANSLATION

In this very great narrative there is glorification of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, there are statements about the exaltedness of devotional service, there are descriptions of devotees like Indra and Vrtrasura, and there are statements about King Indra's release from sinful life and about his victory in fighting the demons. By understanding this incident, one is relieved of all sinful reactions. Therefore the learned are always advised to read this narration. If one does so, one will become expert in the activities of the senses, his opulence will increase, and his reputation will become widespread. One will also be relieved of all sinful reactions, he will conquer all his enemies, and the duration of his life will increase. Because this narration is auspicious in all respects, learned scholars regularly hear and repeat it on every festival day.

Thus ends the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Thirteenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "King Indra Afflicted by Sinful Reaction."

Chapter Fourteen

King Citraketu's Lamentation

In this Fourteenth Chapter, Pariksit Maharaja asks his spiritual master, Sukadeva Gosvami, how such a demon as Vrtrasura could become an exalted devotee. In this connection the previous life of Vrtrasura is discussed. This involves the story of Citraketu and how he was victimized by lamentation because of the death of his son.

Among many millions of living entities, the number of human beings is extremely small, and among human beings who are actually religious, only some are eager to be liberated from material existence. Among many thousands of people who desire relief from material existence, one is freed from the association of unwanted persons or is relieved of material contamination. And among many millions of such liberated persons, one may become a devotee of Lord Narayana. Therefore such devotees are extremely rare. Since bhakti, devotional service, is not ordinary, Pariksit Maharaja was astonished that an asura could rise to the exalted position of a devotee. Being doubtful, Pariksit Maharaja inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami, who then described Vrtrasura with reference to his previous birth as Citraketu, the King of Surasena.

Citraketu, who had no sons, got an opportunity to meet the great sage Angira. When Angira inquired from the King about his welfare, the King expressed his moroseness, and therefore by the grace of the great sage, the King's first wife, Krtadyuti, gave birth to a son, who was the cause of both happiness and lamentation. Upon the birth of this son, the King and all the residents of the palace were very happy. The co-wives of Krtadyuti, however, were envious, and later they administered poison to the child. Citraketu was overwhelmed by shock at his son's death. Then Narada Muni and Angira went to see him.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-pariksid uvaca

rajas-tamah-svabhavasya

brahman vrtrasya papmanah

narayane bhagavati

katham asid drdha matih

SYNONYMS

sri-pariksit uvaca--King Pariksit inquired; rajah--of the mode of passion; tamah--and of the mode of ignorance; sva-bhavasya--having a nature; brahman--O learned brahmana; vrtrasya--of Vrtrasura; papmanah--who was supposedly sinful; narayane--in Lord Narayana; bhagavati--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; katham--how; asit--was there; drdha--very strong; matih--consciousness.

TRANSLATION

King Pariksit inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami: O learned brahmana, demons are generally sinful, being obsessed with the modes of passion and ignorance. How, then, could Vrtrasura have attained such exalted love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana?

PURPORT

In this material world, everyone is obsessed with the modes of passion and ignorance. However, unless one conquers these modes and comes to the platform of goodness, there is no chance of one's becoming a pure devotee. This is confirmed by Lord Krsna Himself in Bhagavad-gita (7.28):

yesam tv anta-gatam papam

jananam punya-karmanam

te dvandva-moha-nirmukta

bhajante mam drdha-vratah

"Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination." Since Vrtrasura was among the demons, Maharaja Pariksit wondered how it was possible for him to have become such an exalted devotee.

TEXT 2

TEXT

devanam suddha-sattvanam

rsinam camalatmanam

bhaktir mukunda-carane

na prayenopajayate

SYNONYMS

devanam--of the demigods; suddha-sattvanam--whose minds are purified; rsinam--of great saintly persons; ca--and; amala-atmanam--who have purified their existence; bhaktih--devotional service; mukunda-carane--to the lotus feet of Mukunda, the Lord, who can give liberation; na--not; prayena--almost always; upajayate--develops.

TRANSLATION

Demigods situated in the mode of goodness and great saints cleansed of the dirt of material enjoyment hardly ever render pure devotional service at the lotus feet of Mukunda. [Therefore how could Vrtrasura have become such a great devotee?]

TEXT 3

TEXT

rajobhih sama-sankhyatah

parthivair iha jantavah

tesam ye kecanehante

sreyo vai manujadayah

SYNONYMS

rajobhih--with the atoms; sama-sankhyatah--having the same numerical strength; parthivaih--of the earth; iha--in this world; jantavah--the living entities; tesam--of them; ye--those who; kecana--some; ihante--act; sreyah--for religious principles; vai--indeed; manuja-adayah--the human beings and so on.

TRANSLATION

In this material world there are as many living entities as atoms. Among these living entities, a very few are human beings, and among them, few are interested in following religious principles.

TEXT 4

TEXT

prayo mumuksavas tesam

kecanaiva dvijottama

mumuksunam sahasresu

kascin mucyeta sidhyati

SYNONYMS

prayah--almost always; mumuksavah--persons interested in liberation; tesam--of them; kecana--some; eva--indeed; dvija-uttama--O best of the brahmanas; mumuksunam--of those who desire to be liberated; sahasresu--in many thousands; kascit--someone; mucyeta--may be actually liberated; sidhyati--someone is perfect.

TRANSLATION

O best of the brahmanas, Sukadeva Gosvami, out of many persons who follow religious principles, only a few desire liberation from the material world. Among many thousands who desire liberation, one may actually achieve liberation, giving up material attachment to society, friendship, love, country, home, wife and children. And among many thousands of such liberated persons, one who can understand the true meaning of liberation is very rare.

PURPORT

There are four classes of men, namely karmis, jnanis, yogis and bhaktas. This statement pertains especially to karmis and jnanis. A karmi tries to he happy within this material world by changing from one body to another. His objective is bodily comfort, either in this planet or in another. When such a person becomes a jnani, however, be aspires for liberation from material bondage. Among many such persons who aspire for liberation, one may actually be liberated during his life. Such a person gives up his attachment for society, friendship, love, country, family, wife and children. Among many such persons, who are in the vanaprastha stage, one may understand the value of becoming a sannyasi, completely accepting the renounced order of life.

TEXT 5

TEXT

muktanam api siddhanam

narayana-parayanah

sudurlabhah prasantatma

kotisv api maha-mune

SYNONYMS

muktanam--of those who are liberated during this life (who are unattached to the bodily comforts of society, friendship and love); api--even; siddhanam--who are perfect (because they understand the insignificance of bodily comforts); narayana-parayanah--a person who has concluded that Narayana is the Supreme; su-durlabhah--very rarely found; prasanta--fully pacified; atma--whose mind; kotisu--out of millions and trillions; api--even; maha-mune--O great sage.

TRANSLATION

O great sage, among many millions who are liberated and perfect in knowledge of liberation, one may be a devotee of Lord Narayana, or Krsna. Such devotees, who are fully peaceful, are extremely rare.

PURPORT

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura gives the following purport to this verse. Simply desiring mukti, or liberation, is insufficient; one must become factually liberated. When one understands the futility of the materialistic way of life, one becomes advanced in knowledge, and therefore he situates himself in the vanaprastha order, unattached to family, wife and children. One should then further progress to the platform of sannyasa, the actual renounced order, never to fall again and be afflicted by materialistic life. Even though one desires to be liberated, this does not mean he is liberated. Only rarely is someone liberated. Indeed, although many men take sannyasa to become liberated, because of their imperfections they again become attached to women, material activities, social welfare work and so on.

Jnanis, yogis and karmis devoid of devotional service are called offenders. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu says, mayavadi krsne aparadhi: one who thinks that everything is maya instead of thinking that everything is Krsna is called an aparadhi, or offender. Although the Mayavadis, impersonalists, are offenders at the lotus feet of Krsna, they may nonetheless be counted among the siddhas, those who have realized the self. They may be considered nearer to spiritual perfection because at least they have realized what spiritual life is. If such a person becomes narayana-parayana, a devotee of Lord Narayana, he is better than a jivan-mukta, one who is liberated or perfect. This requires higher intelligence.

There are two kinds of jnanis. One is inclined to devotional service and the other to impersonal realization. Impersonalists generally undergo great endeavor for no tangible benefit, and therefore it is said that they are husking paddy that has no grain (sthula-tusavaghatinah). The other class of jnanis, whose jnana is mixed with bhakti, are also of two kinds--those who are devoted to the so-called false form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and those who understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead as sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, the actual spiritual form. The Mayavadi devotees worship Narayana or Visnu with the idea that Visnu has accepted a form of maya and that the ultimate truth is actually impersonal. The pure devotee, however, never thinks that Visnu has accepted a body of maya; instead, he knows perfectly well that the original Absolute Truth is the Supreme Person. Such a devotee is actually situated in knowledge. He never merges in the Brahman effulgence. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.2.32):

ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninas

tvayy asta-bhavad avisuddha-buddhayah

aruhya krcchrena param padam tatah

patanty adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghrayah

"O Lord, the intelligence of those who think themselves liberated but who have no devotion is impure. Even though they rise to the highest point of liberation by dint of severe penances and austerities, they are sure to fall down again into material existence, for they do not take shelter at Your lotus feet." Evidence of this same point is also given in Bhagavad-gita (9.11), wherein the Lord says:

avajananti mam mudha

manusim tanum asritam

param bhavam ajananto

mama bhuta-mahesvaram

"Fools deride Me when I descend in the human form. They do not know My transcendental nature and My supreme dominion over all that be." When rascals (mudhas) see that Krsna acts exactly like a human being, they deride the transcendental form of the Lord because they do not know the param bhavam, His transcendental form and activities. Such persons are further described in Bhagavad-gita (9.12) as follows:

moghasa mogha-karmano

mogha-jnana vicetasah

raksasim asurim caiva

prakrtim mohinim sritah

"Those who are thus bewildered are attracted by demoniac and atheistic views. In that deluded condition, their hopes for liberation, their fruitive activities and their culture of knowledge are all defeated." Such persons do not know that Krsna's body is not material. There is no distinction between Krsna's body and His soul, but because less intelligent men see Krsna as a human being, they deride Him. They cannot imagine how a person like Krsna could be the origin of everything (govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami). Such persons are described as moghasah, baffled in their hopes. Whatever they desire for the future will be baffled. Even if they apparently engage in devotional service, they are described as moghasah because they ultimately desire to merge into the Brahman effulgence.

Those who aspire to be elevated to the heavenly planets by devotional service will also be frustrated, because this is not the result of devotional service. However, they are also given a chance to engage in devotional service and be purified. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.17):

srnvatam sva-kathah krsnah

punya-sravana-kirtanah

hrdy antah-stho hy abhadrani

vidhunoti suhrt satam

"Sri Krsna, the Personality of Godhead, who is the Paramatma [Supersoul] in everyone's heart and the benefactor of the truthful devotee, cleanses desire for material enjoyment from the heart of the devotee who relishes His messages, which are in themselves virtuous when properly heard and chanted."

Unless the dirt within the core of one's heart is cleansed away, one cannot become a pure devotee. Therefore the word sudurlabhah ("very rarely found") is used in this verse. Not only among hundreds and thousands, but among millions of perfectly liberated souls, a pure devotee is hardly ever found. Therefore the words kotisv api are used herein. Srila Madhvacarya gives the following quotations from the Tantra Bhagavata:

nava-kotyas tu devanam

rsayah sapta-kotayah

narayanayanah sarve

ye kecit tat-parayanah

"There are ninety million demigods and seventy million sages, who are all called narayanayana, devotees of Lord Narayana. Among them, only a few are called narayana-parayana."

narayanayana deva

rsy-adyas tat-parayanah

brahmadyah kecanaiva syuh

siddho yogya-sukham labhan

The difference between the siddhas and narayana-parayanas is that direct devotees are called narayana-parayanas whereas those who perform various types of mystic yoga are called siddhas.

TEXT 6

TEXT

vrtras tu sa katham papah

sarva-lokopatapanah

ittham drdha-matih krsna

asit sangrama ulbane

SYNONYMS

vrtrah--Vrtrasura; tu--but; sah--he; katham--how; papah--although sinful (getting the body of a demon); sarva-loka--of all the three worlds; upatapanah--the cause of suffering; ittham--such; drdha-matih--firmly fixed intelligence; krsne--in Krsna; asit--there was; sangrame ulbane--in the great blazing fire of battle.

TRANSLATION

Vrtrasura was situated in the blazing fire of battle and was an infamous, sinful demon, always engaged in giving troubles and anxieties to others. How could such a demon become so greatly Krsna conscious?

PURPORT

It has been described that a narayana-parayana, a pure devotee, is rarely found even among millions and millions of persons. Therefore Pariksit Maharaja was surprised that Vrtrasura, whose purpose was to give trouble and anxiety to others, was one of these devotees, even on a battlefield. What was the reason for Vrtrasura's advancement?

TEXT 7

TEXT

atra nah samsayo bhuyan

chrotum kautuhalam prabho

yah paurusena samare

sahasraksam atosayat

SYNONYMS

atra--in this connection; nah--our; samsayah--doubt; bhuyan--great; srotum--to hear; kautuhalam--eagerness; prabho--O my lord; yah--he who; paurusena--by bravery and strength; samare--in battle; sahasra-aksam--Lord Indra, who has one thousand eyes; atosayat--pleased.

TRANSLATION

My dear lord, Sukadeva Gosvami, although Vrtrasura was a sinful demon, he showed the prowess of a most exalted ksatriya and satisfied Lord Indra in battle. How could such a demon be a great devotee of Lord Krsna? These contradictions have caused me great doubt, and they have made me eager to hear of this from you.

TEXT 8

TEXT

sri-suta uvaca

pariksito 'tha samprasnam

bhagavan badarayanih

nisamya sraddadhanasya

pratinandya vaco 'bravit

SYNONYMS

sri-sutah uvaca--Sri Suta Gosvami said; pariksitah--of Maharaja Pariksit; atha--thus; samprasnam--the perfect question; bhagavan--the most powerful; badarayanih--Sukadeva Gosvami, the son of Vyasadeva; nisamya--hearing; sraddadhanasya--of his disciple, who was so faithful in understanding the truth; pratinandya--congratulating; vacah--words; abravit--spoke.

TRANSLATION

Sri Suta Gosvami said: After hearing Maharaja Pariksit's very intelligent question, Sukadeva Gosvami, the most powerful sage, began answering his disciple with great affection.

TEXT 9

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

srnusvavahito rajann

itihasam imam yatha

srutam dvaipayana-mukhan

naradad devalad api

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; srnusva--please hear; avahitah--with great attention; rajan--O King; itihasam--history; imam--this; yatha--just as; srutam--heard; dvaipayana--of Vyasadeva; mukhat--from the mouth; naradat--from Narada; devalat--from Devala Rsi; api--also.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King, I shall speak to you the same history I have heard from the mouths of Vyasadeva, Narada and Devala. Please listen with attention.

TEXT 10

TEXT

asid raja sarvabhaumah

surasenesu vai nrpa

citraketur iti khyato

yasyasit kamadhun mahi

SYNONYMS

asit--there was; raja--one king; sarva-bhaumah--an emperor of the entire surface of the globe; surasenesu--in the country known as Surasena; vai--indeed; nrpa--O King; citraketuh--Citraketu; iti--thus; khyatah--celebrated; yasya--of whom; asit--was; kama-dhuk--supplying all the necessities; mahi--the earth.

TRANSLATION

O King Pariksit, in the province of Surasena there was a king named Citraketu, who ruled the entire earth. During his reign, the earth produced all the necessities for life.

PURPORT

Here the most significant statement is that the earth completely produced all the necessities of life during the time of King Citraketu. As stated in the Isopanisad (Mantra 1):

isavasyam idam sarvam

yat kinca jagatyam jagat

tena tyaktena bhunjitha

ma grdhah kasya svid dhanam

"Everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Lord. One should therefore accept only those things necessary for himself, which are set aside as his quota, and one should not accept other things, knowing well to whom they belong." Krsna, the supreme controller, has created the material world, which is completely perfect and free from scarcity. The Lord supplies the necessities of all living entities. These necessities come from the earth, and thus the earth is the source of supply. When there is a good ruler, that source produces the necessities of life abundantly. However, when there is not such a good ruler, there will be scarcity. This is the significance of the word kamadhuk. Elsewhere in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.10.4) it is said, kamam vavarsa parjanyah sarva-kama-dugha mahi: "During the reign of Maharaja Yudhisthira, the clouds showered all the water that people needed, and the earth produced all the necessities of men in profusion." We have experience that in some seasons the rains produce abundance and in other seasons there is scarcity. We have no control over the earth's productiveness, for it is naturally under the full control of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By His order, the Lord can make the earth produce sufficiently or insufficiently. If a pious king rules the earth according to the sastric injunctions, there will naturally be regular rainfall and sufficient produce to provide for all men. There will be no question of exploitation, for everyone will have enough. Black-marketeering and other corrupt dealings will then automatically stop. Simply ruling the land cannot solve man's problems unless the leader has spiritual capabilities. He must be like Maharaja Yudhisthira, Pariksit Maharaja or Ramacandra. Then all the inhabitants of the land will be extremely happy.

TEXT 11

TEXT

tasya bharya-sahasranam

sahasrani dasabhavan

santanikas capi nrpo

na lebhe tasu santatim

SYNONYMS

tasya--of him (King Citraketu); bharya--of wives; sahasranam--of thousands; sahasrani--thousands; dasa--ten; abhavan--there were; santanikah--quite capable of begetting sons; ca--and; api--although; nrpah--the King; na--not; lebhe--obtained; tasu--in them; santatim--a son.

TRANSLATION

This Citraketu had ten million wives, but although he was capable of producing children, he did not receive a child from any of them. By chance, all the wives were barren.

TEXT 12

TEXT

rupaudarya-vayo-janma-

vidyaisvarya-sriyadibhih

sampannasya gunaih sarvais

cinta bandhya-pater abhut

SYNONYMS

rupa--with beauty; audarya--magnanimity; vayah--youth; janma--aristocratic birth; vidya--education; aisvarya--opulence; sriya-adibhih--wealth and so on; sampannasya--endowed; gunaih--with good qualities; sarvaih--all; cinta--anxiety; bandhya-pateh--of Citraketu, the husband of so many sterile wives; abhut--there was.

TRANSLATION

Citraketu, the husband of these millions of wives, was endowed with a beautiful form, magnanimity and youth. He was born in a high family, he had a complete education, and he was wealthy and opulent. Nevertheless, in spite of being endowed with all these assets, he was full of anxiety because he did not have a son.

PURPORT

It appears that the King first married one wife, but she could not bear a child. Then he married a second, a third, a fourth and so on, but none of the wives could bear children. In spite of the material assets of janmaisvarya-sruta-sri--birth in an aristocratic family with full opulence, wealth, education and beauty--he was very much aggrieved because in spite of having so many wives, he had no son. Certainly his grief was natural. Grhastha life does not mean having a wife and no children. Canakya Pandita says, putra-hinam grham sunyam: if a family man has no son, his home is no better than a desert. The King was certainly most unhappy that he could not get a son, and this is why he had married so many times. Ksatriyas especially are allowed to marry more than one wife, and this King did so. Nonetheless, he had no issue.

TEXT 13

TEXT

na tasya sampadah sarva

mahisyo vama-locanah

sarvabhaumasya bhus ceyam

abhavan priti-hetavah

SYNONYMS

na--not; tasya--of him (Citraketu); sampadah--the great opulences; sarvah--all; mahisyah--the queens; vama-locanah--having very attractive eyes; sarva-bhaumasya--of the emperor; bhuh--land; ca--also; iyam--this; abhavan--were; priti-hetavah--sources of pleasure.

TRANSLATION

His queens all had beautiful faces and attractive eyes, yet neither his opulences, his hundreds and thousands of queens, nor the lands of which he was the supreme proprietor were sources of happiness for him.

TEXT 14

TEXT

tasyaikada tu bhavanam

angira bhagavan rsih

lokan anucarann etan

upagacchad yadrcchaya

SYNONYMS

tasya--of him; ekada--once upon a time; tu--but; bhavanam--to the palace; angirah--Angira; bhagavan--very powerful; rsih--sage; lokan--planets; anucaran--traveling around; etan--these; upagacchat--came; yadrcchaya--suddenly.

TRANSLATION

Once upon a time, when the powerful sage named Angira was traveling all over the universe without engagement, by his sweet will he came to the palace of King Citraketu.

TEXT 15

TEXT

tam pujayitva vidhivat

pratyutthanarhanadibhih

krtatithyam upasidat

sukhasinam samahitah

SYNONYMS

tam--him; pujayitva--after worshiping; vidhi-vat--according to the rules and regulations for receiving exalted guests; pratyutthana--by standing from the throne; arhana-adibhih--offering worship and so on; krta-atithyam--who was given hospitality; upasidat--sat down near; sukha-asinam--who was seated very comfortably; samahitah--controlling his mind and senses.

TRANSLATION

Citraketu immediately stood up from his throne and offered him worship. He offered drinking water and eatables and in this way performed his duty as a host to a great guest. When the rsi was seated very comfortably, the King, restraining his mind and senses, sat on the ground at the side of the rsi's feet.

TEXT 16

TEXT

maharsis tam upasinam

prasrayavanatam ksitau

pratipujya maharaja

samabhasyedam abravit

SYNONYMS

maha-rsih--the great sage; tam--unto him (the King); upasinam--sitting near; prasraya-avanatam--bowing in humility; ksitau--on the ground; pratipujya--congratulating; maharaja--O King Pariksit; samabhasya--addressing; idam--this; abravit--said.

TRANSLATION

O King Pariksit, when Citraketu, bent low in humility, was seated at the lotus feet of the great sage, the sage congratulated him for his humility and hospitality. The sage addressed him in the following words.

TEXT 17

TEXT

angira uvaca

api te 'namayam svasti

prakrtinam tathatmanah

yatha prakrtibhir guptah

puman raja ca saptabhih

SYNONYMS

angirah uvaca--the great sage Angira said; api--whether; te--of you; anamayam--health; svasti--auspiciousness; prakrtinam--of your royal elements (associates and paraphernalia); tatha--as well as; atmanah--of your own body, mind and soul; yatha--like; prakrtibhih--by the elements of material nature; guptah--protected; puman--the living being; raja--the king; ca--also; saptabhih--by seven.

TRANSLATION

The great sage Angira said: My dear King, I hope that your body and mind and your royal associates and paraphernalia are well. When the seven properties of material nature [the total material energy, the ego and the five objects of sense gratification] are in proper order, the living entity within the material elements is happy. Without these seven elements one cannot exist. Similarly, a king is always protected by seven elements--his instructor (svami or guru), his ministers, his kingdom, his fort, his treasury, his royal order and his friends.

PURPORT

As it is quoted by Sridhara Svami in his Bhagavatam commentary:

svamy-amatyau janapada

durga-dravina-sancayah

dando mitram ca tasyaitah

sapta-prakrtayo matah

A king is not alone. He first has his spiritual master, the supreme guide. Then come his ministers, his kingdom, his fortifications, his treasury, his system of law and order, and his friends or allies. If these seven are properly maintained, the king is happy. Similarly, as explained in Bhagavad-gita (dehino 'smin yatha dehe), the living entity, the soul, is within the material covering of the mahat-tattva, ego and panca-tanmatra, the five objects of sense gratification. When these seven are in proper order, the living entity is in a mood of pleasure. Generally when the associates of the king are quiet and obedient, the king can be happy. Therefore the great sage Angira Rsi inquired about the King's personal health and the good fortune of his seven associates. When we inquire from a friend whether everything is well, we are concerned not only with his personal self but also with his family, his source of income, and his assistants or servants. All of them must be well, and then a person can be happy.

TEXT 18

TEXT

atmanam prakrtisv addha

nidhaya sreya apnuyat

rajna tatha prakrtayo

naradevahitadhayah

SYNONYMS

atmanam--himself; prakrtisu--under these seven royal elements; addha--directly; nidhaya--placing; sreyah--ultimate happiness; apnuyat--may obtain; rajna--by the king; tatha--so also; prakrtayah--the dependent royal elements; nara-deva--O King; ahita-adhayah--offering wealth and other items.

TRANSLATION

O King, O lord of humanity, when a king directly depends upon his associates and follows their instructions, he is happy. Similarly, when his associates offer their gifts and activities to the king and follow his orders, they are also happy.

PURPORT

The actual happiness of a king and his dependents is described in this verse. A king should not simply give orders to his dependents because he is supreme; sometimes he must follow their instructions. Similarly, the dependents should depend on the king. This mutual dependence will make everyone happy.

TEXT 19

TEXT

api darah prajamatya

bhrtyah srenyo 'tha mantrinah

paura janapada bhupa

atmaja vasa-vartinah

SYNONYMS

api--whether; darah--wives; praja--citizens; amatyah--and secretaries; bhrtyah--servants; srenyah--merchants; atha--as well as; mantrinah--ministers; paurah--inmates of the palace; janapadah--the provincial governors; bhupah--landholders; atma-jah--sons; vasa-vartinah--under your full control.

TRANSLATION

O King, are your wives, citizens, secretaries and servants and the merchants who sell spices and oil under your control? Are you also in full control of ministers, the inhabitants of your palace, your provincial governors, your sons and your other dependents?

PURPORT

The master or king and his subordinates should be interdependent. Through cooperation, both of them can be happy.

TEXT 20

TEXT

yasyatmanuvasas cet syat

sarve tad-vasaga ime

lokah sapala yacchanti

sarve balim atandritah

SYNONYMS

yasya--of whom; atma--mind; anuvasah--under control; cet--if; syat--may be; sarve--all; tat-vasa-gah--under the control of him; ime--these; lokah--the worlds; sa-palah--with their governors; yacchanti--offer; sarve--all; balim--contribution; atandritah--becoming free from laziness.

TRANSLATION

If the king's mind is fully controlled, all his family members and governmental officers are subordinate to him. His provincial governors present taxes on time, without resistance, and what to speak of lesser servants?

PURPORT

Angira Rsi asked the King whether his mind was also under control. This is most essential for happiness.

TEXT 21

TEXT

atmanah priyate natma

paratah svata eva va

laksaye 'labdha-kamam tvam

cintaya sabalam mukham

SYNONYMS

atmanah--of you; priyate--is pleased; na--not; atma--the mind; paratah--due to other causes; svatah--due to yourself; eva--indeed; va--or; laksaye--I can see; alabdha-kamam--not achieving your desired goals; tvam--you; cintaya--by anxiety; sabalam--pale; mukham--face.

TRANSLATION

O King Citraketu, I can observe that your mind is not pleased. You seem not to have achieved your desired goal. Is this because of you yourself, or has it been caused by others? Your pale face reflects your deep anxiety.

TEXT 22

TEXT

evam vikalpito rajan

vidusa muninapi sah

prasrayavanato 'bhyaha

praja-kamas tato munim

SYNONYMS

evam--thus; vikalpitah--questioned; rajan--O King Pariksit; vidusa--greatly learned; munina--by the philosopher; api--although; sah--he (King Citraketu); prasraya-avanatah--being bent low due to humility; abhyaha--replied; praja-kamah--desiring offspring; tatah--thereafter; munim--to the great sage.

TRANSLATION

Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King Pariksit, although the great sage Angira knew everything, he inquired from the King in this way. Thus King Citraketu, desiring a son, bent low in great humility and spoke to the great sage as follows.

PURPORT

Since the face is the index to the mind, a saintly person can study the condition of one's mind by seeing his face. When Angira Rsi remarked about the King's discolored face, King Citraketu explained the cause of his anxiety as follows.

TEXT 23

TEXT

citraketur uvaca

bhagavan kim na viditam

tapo-jnana-samadhibhih

yoginam dhvasta-papanam

bahir antah saririsu

SYNONYMS

citraketuh uvaca--King Citraketu replied; bhagavan--O most powerful sage; kim--what; na--not; viditam--is understood; tapah--by austerity; jnana--knowledge; samadhibhih--and by samadhi (trance, transcendental meditation); yoginam--by the great yogis or devotees; dhvasta-papanam--who are fully freed from all sinful reactions; bahih--externally; antah--internally; saririsu--in conditioned souls, who have material bodies.

TRANSLATION

King Citraketu said: O great lord Angira, because of austerity, knowledge and transcendental samadhi, you are freed from all the reactions of sinful life. Therefore, as a perfect yogi, you can understand everything external and internal regarding embodied, conditioned souls like us.

TEXT 24

TEXT

tathapi prcchato bruyam

brahmann atmani cintitam

bhavato vidusas capi

coditas tvad-anujnaya

SYNONYMS

tathapi--still; prcchatah--asking; bruyam--let me speak; brahman--O great brahmana; atmani--in the mind; cintitam--anxiety; bhavatah--to you; vidusah--who know everything; ca--and; api--although; coditah--being inspired; tvat--your; anujnaya--by the order.

TRANSLATION

O great soul, you are aware of everything, yet you are asking me why I am full of anxiety. Therefore, in response to your order, let me disclose the cause.

TEXT 25

TEXT

loka-palair api prarthyah

samrajyaisvarya-sampadah

na nandayanty aprajam mam

ksut-trt-kamam ivapare

SYNONYMS

loka-palaih--by great demigods; api--even; prarthyah--desirable; samrajya--a great empire; aisvarya--material opulence; sampadah--possessions; na nandayanti--do not give pleasure; aprajam--because of having no son; mam--unto me; ksut--hunger; trt--thirst; kamam--desiring to satisfy; iva--like; apare--other enjoyable sense objects.

TRANSLATION

As a person aggrieved by hunger and thirst is not pleased by the external gratification of flower garlands or sandalwood pulp, I am not pleased with my empire, opulence or possessions, which are desirable even for great demigods, because I have no son.

TEXT 26

TEXT

tatah pahi maha-bhaga

purvaih saha gatam tamah

yatha tarema dusparam

prajaya tad vidhehi nah

SYNONYMS

tatah--therefore, because of this; pahi--kindly save; maha-bhaga--O great sage; purvaih saha--along with my forefathers; gatam--gone; tamah--to darkness; yatha--so that; tarema--we can cross; dusparam--very difficult to cross; prajaya--by getting a son; tat--that; vidhehi--kindly do; nah--for us.

TRANSLATION

Therefore, O great sage, please save me and my forefathers, who are descending to the darkness of hell because I have no progeny. Kindly do something so that I may have a son to deliver us from hellish conditions.

PURPORT

According to Vedic civilization, one gets married simply to have a son, who is needed to offer oblations to his forefathers. King Citraketu responsibly desired to beget a child so that he and his forefathers might be delivered from the darkest regions. He was concerned with how to get pinda, oblations, in the next life, not only for himself but also for his forefathers. Therefore he requested Angira Rsi to favor him by doing something that could help him get a son.

TEXT 27

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

ity arthitah sa bhagavan

krpalur brahmanah sutah

srapayitva carum tvastram

tvastaram ayajad vibhuh

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; iti--thus; arthitah--being requested; sah--he (Angira Rsi); bhagavan--the most powerful; krpaluh--being very merciful; brahmanah--of Lord Brahma; sutah--a son (born of Lord Brahma's mind); srapayitva--after causing to cook; carum--a specific oblation of sweetrice; tvastram--meant for the demigod known as Tvasta; tvastaram--Tvasta; ayajat--he worshiped; vibhuh--the great sage.

TRANSLATION

In response to the request of Maharaja Citraketu, Angira Rsi, who was born of Lord Brahma's mind, was very merciful toward him. Because the sage was a greatly powerful personality, he performed a sacrifice by offering oblations of sweetrice to Tvasta.

TEXT 28

TEXT

jyestha srestha ca ya rajno

mahisinam ca bharata

namna krtadyutis tasyai

yajnocchistam adad dvijah

SYNONYMS

jyestha--the senior; srestha--the most perfect; ca--and; ya--she who; rajnah--of the King; mahisinam--among all the queens; ca--also; bharata--O Maharaja Pariksit, the best of the Bharatas; namna--by name; krtadyutih--Krtadyuti; tasyai--unto her; yajna--of the sacrifice; ucchistam--the remnants of food; adat--delivered; dvijah--the great sage (Angira).

TRANSLATION

O Pariksit Maharaja, best of the Bharatas, the remnants of the food offered in the yajna were given by the great sage Angira to the first and most perfect among Citraketu's millions of queens, whose name was Krtadyuti.

TEXT 29

TEXT

athaha nrpatim rajan

bhavitaikas tavatmajah

harsa-soka-pradas tubhyam

iti brahma-suto yayau

SYNONYMS

atha--thereafter; aha--said; nrpatim--unto the King; rajan--O King Citraketu; bhavita--there will be; ekah--one; tava--your; atmajah--son; harsa-soka--jubilation and lamentation; pradah--who will give; tubhyam--unto you; iti--thus; brahma-sutah--Angira Rsi, the son of Lord Brahma; yayau--left.

TRANSLATION

Thereafter, the great sage told the King, "O great King, now you will have a son who will be the cause of both jubilation and lamentation." The sage then left, without waiting for Citraketu's response.

PURPORT

The word harsa means "jubilation," and soka means "lamentation." The King was overwhelmed with joy when he understood that he would have a son. Because of his great jubilation, he could not actually understand the statement of the sage Angira. He accepted it to mean that there would certainly be jubilation because of the birth of his future son, but that he would be the King's only son and, being very proud of his great wealth and empire, would not be very obedient to his father. Thus the King was satisfied, thinking, "Let there be a son. It does not matter if he is not very obedient." In Bengal there is a proverb that instead of having no maternal uncle, it is better to have a maternal uncle who is blind. The King accepted this philosophy, thinking that a disobedient son would be better than no son at all. The great sage Canakya Pandita says:

ko 'rthah putrena jatena

yo na vidvan na dharmikah

kanena caksusa kim va

caksuh pidaiva kevalam

"What is the use of a son who is neither a learned scholar nor a devotee? Such a son is like a blind, diseased eye, which always causes suffering." Nevertheless, the material world is so polluted that one wants to have a son even though he is useless. This attitude was represented in the history of King Citraketu.

TEXT 30

TEXT

sapi tat-prasanad eva

citraketor adharayat

garbham krtadyutir devi

krttikagner ivatmajam

SYNONYMS

sa--she; api--even; tat-prasanat--by eating the remnants of food from the great sacrifice; eva--indeed; citraketoh--from King Citraketu; adharayat--bore; garbham--pregnancy; krtadyutih--Queen Krtadyuti; devi--the goddess; krttika--Krttika; agneh--from Agni; iva--as; atma-jam--a son.

TRANSLATION

As Krttikadevi, after receiving the semen of Lord Siva from Agni, conceived a child named Skanda [Karttikeya], Krtadyuti, having received semen from Citraketu, became pregnant after eating remnants of food from the yajna performed by Angira.

TEXT 31

TEXT

tasya anudinam garbhah

sukla-paksa ivodupah

vavrdhe surasenesa-

tejasa sanakair nrpa

SYNONYMS

tasyah--her; anudinam--day after day; garbhah--embryo; sukla-pakse--during the fortnight of the waxing moon; iva--like; udupah--the moon; vavrdhe--gradually developed; surasena-isa--of the King of Surasena; tejasa--by the semen; sanakaih--little by little; nrpa--O King Pariksit.

TRANSLATION

After receiving semen from Maharaja Citraketu, the King of Surasena, Queen Krtadyuti gradually developed in her pregnancy, O King Pariksit, just as the moon develops during the bright fortnight.

TEXT 32

TEXT

atha kala upavrtte

kumarah samajayata

janayan surasenanam

srnvatam paramam mudam

SYNONYMS

atha--thereafter; kale upavrtte--in due course of time; kumarah--the son; samajayata--took birth; janayan--creating; surasenanam--of the inhabitants of Surasena; srnvatam--hearing; paramam--the highest; mudam--delight.

TRANSLATION

Thereafter, in due course of time, a son was born to the King. Hearing news of this, all the inhabitants of the state of Surasena were extremely pleased.

TEXT 33

TEXT

hrsto raja kumarasya

snatah sucir alankrtah

vacayitvasiso vipraih

karayam asa jatakam

SYNONYMS

hrstah--very happy; raja--the King; kumarasya--of his newly born son; snatah--having bathed; sucih--being purified; alankrtah--being decorated with ornaments; vacayitva--having caused to be spoken; asisah--words of benediction; vipraih--by learned brahmanas; karayam asa--caused to be performed; jatakam--the birth ceremony.

TRANSLATION

King Citraketu was especially pleased. After purifying himself by bathing and by decorating himself with ornaments, he engaged learned brahmanas in offering benedictions to the child and performing the birth ceremony.

TEXT 34

TEXT

tebhyo hiranyam rajatam

vasamsy abharanani ca

graman hayan gajan pradad

dhenunam arbudani sat

SYNONYMS

tebhyah--unto them (the learned brahmanas); hiranyam--gold; rajatam--silver; vasamsi--garments; abharanani--ornaments; ca--also; graman--villages; hayan--horses; gajan--elephants; pradat--gave in charity; dhenunam--of cows; arbudani--groups of one hundred million; sat--six.

TRANSLATION

Unto the brahmanas who took part in the ritualistic ceremony the King gave charity of gold, silver, garments, ornaments, villages, horses and elephants, as well as sixty crores of cows [six hundred million cows].

TEXT 35

TEXT

vavarsa kaman anyesam

parjanya iva dehinam

dhanyam yasasyam ayusyam

kumarasya maha-manah

SYNONYMS

vavarsa--showered, gave in charity; kaman--all desirable things; anyesam--of others; parjanyah--a cloud; iva--like; dehinam--of all living entities; dhanyam--with the desire for an increase of opulence; yasasyam--an increase of reputation; ayusyam--and an increase of the duration of life; kumarasya--of the newly born child; maha-manah--the beneficent King Citraketu.

TRANSLATION

As a cloud indiscriminately pours water on the earth, the beneficent King Citraketu, to increase the reputation, opulence and longevity of his son, distributed like rainfall all desirable things to everyone.

TEXT 36

TEXT

krcchra-labdhe 'tha rajarses

tanaye 'nudinam pituh

yatha nihsvasya krcchrapte

dhane sneho 'nvavardhata

SYNONYMS

krcchra--with great difficulty; labdhe--gained; atha--thereafter; raja-rseh--of the pious King Citraketu; tanaye--for the son; anudinam--day after day; pituh--of the father; yatha--exactly as; nihsvasya--of a poor man; krcchra-apte--gained after great difficulty; dhane--for riches; snehah--affection; anvavardhata--increased.

TRANSLATION

When a poor man gets some money after great difficulty, his affection for the money increases daily. Similarly, when King Citraketu, after great difficulty, received a son, his affection for the son increased day after day.

TEXT 37

TEXT

matus tv atitaram putre

sneho moha-samudbhavah

krtadyuteh sapatninam

praja-kama-jvaro 'bhavat

SYNONYMS

matuh--of the mother; tu--also; atitaram--excessively; putre--for the son; snehah--affection; moha--out of ignorance; samudbhavah--produced; krtadyuteh--of Krtadyuti; sapatninam--of the co-wives; praja-kama--of a desire to have sons; jvarah--a fever; abhavat--there was.

TRANSLATION

The mother's attraction and attention to the son, like that of the child's father, excessively increased. The other wives, seeing Krtadyuti's son, were very much agitated, as if by high fevers, with a desire to have sons.

TEXT 38

TEXT

citraketor atipritir

yatha dare prajavati

na tathanyesu sanjajne

balam lalayato 'nvaham

SYNONYMS

citraketoh--of King Citraketu; atipritih--excessive attraction; yatha--just as; dare--unto the wife; praja-vati--who begot a son; na--not; tatha--like that; anyesu--unto the others; sanjajne--arose; balam--the son; lalayatah--taking care of; anvaham--constantly.

TRANSLATION

As King Citraketu fostered his son very carefully, his affection for Queen Krtadyuti increased, but gradually he lost affection for the other wives, who had no sons.

TEXT 39

TEXT

tah paryatapyann atmanam

garhayantyo 'bhyasuyaya

anapatyena duhkhena

rajnas canadarena ca

SYNONYMS

tah--they (the queens who did not have sons); paryatapyan--lamented; atmanam--themselves; garhayantyah--condemning; abhyasuyaya--out of envy; anapatyena--due to being without sons; duhkhena--by unhappiness; rajnah--of the King; ca--also; anadarena--due to negligence; ca--also.

TRANSLATION

The other queens were extremely unhappy due to their being sonless. Because of the King's negligence toward them, they condemned themselves in envy and lamented.

TEXT 40

TEXT

dhig aprajam striyam papam

patyus cagrha-sammatam

suprajabhih sapatnibhir

dasim iva tiraskrtam

SYNONYMS

dhik--all condemnation; aprajam--without a son; striyam--upon a woman; papam--full of sinful activities; patyuh--by the husband; ca--also; a-grha-sammatam--who is not honored at home; su-prajabhih--who have sons; sapatnibhih--by co-wives; dasim--a maidservant; iva--exactly like; tiraskrtam--dishonored.

TRANSLATION

A wife who has no sons is neglected at home by her husband and dishonored by her co-wives exactly like a maidservant. Certainly such a woman is condemned in every respect because of her sinful life.

PURPORT

As stated by Canakya Pandita:

mata yasya grhe nasti

bharya capriya-vadini

aranyam tena gantavyam

yatharanyam tatha grham

"A person who has no mother at home and whose wife does not speak sweetly should go to the forest. For such a person, living at home and living in the forest are equal." Similarly, for a woman who has no son, who is not cared for by her husband and whose co-wives neglect her, treating her like a maidservant, to go to the forest is better than to remain at home.

TEXT 41

TEXT

dasinam ko nu santapah

svaminah paricaryaya

abhiksnam labdha-mananam

dasya dasiva durbhagah

SYNONYMS

dasinam--of the maidservants; kah--what; nu--indeed; santapah--lamentation; svaminah--unto the husband; paricaryaya--by rendering service; abhiksnam--constantly; labdha-mananam--honored; dasyah--of the maidservant; dasi iva--like a maidservant; durbhagah--most unfortunate.

TRANSLATION

Even maidservants who are constantly engaged in rendering service to the husband are honored by the husband, and thus they have nothing for which to lament. Our position, however, is that we are maidservants of the maidservant. Therefore we are most unfortunate.

TEXT 42

TEXT

evam sandahyamananam

sapatnyah putra-sampada

rajno 'sammata-vrttinam

vidveso balavan abhut

SYNONYMS

evam--thus; sandahyamananam--of the queens, who were constantly burning in lamentation; sapatnyah--of the co-wife Krtadyuti; putra-sampada--due to the opulence of a son; rajnah--by the King; asammata-vrttinam--not being very much favored; vidvesah--envy; balavan--very strong; abhut--became.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Being neglected by their husband and seeing Krtadyuti's opulence in possessing a son, Krtadyuti's co-wives always burned in envy, which became extremely strong.

TEXT 43

TEXT

vidvesa-nasta-matayah

striyo daruna-cetasah

garam daduh kumaraya

durmarsa nrpatim prati

SYNONYMS

vidvesa-nasta-matayah--whose intelligence was lost in envy; striyah--the women; daruna-cetasah--being very hardhearted; garam--poison; daduh--administered; kumaraya--unto the boy; durmarsah--being intolerant; nrpatim--the King; prati--upon.

TRANSLATION

As their envy increased, they lost their intelligence. Being extremely hardhearted and unable to tolerate the King's neglect, they finally administered poison to the son.

TEXT 44

TEXT

krtadyutir ajananti

sapatninam agham mahat

supta eveti sancintya

niriksya vyacarad grhe

SYNONYMS

krtadyutih--Queen Krtadyuti; ajananti--being unaware of; sapatninam--of her co-wives; agham--sinful act; mahat--very great; suptah--sleeping; eva--indeed; iti--thus; sancintya--thinking; niriksya--looking at; vyacarat--was walking; grhe--at home.

TRANSLATION

Unaware of the poison administered by her co-wives, Queen Krtadyuti walked within the house, thinking that her son was sleeping deeply. She did not understand that he was dead.

TEXT 45

TEXT

sayanam suciram balam

upadharya manisini

putram anaya me bhadre

iti dhatrim acodayat

SYNONYMS

sayanam--lying down; su-ciram--for a long time; balam--the son; upadharya--thinking; manisini--very intelligent; putram--the son; anaya--bring; me--unto me; bhadre--O gentle friend; iti--thus; dhatrim--unto the nurse; acodayat--gave the order.

TRANSLATION

Thinking that her child had been sleeping for a long time, Queen Krtadyuti, who was certainly very intelligent, ordered the nurse, "My dear friend, please bring my son here."

TEXT 46

TEXT

sa sayanam upavrajya

drstva cottara-locanam

pranendriyatmabhis tyaktam

hatasmity apatad bhuvi

SYNONYMS

sa--she (the maidservant); sayanam--lying down; upavrajya--going to; drstva--seeing; ca--also; uttara-locanam--his eyes turned upward (as are those of a dead body); prana-indriya-atmabhih--by the life force, senses and mind; tyaktam--abandoned; hata asmi--now I am doomed; iti--thus; apatat--fell down; bhuvi--on the ground.

TRANSLATION

When the maidservant approached the child, who was lying down, she saw that his eyes were turned upward. There were no signs of life, all his senses having stopped, and she could understand that the child was dead. Seeing this, she immediately cried, "Now I am doomed," and fell to the ground.

TEXT 47

TEXT

tasyas tadakarnya bhrsaturam svaram

ghnantyah karabhyam ura uccakair api

pravisya rajni tvarayatmajantikam

dadarsa balam sahasa mrtam sutam

SYNONYMS

tasyah--of her (the maidservant); tada--at that time; akarnya--hearing; bhrsa-aturam--highly regretful and agitated; svaram--voice; ghnantyah--striking; karabhyam--with the hands; urah--the chest; uccakaih--loudly; api--also; pravisya--entering; rajni--the Queen; tvaraya--hastily; atmaja-antikam--near her son; dadarsa--she saw; balam--the child; sahasa--suddenly; mrtam--dead; sutam--son.

TRANSLATION

In great agitation, the maidservant struck her breast with both hands and cried loudly in regretful words. Hearing her loud voice, the Queen immediately came, and when she approached her son, she saw that he was suddenly dead.

TEXT 48

TEXT

papata bhumau parivrddhaya suca

mumoha vibhrasta-siroruhambara

SYNONYMS

papata--fell down; bhumau--on the ground; parivrddhaya--highly increased; suca--out of lamentation; mumoha--she became unconscious; vibhrasta--scattered; siroruha--hair; ambara--and dress.

TRANSLATION

In great lamentation, her hair and dress in disarray, the Queen fell to the ground unconscious.

TEXT 49

TEXT

tato nrpantahpura-vartino jana

naras ca naryas ca nisamya rodanam

agatya tulya-vyasanah suduhkhitas

tas ca vyalikam ruruduh krtagasah

SYNONYMS

tatah--thereafter; nrpa--O King; antahpura-vartinah--the inhabitants of the palace; janah--all the people; narah--the men; ca--and; naryah--the women; ca--also; nisamya--hearing; rodanam--loud crying; agatya--coming; tulya-vyasanah--being equally aggrieved; su-duhkhitah--very greatly lamenting; tah--they; ca--and; vyalikam--pretentiously; ruruduh--cried; krta-agasah--who had committed the offense (by giving the poison).

TRANSLATION

O King Pariksit, hearing the loud crying, all the inhabitants of the palace came, both men and women. Being equally aggrieved, they also began to cry. The queens who had administered the poison also cried pretentiously, knowing full well their offense.

TEXTS 50-51

TEXT

srutva mrtam putram alaksitantakam

vinasta-drstih prapatan skhalan pathi

snehanubandhaidhitaya suca bhrsam

vimurcchito 'nuprakrtir dvijair vrtah

papata balasya sa pada-mule

mrtasya visrasta-siroruhambarah

dirgham svasan baspa-kaloparodhato

niruddha-kantho na sasaka bhasitum

SYNONYMS

srutva--hearing; mrtam--dead; putram--the son; alaksita-antakam--the cause of death being unknown; vinasta-drstih--unable to see properly; prapatan--constantly falling down; skhalan--slipping; pathi--on the road; sneha-anubandha--because of affection; edhitaya--increasing; suca--by lamentation; bhrsam--greatly; vimurcchitah--becoming unconscious; anuprakrtih--followed by ministers and other officers; dvijaih--by learned brahmanas; vrtah--surrounded; papata--fell down; balasya--of the boy; sah--he (the King); pada-mule--at the feet; mrtasya--of the dead body; visrasta--scattered; siroruha--hair; ambarah--and dress; dirgham--long; svasan--breathing; baspa-kala-uparodhatah--due to crying with tearful eyes; niruddha-kanthah--having a choked voice; na--not; sasaka--was able; bhasitum--to speak.

TRANSLATION

When King Citraketu heard of his son's death from unknown causes, he became almost blind. Because of his great affection for his son, his lamentation grew like a blazing fire, and as he went to see the dead child, he kept slipping and falling on the ground. Surrounded by his ministers and other officers and the learned brahmanas present, the King approached and fell unconscious at the child's feet, his hair and dress scattered. When the King, breathing heavily, regained consciousness, his eyes were tearful, and he could not speak.

TEXT 52

TEXT

patim niriksyoru-sucarpitam tada

mrtam ca balam sutam eka-santatim

janasya rajni prakrtes ca hrd-rujam

sati dadhana vilalapa citradha

SYNONYMS

patim--the husband; niriksya--by seeing; uru--greatly; suca--with lamentation; arpitam--pained; tada--at that time; mrtam--dead; ca--and; balam--the child; sutam--the son; eka-santatim--the only son in the family; janasya--of all the other people gathered there; rajni--the Queen; prakrteh ca--as well as of the officers and ministers; hrt-rujam--the pains within the core of the heart; sati dadhana--increasing; vilalapa--lamented; citradha--in varieties of ways.

TRANSLATION

When the Queen saw her husband, King Citraketu, merged in great lamentation and saw the dead child, who was the only son in the family, she lamented in various ways. This increased the pain in the cores of the hearts of all the inhabitants of the palace, the ministers and all the brahmanas.

TEXT 53

TEXT

stana-dvayam kunkuma-panka-manditam

nisincati sanjana-baspa-bindubhih

vikirya kesan vigalat-srajah sutam

susoca citram kurariva susvaram

SYNONYMS

stana-dvayam--her two breasts; kunkuma--with kunkuma powder (which is generally sprayed on the breasts of women); panka--ointment; manditam--decorated; nisincati--moistening; sa-anjana--mixed with the eye ointment; baspa--of tears; bindubhih--by drops; vikirya--scattering; kesan--hair; vigalat--was falling down; srajah--on which the flower garland; sutam--for her son; susoca--lamented; citram--variegated; kurari iva--like a kurari bird; su-svaram--in a very sweet voice.

TRANSLATION

The garland of flowers decorating the Queen's head fell, and her hair scattered. Falling tears melted the collyrium on her eyes and moistened her breasts, which were covered with kunkuma powder. As she lamented the loss of her son, her loud crying resembled the sweet sound of a kurari bird.

TEXT 54

TEXT

aho vidhatas tvam ativa baliso

yas tv atma-srsty-apratirupam ihase

pare nu jivaty aparasya ya mrtir

viparyayas cet tvam asi dhruvah parah

SYNONYMS

aho--alas (in great lamentation); vidhatah--O Providence; tvam--You; ativa--very much; balisah--inexperienced; yah--who; tu--indeed; atma-srsti--of Your own creation; apratirupam--just the opposite; ihase--You are performing and desiring; pare--while the father or the elder; nu--indeed; jivati--is living; aparasya--of one who was born later; ya--which; mrtih--death; viparyayah--contradictory; cet--if; tvam--You; asi--are; dhruvah--indeed; parah--an enemy.

TRANSLATION

Alas, O Providence, O Creator, You are certainly inexperienced in creation, for during the lifetime of a father You have caused the death of his son, thus acting in opposition to Your creative laws. If You are determined to contradict these laws, You are certainly the enemy of living entities and are never merciful.

PURPORT

This is the way a conditioned soul condemns the supreme creator when he meets reverses. Sometimes he accuses the Supreme Personality of Godhead of being crooked because some people are happy and some are not. Here the Queen blames supreme providence for her son's death. Following the creative laws, a father should die first and then his son. If the creative laws are changed according to the whims of providence, then providence certainly should not be considered merciful, but must be considered inimical to the created being. Actually it is not the creator, but the conditioned soul who is inexperienced. He does not know how the subtle laws of fruitive activity work, and without knowledge of these laws of nature, he ignorantly criticizes the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TEXT 55

TEXT

na hi kramas ced iha mrtyu-janmanoh

saririnam astu tad atma-karmabhih

yah sneha-paso nija-sarga-vrddhaye

svayam krtas te tam imam vivrscasi

SYNONYMS

na--not; hi--indeed; kramah--chronological order; cet--if; iha--in this material world; mrtyu--of death; janmanoh--and of birth; saririnam--of the conditioned souls, who have accepted material bodies; astu--let it be; tat--that; atma-karmabhih--by the results of one's karma (fruitive activities); yah--that which; sneha-pasah--bondage of affection; nija-sarga--Your own creation; vrddhaye--to increase; svayam--personally; krtah--made; te--by You; tam--that; imam--this; vivrscasi--you are cutting.

TRANSLATION

My Lord, You may say that there is no law that a father must die in the lifetime of his son and that a son must be born in the lifetime of his father, since everyone lives and dies according to his own fruitive activity. However, if fruitive activity is so strong that birth and death depend upon it, there is no need of a controller, or God. Again, if You say that a controller is needed because the material energy does not have the power to act, one may answer that if the bonds of affection You have created are disturbed by fruitive action, no one will raise children with affection; instead, everyone will cruelly neglect his children. Since You have cut the bonds of affection that compel a parent to raise his child, You appear inexperienced and unintelligent.

PURPORT

As stated in the Brahma-samhita, karmani nirdahati kintu ca bhakti-bhajam: one who has taken to Krsna consciousness, devotional service, is not affected by the results of karma. In this verse, karma has been stressed on the basis of karma-mimamsa philosophy, which says that one must act according to his karma and that a supreme controller must give the results of karma. The subtle laws of karma, which are controlled by the Supreme, cannot be understood by ordinary conditioned souls. Therefore Krsna says that one who can understand Him and how He is acting, controlling everything by subtle laws, immediately becomes freed by His grace. That is the statement of Brahma-samhita (karmani nirdahati kintu ca bhakti-bhajam). One should take to devotional service without reservations and surrender everything to the supreme will of the Lord. That will make one happy in this life and the next.

TEXT 56

TEXT

tvam tata narhasi ca mam krpanam anatham

tyaktum vicaksva pitaram tava soka-taptam

anjas tarema bhavatapraja-dustaram yad

dhvantam na yahy akarunena yamena duram

SYNONYMS

tvam--you; tata--my dear son; na--not; arhasi--ought; ca--and; mam--me; krpanam--very poor; anatham--without a protector; tyaktum--to give up; vicaksva--look; pitaram--at the father; tava--your; soka-taptam--affected by so much lamentation; anjah--easily; tarema--we can cross; bhavata--by you; apraja-dustaram--very difficult to cross for one without a son; yat--which; dhvantam--the kingdom of darkness; na yahi--do not go away; akarunena--merciless; yamena--with Yamaraja; duram--any further.

TRANSLATION

My dear son, I am helpless and very much aggrieved. You should not give up my company. Just look at your lamenting father. We are helpless because without a son we shall have to suffer the distress of going to the darkest hellish regions. You are the only hope by which we can get out of these dark regions. Therefore I request you not to go any further with the merciless Yama.

PURPORT

According to the Vedic injunctions, one must accept a wife just to beget a son who can deliver one from the clutches of Yamaraja. Unless one has a son to offer oblations to the pitas, or forefathers, one must suffer in Yamaraja's kingdom. King Citraketu was very much aggrieved. thinking that because his son was going away with Yamaraja he himself would again suffer. The subtle laws exist for the karmis; if one becomes a devotee, he has no more obligations to the laws of karma.

TEXT 57

TEXT

uttistha tata ta ime sisavo vayasyas

tvam ahvayanti nrpa-nandana samvihartum

suptas ciram hy asanaya ca bhavan parito

bhunksva stanam piba suco hara nah svakanam

SYNONYMS

uttistha--kindly get up; tata--my dear son; te--they; ime--all these; sisavah--children; vayasyah--playmates; tvam--you; ahvayanti--are calling; nrpa-nandana--O son of the King; samvihartum--to play with; suptah--you have slept; ciram--for a long time; hi--indeed; asanaya--by hunger; ca--also; bhavan--you; paritah--overcome; bhunksva--please eat; stanam--at the breast (of your mother); piba--drink; sucah--lamentation; hara--just dissipate; nah--of us; svakanam--your relatives.

TRANSLATION

My dear son, you have slept a long time. Now please get up. Your playmates are calling you to play. Since you must be very hungry, please get up and suck my breast and dissipate our lamentation.

TEXT 58

TEXT

naham tanuja dadrse hata-mangala te

mugdha-smitam mudita-viksanam ananabjam

kim va gato 'sy apunar-anvayam anya-lokam

nito 'ghrnena na srnomi kala giras te

SYNONYMS

na--not; aham--I; tanu-ja--my dear son (born of my body); dadrse--saw; hata-mangala--because of my being the most unfortunate; te--your; mugdha-smitam--with charming smiling; mudita-viksanam--with closed eyes; anana-abjam--lotus face; kim va--whether; gatah--gone away; asi--you are; a-punah-anvayam--from which one does not return; anya-lokam--to another planet, or the planet of Yamaraja; nitah--having been taken away; aghrnena--by the cruel Yamaraja; na--not; srnomi--I can hear; kalah--very pleasing; girah--utterances; te--your.

TRANSLATION

My dear son, I am certainly most unfortunate, for I can no longer see your mild smiling. You have closed your eyes forever. I therefore conclude that you have been taken from this planet to another, from which you will not return. My dear son, I can no longer hear your pleasing voice.

TEXT 59

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

vilapantya mrtam putram

iti citra-vilapanaih

citraketur bhrsam tapto

mukta-kantho ruroda ha

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; vilapantya--with the woman who was lamenting; mrtam--dead; putram--for the son; iti--thus; citra-vilapanaih--with various lamentations; citraketuh--King Citraketu; bhrsam--very much; taptah--aggrieved; mukta-kanthah--loudly; ruroda--cried; ha--indeed.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Accompanied by his wife, who was thus lamenting for her dead son, King Citraketu began crying loudly with an open mouth, being greatly aggrieved.

TEXT 60

TEXT

tayor vilapatoh sarve

dampatyos tad-anuvratah

ruruduh sma nara naryah

sarvam asid acetanam

SYNONYMS

tayoh--while the two of them; vilapatoh--were lamenting; sarve--all; dam-patyoh--the King, along with his wife; tat-anuvratah--their followers; ruruduh--cried loudly; sma--indeed; narah--the male members; naryah--the female members; sarvam--the whole kingdom; asit--became; acetanam--almost unconscious.

TRANSLATION

As the King and Queen lamented, all their male and female followers joined them in crying. Because of the sudden accident, all the citizens of the kingdom were almost unconscious.

TEXT 61

TEXT

evam kasmalam apannam

nasta-samjnam anayakam

jnatvangira nama rsir

ajagama sanaradah

SYNONYMS

evam--thus; kasmalam--misery; apannam--having gotten; nasta--lost; samjnam--consciousness; anayakam--without help; jnatva--knowing; angirah--Angira; nama--named; rsih--the saintly person; ajagama--came; sa-naradah--with Narada Muni.

TRANSLATION

When the great sage Angira understood that the King was almost dead in an ocean of lamentation, he went there with Narada Rsi.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Sixth Canto, Fourteenth Chapter, of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "King Citraketu's Lamentation."

Chapter Fifteen

The Saints Narada and Angira Instruct King Citraketu

In this chapter, Angira Rsi, along with Narada, consoles Citraketu as far as possible. Angira and Narada Rsi came to relieve the King from excessive lamentation by instructing him about the spiritual significance of life.

The great saints Angira and Narada explained that the relationship between father and son is not factual; it is simply a representation of the illusory energy. The relationship did not exist before, nor will it stay in the future. By the arrangement of time, the relationship exists only in the present. One should not lament for temporary relationships. The entire cosmic manifestation is temporary; although not unreal, it is not factual. By the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, everything created in the material world is transient. By a temporary arrangement, a father begets a child, or a living entity becomes the child of a so-called father. This temporary arrangement is made by the Supreme Lord. Neither the father nor the son exists independently.

As the King listened to the great sages, he was relieved from his false lamentation, and then he inquired about their identity. The great sages presented who they were and instructed that all sufferings are due to the bodily conception of life. When one understands his spiritual identity and surrenders to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme spiritual person, one becomes actually happy. When one searches for happiness in matter, one must certainly lament for bodily relationships. Self-realization means spiritual realization of one's relationship with Krsna. Such realization ends one's miserable material life.

TEXT 1

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

ucatur mrtakopante

patitam mrtakopamam

sokabhibhutam rajanam

bodhayantau sad-uktibhih

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; ucatuh--they spoke; mrtaka--the dead body; upante--near; patitam--fallen; mrtaka-upamam--exactly like another dead body; soka-abhibhutam--very much aggrieved by lamentation; rajanam--to the King; bodhayantau--giving instruction; sat-uktibhih--by instructions that are factual, not temporary.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: While King Citraketu, overcome by lamentation, lay like a dead body at the side of the dead body of his son, the two great sages Narada and Angira instructed him about spiritual consciousness as follows.

TEXT 2

TEXT

ko 'yam syat tava rajendra

bhavan yam anusocati

tvam casya katamah srstau

puredanim atah param

SYNONYMS

kah--who; ayam--this; syat--is; tava--to you; raja-indra--O best of kings; bhavan--Your Lordship; yam--whom; anusocati--laments over; tvam--you; ca--and; asya--to him (the dead boy); katamah--who; srstau--in the birth; pura--previously; idanim--at this time, at the present; atah param--and hereafter, in the future.

TRANSLATION

O King, what relationship does the dead body for which you lament have with you, and what relationship do you have with him? You may say that you are now related as father and son, but do you think this relationship existed before? Does it truly exist now? Will it continue in the future?

PURPORT

The instructions given by Narada and Angira Muni are the true spiritual instructions for the illusioned conditioned soul. This world is temporary, but because of our previous karma we come here and accept bodies, creating temporary relationships in terms of society, friendship, love, nationality and community, which are all finished at death. These temporary relationships did not exist in the past, nor will they exist in the future. Therefore at the present moment the so-called relationships are illusions.

TEXT 3

TEXT

yatha prayanti samyanti

sroto-vegena balukah

samyujyante viyujyante

tatha kalena dehinah

SYNONYMS

yatha--just as; prayanti--move apart; samyanti--come together; srotah-vegena--by the force of waves; balukah--the small particles of sand; samyujyante--they are united; viyujyante--they are separated; tatha--similarly; kalena--by time; dehinah--the living entities who have accepted material bodies.

TRANSLATION

O King, as small particles of sand sometimes come together and are sometimes separated due to the force of the waves, the living entities who have accepted material bodies sometimes come together and are sometimes separated by the force of time.

PURPORT

The misunderstanding of the conditioned soul is the bodily conception of life. The body is material, but within the body is the soul. This is spiritual understanding. Unfortunately, one who is in ignorance, under the spell of material illusion, accepts the body to be the self. He cannot understand that the body is matter. Like small particles of sand, bodies come together and are separated by the force of time, and people falsely lament for unification and separation. Unless one knows this, there is no question of happiness. Therefore in Bhagavad-gita (2.13) this is the first instruction given by the Lord:

dehino 'smin yatha dehe

kaumaram yauvanam jara

tatha dehantara-praptir

dhiras tatra na muhyati

"As the embodied soul continually passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. The self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change." We are not the body; we are spiritual beings trapped in the body. Our real interest lies in understanding this simple fact. Then we can make further spiritual progress. Otherwise, if we remain in the bodily conception of life, our miserable material existence will continue forever. Political adjustments, social welfare work, medical assistance and the other programs we have manufactured for peace and happiness will never endure. We shall have to undergo the sufferings of material life one after another. Therefore material life is said to be duhkhalayam asasvatam; it is a reservoir of miserable conditions.

TEXT 4

TEXT

yatha dhanasu vai dhana

bhavanti na bhavanti ca

evam bhutani bhutesu

coditanisa-mayaya

SYNONYMS

yatha--just as; dhanasu--through seeds of paddy; vai--indeed; dhanah--grains; bhavanti--are generated; na--not; bhavanti--are generated; ca--also; evam--in this way; bhutani--the living entities; bhutesu--in other living entities; coditani--impelled; isa-mayaya--by the potency or power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

When seeds are sown in the ground, they sometimes grow into plants and sometimes do not. Sometimes the ground is not fertile, and the sowing of seeds is unproductive. Similarly, sometimes a prospective father, being impelled by the potency of the Supreme Lord, can beget a child, but sometimes conception does not take place. Therefore one should not lament over the artificial relationship of parenthood, which is ultimately controlled by the Supreme Lord.

PURPORT

Maharaja Citraketu was actually not destined to get a son. Therefore although he married hundreds and thousands of wives, all of them proved barren, and he could not beget even one child. When Angira Rsi came to see the King, the King requested the great sage to enable him to have at least one son. Because of the blessing of Angira Rsi, a child was sent by the grace of maya, but the child was not to live for long. Therefore in the beginning Angira Rsi told the King that he would beget a child who would cause jubilation and lamentation.

King Citraketu was not destined to get a child by providence, or the will of the Supreme. Just as sterile grain cannot produce more grain, a sterile person, by the will of the Supreme Lord, cannot beget a child. Sometimes a child is born even to an impotent father and sterile mother, and sometimes a potent father and fertile mother are childless. Indeed, sometimes a child is born despite contraceptive methods, and therefore the parents kill the child in the womb. In the present age, killing children in the womb has become a common practice. Why? When contraceptive methods are taken, why don't they act? Why is a child sometimes produced so that the father and mother have to kill it in the womb? We must conclude that our arrangement of so-called scientific knowledge cannot determine what will take place; what is enacted actually depends on the supreme will. It is by the supreme will that we are situated in certain conditions in terms of family, community and personality. These are all arrangements of the Supreme Lord according to our desires under the spell of maya, illusion. In devotional life, therefore, one should not desire anything, since everything depends on the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As stated in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.1.11):

anyabhilasita-sunyam

jnana-karmady-anavrtam

anukulyena krsnanu-

silanam bhaktir uttama

"One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord Krsna favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure devotional service." One should act only to develop Krsna consciousness. For everything else, one should fully depend upon the Supreme Person. We should not create plans that will ultimately make us frustrated.

TEXT 5

TEXT

vayam ca tvam ca ye ceme

tulya-kalas caracarah

janma-mrtyor yatha pascat

pran naivam adhunapi bhoh

SYNONYMS

vayam--we (the great sages and the ministers and adherents of the King); ca--and; tvam--you; ca--also; ye--who; ca--also; ime--these; tulya-kalah--assembled at the same time; cara-acarah--moving and not moving; janma--birth; mrtyoh--and death; yatha--just as; pascat--after; prak--before; na--not; evam--thus; adhuna--at present; api--although; bhoh--O King.

TRANSLATION

O King, both you and us--your advisers, wives and ministers--as well as everything moving and not moving throughout the entire cosmos at this time, are in a temporary situation. Before our birth this situation did not exist, and after our death it will exist no longer. Therefore our situation now is temporary, although it is not false.

PURPORT

The Mayavadi philosophers say, brahma satyam jagan mithya: Brahman, the living being, is factual, but his present bodily situation is false. According to the Vaisnava philosophy, however, the present situation is not false but temporary. It is like a dream. A dream does not exist before one falls asleep, nor does it continue after one awakens. The period for dreaming exists only between these two, and therefore it is false in the sense that it is impermanent. Similarly, the entire material creation, including our own creation and those of others, is impermanent. We do not lament for the situation in a dream before the dream takes place or after it is over, and so during the dream, or during a dreamlike situation, one should not accept it as factual and lament about it. This is real knowledge.

TEXT 6

TEXT

bhutair bhutani bhutesah

srjaty avati hanti ca

atma-srstair asvatantrair

anapekso 'pi balavat

SYNONYMS

bhutaih--by some living beings; bhutani--other living entities; bhuta-isah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of everything; srjati--creates; avati--maintains; hanti--kills; ca--also; atma-srstaih--who are created by Him; asvatantraih--not independent; anapeksah--not interested (in creation); api--although; bala-vat--like a boy.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master and proprietor of everything, is certainly not interested in the temporary cosmic manifestation. Nonetheless, just as a boy at the beach creates something in which he is not interested, the Lord, keeping everything under His control, causes creation, maintenance and annihilation. He creates by engaging a father to beget a son, He maintains by engaging a government or king to see to the public's welfare, and He annihilates through agents for killing, such as snakes. The agents for creation, maintenance and annihilation have no independent potency, but because of the spell of the illusory energy, one thinks himself the creator, maintainer and annihilator.

PURPORT

No one can independently create, maintain or annihilate. Bhagavad-gita (3.27) therefore says:

prakrteh kriyamanani

gunaih karmani sarvasah

ahankara-vimudhatma

kartaham iti manyate

"The bewildered spirit soul, under the influence of the three modes of material nature, thinks himself the doer of activities that are in actuality carried out by nature." Prakrti, material nature, as directed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, induces all living entities to create, maintain or annihilate according to the modes of nature. But the living entity, without knowledge of the Supreme Person and His agent the material energy, thinks that he is the doer. In fact, he is not at all the doer. As an agent of the supreme doer, the Supreme Lord, one should abide by the Lord's orders. The present chaotic conditions of the world are due to the ignorance of leaders who forget that they have been appointed to act by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Because they have been appointed by the Lord, their duty is to consult the Lord and act accordingly. The book for consultation is Bhagavad-gita, in which the Supreme Lord gives directions. Therefore those who are engaged in creation, maintenance and annihilation should consult the Supreme Person, who has appointed them, and should act accordingly. Then everyone will be satisfied, and there will be no disturbances.

TEXT 7

TEXT

dehena dehino rajan

dehad deho 'bhijayate

bijad eva yatha bijam

dehy artha iva sasvatah

SYNONYMS

dehena--by the body; dehinah--of the father possessing a material body; rajan--O King; dehat--from the body (of the mother); dehah--another body; abhijayate--takes birth; bijat--from one seed; eva--indeed; yatha--just as; bijam--another seed; dehi--a person who has accepted a material body; arthah--the material elements; iva--like; sasvatah--eternal.

TRANSLATION

As from one seed another seed is generated, O King, so from one body [the body of the father], through another body [the body of the mother], a third body is generated [the body of a son]. As the elements of the material body are eternal, the living entity who appears through these material elements is also eternal.

PURPORT

From Bhagavad-gita we understand that there are two energies, namely the superior energy and inferior energy. Inferior energy consists of the five gross and three subtle material elements. The living entity. who represents the superior energy, appears in different types of bodies through these elements by the manipulation or supervision of the material energy. Actually both the material and spiritual energies--matter and spirit--exist eternally as potencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The potent entity is the Supreme Person. Since the spiritual energy, the living being, who is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, desires to enjoy this material world, the Lord gives him a chance to accept different types of material bodies and enjoy or suffer in different material conditions. Factually, the spiritual energy, the living entity who desires to enjoy material things, is manipulated by the Supreme Lord. The so-called father and mother have nothing to do with the living entity. As a result of his own choice and karma, the living being takes different bodies through the agency of so-called fathers and mothers.

TEXT 8

TEXT

deha-dehi-vibhago 'yam

aviveka-krtah pura

jati-vyakti-vibhago 'yam

yatha vastuni kalpitah

SYNONYMS

deha--of this body; dehi--and the proprietor of the body; vibhagah--the division; ayam--this; aviveka--from ignorance; krtah--made; pura--from time immemorial; jati--of the class or caste; vyakti--and the individual; vibhagah--division; ayam--this; yatha--just as; vastuni--in the original object; kalpitah--imagined.

TRANSLATION

Divisions of generalization and specification, such as nationality and individuality, are the imaginations of persons who are not advanced in knowledge.

PURPORT

Actually there are two energies--material and spiritual. Both of them are ever-existing because they are emanations from the eternal truth, the Supreme Lord. Because the individual soul, the individual living entity, has desired to act in forgetfulness of his original identity since time immemorial, he is accepting different positions in material bodies and being designated according to many divisions of nationality, community, society, species and so on.

TEXT 9

TEXT

sri-suka uvaca

evam asvasito raja

citraketur dvijoktibhih

vimrjya panina vaktram

adhi-mlanam abhasata

SYNONYMS

sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said; evam--thus; asvasitah--being enlightened or given hope; raja--the King; citraketuh--Citraketu; dvija-uktibhih--by the instructions of the great brahmanas (Narada and Angira Rsi); vimrjya--wiping off; panina--by the hand; vaktram--his face; adhi-mlanam--shriveled due to lamentation; abhasata--spoke intelligently.

TRANSLATION

Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Thus enlightened by the instructions of Narada and Angira, King Citraketu became hopeful with knowledge. Wiping his shriveled face with his hand, the King began to speak.

TEXT 10

TEXT

sri-rajovaca

kau yuvam jnana-sampannau

mahisthau ca mahiyasam

avadhutena vesena

gudhav iha samagatau

SYNONYMS

sri-raja uvaca--King Citraketu said; kau--who; yuvam--you two; jnana-sampannau--fully developed in knowledge; mahisthau--the greatest; ca--also; mahiyasam--among other great personalities; avadhutena--of the liberated wandering mendicants; vesena--by the dress; gudhau--disguised; iha--in this place; samagatau--arrived.

TRANSLATION

King Citraketu said: You have both come here dressed like avadhutas, liberated persons, just to cover your identities, but I see that of all men, you are the most elevated in awareness. You know everything as it is. Therefore you are the greatest of all great personalities.

TEXT 11

TEXT

caranti hy avanau kamam

brahmana bhagavat-priyah

madrsam gramya-buddhinam

bodhayonmatta-linginah

SYNONYMS

caranti--wander; hi--indeed; avanau--on the surface of the world; kamam--according to desire; brahmanah--the brahmanas; bhagavat-priyah--who are also Vaisnavas, very dear to the Personality of Godhead; ma-drsam--of those like me; gramya-buddhinam--who are obsessed with temporary material consciousness; bodhaya--for the awakening; unmatta-linginah--who dress as if madmen.

TRANSLATION

Brahmanas who are exalted to the position of Vaisnavas, the most dear servants of Krsna, sometimes dress like madmen. Just to benefit materialists like us, who are always attached to sense gratification, and just to dissipate our ignorance, these Vaisnavas wander on the surface of the globe according to their desire.

TEXTS 12-15

TEXT

kumaro narada rbhur

angira devalo 'sitah

apantaratama vyaso

markandeyo 'tha gautamah

vasistho bhagavan ramah

kapilo badarayanih

durvasa yajnavalkyas ca

jatukarnas tatharunih

romasas cyavano datta

asurih sapatanjalih

rsir veda-sira dhaumyo

munih pancasikhas tatha

hiranyanabhah kausalyah

srutadeva rtadhvajah

ete pare ca siddhesas

caranti jnana-hetavah

SYNONYMS

kumarah--Sanat-kumara; naradah--Narada Muni; rbhuh--Rbhu; angirah--Angira; devalah--Devala; asitah--Asita; apantaratamah--Vyasa's previous name, Apantaratama; vyasah--Vyasa; markandeyah--Markandeya; atha--and; gautamah--Gautama; vasisthah--Vasistha; bhagavan ramah--Lord Parasurama; kapilah--Kapila; badarayanih--Sukadeva Gosvami; durvasah--Durvasa; yajnavalkyah--Yajnavalkya; ca--also; jatukarnah--Jatukarna; tatha--as well as; arunih--Aruni; romasah--Romasa; cyavanah--Cyavana; dattah--Dattatreya; asurih--Asuri; sa-patanjalih--with Patanjali Rsi; rsih--the sage; veda-sirah--the head of the Vedas; dhaumyah--Dhaumya; munih--the sage; pancasikhah--Pancasikha; tatha--so also; hiranyanabhah--Hiranyanabha; kausalyah--Kausalya; srutadevah--Srutadeva; rtadhvajah--Rtadhvaja; ete--all of these; pare--others; ca--and; siddha-isah--the masters of mystic power; caranti--wander; jnana-hetavah--very learned persons who preach all over the world.

TRANSLATION

O great souls, I have heard that among the great and perfect persons wandering the surface of the earth to instruct knowledge to people covered by ignorance are Sanat-kumara, Narada, Rbhu, Angira, Devala, Asita, Apantaratama [Vyasadeva], Markandeya, Gautama, Vasistha, Bhagavan Parasurama, Kapila, Sukadeva, Durvasa, Yajnavalkya, Jatukarna and Aruni. Others are Romasa, Cyavana, Dattatreya, Asuri, Patanjali, the great sage Dhaumya who is like the head of the Vedas, the sage Pancasikha, Hiranyanabha, Kausalya, Srutadeva and Rtadhvaja. You must certainly be among them.

PURPORT

The word jnana-hetavah is very significant because great personalities like those listed in these verses wander on the surface of the globe not to mislead the populace, but to distribute real knowledge. Without this knowledge, human life is wasted. The human form of life is meant for realization of one's relationship with Krsna, or God. One who lacks this knowledge is categorized among the animals. The Lord Himself says in Bhagavad-gita (7.15):

na mam duskrtino mudhah

prapadyante naradhamah

mayayapahrta-jnana

asuram bhavam asritah

"Those miscreants who are grossly foolish, lowest among mankind, whose knowledge is stolen by illusion, and who partake of the atheistic nature of demons, do not surrender unto Me."

Ignorance is the bodily conception of life (yasyatma-buddhih kunape tri-dhatuke. .. sa eva go-kharah). Practically everyone throughout the universe, especially on this planet, Bhurloka, thinks that there is no separate existence of the body and soul and therefore no need of self-realization. But that is not a fact. Therefore all the brahmanas listed here, being devotees, travel all over the world to awaken Krsna consciousness in the hearts of such foolish materialists.

The acaryas mentioned in these verses are described in the Mahabharata. The word pancasikha is also important. One who is liberated from the conceptions of annamaya, pranamaya, manomaya, vijnanamaya and anandamaya and who is perfectly aware of the subtle coverings of the soul is called pancasikha. According to the statements of the Mahabharata (Santi-parva, Chapters 218-219), an acarya named Pancasikha took birth in the family of Maharaja Janaka, the ruler of Mithila. The Sankhya philosophers accept Pancasikhacarya as one of them. Real knowledge pertains to the living entity dwelling within the body. Unfortunately, because of ignorance, the living entity identifies himself with the body and therefore feels pleasure and pain.

TEXT 16

TEXT

tasmad yuvam gramya-pasor

mama mudha-dhiyah prabhu

andhe tamasi magnasya

jnana-dipa udiryatam

SYNONYMS

tasmat--therefore; yuvam--both of you; gramya-pasoh--of an animal like a hog, pig or dog; mama--me; mudha-dhiyah--who am very foolish (due to having no spiritual knowledge); prabhu--O my two lords; andhe--in blind; tamasi--darkness; magnasya--of one who is absorbed; jnana-dipah--the torchlight of knowledge; udiryatam--let it be ignited.

TRANSLATION

Because you are great personalities, you can give me real knowledge. I am as foolish as a village animal like a pig or dog because I am merged in the darkness of ignorance. Therefore, please ignite the torch of knowledge to save me.

PURPORT

This is the way to receive knowledge. One must submit oneself at the lotus feet of great personalities who can actually deliver transcendental knowledge. It is therefore said, tasmad gurum prapadyeta jijnasuh sreya uttamam: "One who is inquisitive to understand the highest goal and benefit of life must approach a bona fide spiritual master and surrender unto him." Only one who is actually eager to receive knowledge to eradicate the darkness of ignorance is eligible to approach a guru, or spiritual master. The guru should not be approached for material benefits. One should not approach a guru just to cure some disease or receive some miraculous benefit. This is not the way to approach the guru. Tad-vijnanartham: one should approach the guru to understand the transcendental science of spiritual life. Unfortunately, in this age of Kali there are many bogus gurus who display magic to their disciples, and many foolish disciples want to see such magic for material benefits. These disciples are not interested in pursuing spiritual life to save themselves from the darkness of ignorance. It is said:

om ajnana-timirandhasya

jnananjana-salakaya

caksur unmilitam yena

tasmai sri-gurave namah

"I was born in the darkest ignorance, and my spiritual master opened my eyes with the torch of knowledge. I offer my respectful obeisances unto him." This gives the definition of the guru. Everyone is in the darkness of ignorance. Therefore everyone needs to be enlightened with transcendental knowledge. One who enlightens his disciple and saves him from rotting in the darkness of ignorance in this material world is a true guru.

TEXT 17

TEXT

sri-angira uvaca

aham te putra-kamasya

putrado 'smy angira nrpa

esa brahma-sutah saksan

narado bhagavan rsih

SYNONYMS

sri-angirah uvaca--the great sage Angira said; aham--I; te--of you; putra-kamasya--desiring to have a son; putra-dah--the giver of the son; asmi--am; angirah--Angira Rsi; nrpa--O King; esah--this; brahma-sutah--the son of Lord Brahma; saksat--directly; naradah--Narada Muni; bhagavan--the most powerful; rsih--sage.

TRANSLATION

Angira said: My dear King, when you desired to have a son, I approached you. Indeed, I am the same Angira Rsi who gave you this son. As for this rsi, he is the great sage Narada, the direct son of Lord Brahma

TEXTS 18-19

TEXT

ittham tvam putra-sokena

magnam tamasi dustare

atad-arham anusmrtya

mahapurusa-gocaram

anugrahaya bhavatah

praptav avam iha prabho

brahmanyo bhagavad-bhakto

navasaditum arhasi

SYNONYMS

ittham--in this way; tvam--you; putra-sokena--because of grief at the death of your son; magnam--merged; tamasi--in darkness; dustare--insurmountable; a-tat-arham--unsuitable for a person like you; anusmrtya--remembering; maha-purusa--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; gocaram--who are advanced in understanding; anugrahaya--just to show favor; bhavatah--toward you; praptau--arrived; avam--we two; iha--in this place; prabho--O King; brahmanyah--one who is situated in the Supreme Absolute Truth; bhagavat-bhaktah--an advanced devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na--not; avasaditum--to lament; arhasi--you deserve.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, you are an advanced devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. To be absorbed in lamentation for the loss of something material is unsuitable for a person like you. Therefore we have both come to relieve you from this false lamentation, which is due to your being merged in the darkness of ignorance. For those who are advanced in spiritual knowledge to be affected by material loss and gain is not at all desirable.

PURPORT

Several words in this verse are very important. The word maha-purusa refers to advanced devotees and also to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Maha means "the supreme," and purusa means "person." One who always engages in the service of the Supreme Lord is called maha-paurusika. Sukadeva Gosvami and Maharaja Pariksit are sometimes addressed as maha-paurusika. A devotee should always aspire to engage in the service of advanced devotees. As Srila Narottama dasa Thakura has sung:

tandera carana sevi bhakta-sane vasa

janame janame haya, ei abhilasa

A devotee should always aspire to live in the association of advanced devotees and engage in the service of the Lord through the parampara system. One should serve the mission of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu through the instructions of the great Gosvamis of Vrndavana. This is called tandera carana sevi. While serving the lotus feet of the Gosvamis, one should live in the association of devotees (bhakta-sane vasa). This is the business of a devotee. A devotee should not aspire for material profit or lament for material loss. When Angira Rsi and Narada saw that Maharaja Citraketu, an advanced devotee, had fallen in the darkness of ignorance and was lamenting for the material body of his son, by their causeless mercy they came to advise him so that he could be saved from this ignorance.

Another significant word is brahmanya. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is sometimes addressed by the prayer namo brahmanya-devaya, which offers obeisances unto the Lord because He is served by the devotees. Therefore this verse states, brahmanyo bhagavad-bhakto navasaditum arhasi. This is the symptom of an advanced devotee. Brahma-bhutah prasannatma. For a devotee--an advanced, self-realized soul--there is no cause for material jubilation or lamentation. He is always transcendental to conditional life.

TEXT 20

TEXT

tadaiva te param jnanam

dadami grham agatah

jnatvanyabhinivesam te

putram eva dadamy aham

SYNONYMS

tada--then; eva--indeed; te--unto you; param--transcendental; jnanam--knowledge; dadami--I would have delivered; grham--to your home; agatah--came; jnatva--knowing; anya-abhinivesam--absorption in something else (in material things); te--your; putram--a son; eva--only; dadami--gave; aham--I.

TRANSLATION

When I first came to your home, I could have given you the supreme transcendental knowledge, but when I saw that your mind was absorbed in material things, I gave you only a son, who caused you jubilation and lamentation.

TEXTS 21-23

TEXT

adhuna putrinam tapo

bhavataivanubhuyate

evam dara grha rayo

vividhaisvarya-sampadah

sabdadayas ca visayas

cala rajya-vibhutayah

mahi rajyam balam koso

bhrtyamatya-suhrj-janah

sarve 'pi suraseneme

soka-moha-bhayartidah

gandharva-nagara-prakhyah

svapna-maya-manorathah

SYNONYMS

adhuna--at the present moment; putrinam--of persons who have children; tapah--the tribulation; bhavata--by you; eva--indeed; anubhuyate--is experienced; evam--in this way; darah--good wife; grhah--residence; rayah--riches; vividha--various; aisvarya--opulences; sampadah--prosperities; sabda-adayah--sound and so on; ca--and; visayah--the objects of sense gratification; calah--temporary; rajya--of the kingdom; vibhutayah--opulences; mahi--land; rajyam--kingdom; balam--strength; kosah--treasury; bhrtya--servants; amatya--ministers; suhrt-janah--allies; sarve--all; api--indeed; surasena--O King of Surasena; ime--these; soka--of lamentation; moha--of illusion; bhaya--of fear; arti--and distress; dah--givers; gandharva-nagara-prakhyah--headed by the illusory sight of a gandharva-nagara, a big palace within the forest; svapna--dreams; maya--illusions; manorathah--and concoctions of the mind.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, now you are actually experiencing the misery of a person who has sons and daughters. O King, owner of the state of Surasena, one's wife, his house, the opulence of his kingdom, and his various other opulences and objects of sense perception are all the same in that they are temporary. One's kingdom, military power, treasury, servants, ministers, friends and relatives are all causes of fear, illusion, lamentation and distress. They are like a gandharva-nagara, a nonexistent palace that one imagines to exist in the forest. Because they are impermanent, they are no better than illusions, dreams and mental concoctions.

PURPORT

This verse describes the entanglement of material existence. In material existence, the living entity possesses many things--the material body, children, wife and so on (dehapatya-kalatradisu). One may think that these will give him protection, but that is impossible. In spite of all these possessions, the spirit soul has to give up his present situation and accept another. The next situation may be unfavorable, but even if it is favorable, one must give it up and again accept another body. In this way, one's tribulation in material existence continues. A sane man should he perfectly aware that these things will never be able to give him happiness. One must be situated in his spiritual identity and eternally serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead as a devotee. Angira Rsi and Narada Muni gave this instruction to Maharaja Citraketu.

TEXT 24

TEXT

drsyamana vinarthena

na drsyante manobhavah

karmabhir dhyayato nana-

karmani manaso 'bhavan

SYNONYMS

drsyamanah--being perceived; vina--without; arthena--substance or reality; na--not; drsyante--are seen; manobhavah--creations of mental concoction; karmabhih--by fruitive activities; dhyayatah--meditating upon; nana--various; karmani--fruitive activities; manasah--from the mind; abhavan--appear.

TRANSLATION

These visible objects like wife, children and property are like dreams and mental concoctions. Actually what we see has no permanent existence. It is sometimes seen and sometimes not. Only because of our past actions do we create such mental concoctions, and because of these concoctions, we perform further activities.

PURPORT

Everything material is a mental concoction because it is sometimes visible and sometimes not. At night when we dream of tigers and snakes, they are not actually present, but we are afraid because we are affected by what we envision in our dreams. Everything material is like a dream because it actually has no permanent existence.

Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura writes as follows in his commentary: arthena vyaghra-sarpadina vinaiva drsyamanah svapnadi-bhange sati na drsyante tad evam daradayo 'vastava-vastu-bhutah svapnadayo 'vastu-bhutas ca sarve manobhavah mano-vasana janyatvan manobhavah. At night one dreams of tigers and snakes, and while dreaming he actually sees them, but as soon as the dream is broken they no longer exist. Similarly, the material world is a creation of our mental concoctions. We have come to this material world to enjoy material resources, and by mental concoction we discover many, many objects of enjoyment because our minds are absorbed in material things. This is why we receive various bodies. According to our mental concoctions we work in various ways, desiring various achievements, and by nature and the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (karmana-daiva-netrena) we get the advantages we desire. Thus we become more and more involved with material concoctions. This is the reason for our suffering in the material world. By one kind of activity we create another, and they are all products of our mental concoctions.

TEXT 25

TEXT

ayam hi dehino deho

dravya-jnana-kriyatmakah

dehino vividha-klesa-

santapa-krd udahrtah

SYNONYMS

ayam--this; hi--certainly; dehinah--of the living entity; dehah--body; dravya-jnana-kriya-atmakah--consisting of the material elements, the senses for acquiring knowledge, and the acting senses; dehinah--of the living entity; vividha--various; klesa--sufferings; santapa--and of pains; krt--the cause; udahrtah--is declared.

TRANSLATION

The living entity in the bodily conception of life is absorbed in the body, which is a combination of the physical elements, the five senses for gathering knowledge, and the five senses of action, along with the mind. Through the mind the living entity suffers three kinds of tribulations--adhibhautika, adhidaivika and adhyatmika. Therefore this body is a source of all miseries.

PURPORT

In the Fifth Canto (5.5.4), while instructing his sons, Rsabhadeva said, asann api klesada asa dehah: the body, although temporary, is the cause of all the miseries of material existence. As already discussed in the previous verse, the entire material creation is based on mental concoction. The mind sometimes induces us to think that if we purchase an automobile we can enjoy the physical elements, such as earth, water, air and fire, combined in forms of iron, plastic, petrol and so on. Working with the five material elements (panca-bhutas), as well as with our five knowledge-gathering senses like the eyes, ears and tongue and our five active senses like the hands and legs, we become involved in the material condition. Thus we are subjected to the tribulations known as adhyatmika, adhidaivika and adhibhautika. The mind is the center because the mind creates all these things. As soon as the material object is struck, however, the mind is affected, and we suffer. For example, with the material elements, the working senses and the knowledge-gathering senses we create a very nice car, and when the car is accidentally smashed in a collision, the mind suffers, and through the mind the living entity suffers.

The fact is that the living entity, while concocting with the mind, creates the material condition. Because matter is destructible, through the material condition the living entity suffers. Otherwise, the living entity is detached from all material conditions. When one comes to the Brahman platform, the platform of spiritual life, fully understanding that he is a spiritual soul (aham brahmasmi), he is no longer affected by lamentation or hankering. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gita (18.54):

brahma-bhutah prasannatma

na socati na kanksati

"One who is thus transcendentally situated at once realizes the Supreme Brahman and becomes fully joyful. He never laments nor desires to have anything." Elsewhere in Bhagavad-gita (15.7) the Lord says:

mamaivamso jiva-loke

jiva-bhutah sanatanah

manah-sasthanindriyani

prakrti-sthani karsati

"The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal fragmental parts. Due to conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind." The living entity is actually part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and is unaffected by material conditions, but because the mind (manah) is affected, the senses are affected, and the living entity struggles for existence within this material world.

TEXT 26

TEXT

tasmat svasthena manasa

vimrsya gatim atmanah

dvaite dhruvartha-visrambham

tyajopasamam avisa

SYNONYMS

tasmat--therefore; svasthena--with a careful; manasa--mind; vimrsya--considering; gatim--real position; atmanah--of yourself; dvaite--in the duality; dhruva--as permanent; artha--object; visrambham--belief; tyaja--give up; upasamam--a peaceful condition; avisa--take to.

TRANSLATION

Therefore, O King Citraketu, carefully consider the position of the atma. In other words, try to understand who you are--whether